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Kompilasi materi pti~darul

  1. 1. Dosen: DarulQuthni NIDN: 0128057803 Email: darulquthni@piksiinputserang.ac.idIntroduction to Information Technology
  2. 2. Session 1Chapter 11.Introduction to Information Technology1.1 Infotech Becomes Commonplace: Cellphones, E-Mail, the Internet, & the E-World1.2 The “All-Purpose Machine”: The Varieties of Computers All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines1.3 Understanding Your Computer: What If You Custom-Ordered Your Own PC?How Computers Work1.4 Where Is Information Technology Headed?Chapter 22.1 Choosing Your Internet Access Device & Physical Connection: The Quest for Broadband2.2 Choosing Your Internet Service Provider (ISP)2.3 How Does the Internet Work?2.4 Email Software & Carriers2.5 The World Wide Web2.6 The Online Gold Mine: More Internet Resources
  3. 3. Using Information Technology Chapter 1Introduction to Information Technology
  4. 4. 1.1 Infotech Becomes Commonplace: Cellphones, E-Mail, the Internet, & the E- World•Information technology (“infotech”):•Computers - programmable multiuse machines that convert data intoinformation•Communications - electromagnetic devices and systems for communicatingover long distances
  5. 5. The Telephone Grows Up• Approximately 1 billion people using cellphones• Internet phones are cell phones plus: • Email • Web services • Video
  6. 6. “You’ve Got Mail!” E-Mail’s Mass Impact• E-mail (“electronic mail”) -• messages transmitted over a network• Network - communications system connecting two or more computers
  7. 7. The Internet, the World Wide Web, & the “Plumbing of Cyberspace”• Cyberspace encompasses the whole wired and wireless world of communications:• The Internet - the “mother of all networks”• The World Wide Web - multimedia part of Net
  8. 8. The E-World & Welcome to It• E-business• E-commerce• E-government• E-learning• E-pinions• E-tailing• E-waste
  9. 9. 1.2 The “All-Purpose Machine”: The Varieties of ComputersAll Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines1. Supercomputers2. Mainframes3. Workstations4. Microcomputers5. Microcontrollers NEC Earth Simulator – the world’s fastest computer
  10. 10. All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machinesl Supercomputers1. Mainframes2. Workstations3. Microcomputers4. Microcontrollers IBM z900
  11. 11. All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines1. Supercomputers2. Mainframes3. Workstations4. Microcomputers5. Microcontrollers Workstation – Sun Ultra450
  12. 12. All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines1. Supercomputers2. Mainframes HP Compaq Business Compaq Evo desktop3. Workstations d220 tower microcomputer microcomputer4. Microcomputers5. Microcontrollers Personal Digital Laptop computer Assistant
  13. 13. All Computers, Great & Small: The Categories of Machines1. Supercomputers2. Mainframes3. Workstations4. Microcomputers5. Microcontrollers
  14. 14. Servers•Server - a central computer that holds collectionsof data & programs for clients•Clients - PCs, workstations, & other devices SERVER•Server + Clients linked together form aclient/server network CLIENT
  15. 15. 1.3 Understanding Your Computer: What If You Custom-Ordered Your Own PC? How Computers Work - Concept #1 The purpose of a computer is to process data into information. • Data • InformationThe raw facts and figures that are Data that has been summarized or otherwise manipulated for use in processed into information decision making
  16. 16. How Computers Work - Concept #2 Computers consist of hardware and software.• Hardware • SoftwareAll the machinery and equipment All the instructions that tell thein a computer system computer how to perform a task
  17. 17. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same five basic operations.1. Input2. Processing3. Storage Keyboard4. Output5. Communications Mouse
  18. 18. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same four basic operations1. Input2. Processing3. Storage4. Output5. Communications Case or system cabinet Processor chip Motherboard
  19. 19. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same four basic operations1. Input • Primary storage (memory) - RAM2. Processing • Computer circuitry that temporarily holds data waiting to3. Storage be processed4. Output • Secondary storage (storage) - ROM5. Communications • • The area in the computer where data or information is held permanently
  20. 20. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same four basic operations1. Input2. Processing3. Storage4. Output5. Communications CD Drive
  21. 21. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same four basic operations1. Input2. Processing3. Storage4. Output5. Communications Monitor Speakers
  22. 22. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same four basic operations1. Input2. Processing3. Storage4. Output5. Communications Printer
  23. 23. How Computers Work - Concept #3 All computers follow the same four basic operations1. Input2. Processing3. Storage4. Output5. Communications
  24. 24. Put all the hardware together and…
  25. 25. You still need the software! • System software • Helps the computer perform essential operating tasks and enables the application software to run • and…Application softwareEnables you to perform specifictasks--solve problems, performwork, or entertain yourself
  26. 26. 1.4 Where Is Information Technology Headed? Three Directions of Computer Development• Miniaturization• Speed• Affordability Then (1946) Now
  27. 27. Three Directions of Communications Development• Connectivity• Interactivity• Multimedia Interactivity
  28. 28. When Computers & Communications Combine: Convergence, Portability, & Personalization• Convergence• Portability• Personalization
  29. 29. Using Information Technology Chapter 2The Internet & the World Wide Web Exploring Cyberspace
  30. 30. 2.1 Choosing Your Internet Access Device & Physical Connection: The Quest for Broadband• Bandwidth - an expression of how much data can be sent through a communications channel in a given amount of time• Baseband – Allows only one signal at a time• Broadband – Several signals can be sent at once
  31. 31. Choosing Your Internet Access Device & Physical Connection: The Quest for Broadband• Download - to transmit data from a remote computer to a local computer• Upload - to transmit data from a local computer to a remote computer
  32. 32. Telephone (Dial-Up) Modem: Low Speed but Inexpensive & Widely Available• Modem - a device that sends and receives data over telephone lines to and from computers• There are two types of modems – internal and external
  33. 33. High-Speed Phone Lines: MoreExpensive but Available in Most Cities •ISDN - hardware and software that allows voice, video, and data to be communicated over traditional copper-wire telephone lines •DSL - uses regular phone lines like ISDN, a DSL modem, and special technology to transmit data in megabits per second. •T1 - a traditional trunk line that carries 24 normal telephone circuits and has a transmission rate of 1.5 Mbps.
  34. 34. Wireless Systems: Satellite & Other Through-the-Air Connections• Communications satellite: a space station that transmits radio waves called microwaves from earth-based stations.• Other wireless connections: towers transmit radio waves. They can send data up to the speed of 155 Mbps. Used to operate local cellular phones.
  35. 35. 2.2 Choosing Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) • ISP - a company that connects you through your communications line to its servers, or central (host) computer, which connect you to the internet via another company’s network access points
  36. 36. 2.3 How Does the Internet Work?1. You connect to the ISP’s POP using a telephone number that your ISP provides. A point-of-presence (POP) is a collection of modems and other equipment in a local area.2. ISPs connect to a backbone to access remote web servers. Backbones are high-speed, high capacity transmission lines that use newest communications technology.
  37. 37. TCP/IP, the Internet Society, and ICANNProtocol is a set of conventions thatgovern the format of datatransmitted electronically. Theyensure that all data is exchanged ina consistent format.TCP/IP is a protocol that enables allcomputers to interpret and use datatransmitted over the internet. ISOC (Internet Society) provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the internet. ICANN was established to regulate human-friendly internet domain names
  38. 38. 2.4 Sending & Receiving Email Incoming email (POP3) is stored on a mailbox on the server. Outgoing email is sent to a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server.
  39. 39. Email Software & Carriers• Get an email program (browser) as part of other computer software• Get email software as part of your ISP package• Get free email services• Buy email software
  40. 40. Parts of an Email Message and Attachments•The three parts of an emailmessage are the (1) address ofthe recipient, (2) subject of themessage, and (3) messagecontent.(4) attachment file.(5) Signature•In addition, the files on acomputer can be attached to anemail message.•The person receiving theattachment must have the samesoftware that created theattachment.
  41. 41. Other Ways of Communicating• Instant messaging (IM) - • Mailing Lists: Email-based allows any user on a given discussion groups email system to send a message and have it pop up instantly on the screen of anyone else logged onto • Listserv – is an automatic that system mailing-list server that sends email to subscribers participating in discussion topics
  42. 42. Netiquette: Appropriate Online Behavior Consult FAQs Do not send huge file attachments Avoid flaming Quote with relevant Do not SHOUT portion, when replying Do not ―overforward‖ Be careful with jokes Avoid sloppiness Emoticons
  43. 43. Spam: Unwanted Junk Email•Delete without opening the message•Never reply to a spam message!•Enlist the help of your ISP or use spam filters•Fight back
  44. 44. 2.5 The World Wide Web• Q: What makes the Web graphically inviting?• A: Multimedia• Q: What makes the Web easily navigable?• A: Hypertext
  45. 45. The Web & How It WorksA computer with a domain name is called a website Example:www.alislam.com Web pages – the documents on a website A web page is a document on the World Wide Web that can include text, pictures, sound, and video. Web browser - software that enables users to view web pages and to jump from one page to another Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are most commonly used browsers
  46. 46. The Web & How It Works•URLs – addresses for web pagesThe URL is a string of characters that points to a specific pieceof information anywhere on the webThe URL consists of the web protocol, the name of the webserver, the directory on that server, and the file within thatdirectory
  47. 47. Using Your Browser toGet Around the WebThe five basic elementsof a web browser are: Menu bar Toolbar URL bar Workspace Status bar
  48. 48. Using Your Browser to Get Around the Web• Starting out from home – the start up page is the home page• Personalizing your home page – a home page can be personalized according to the user’s choices• Getting around – Back, Forward, Home, and Search features History list - allows you to return to a page you have recently visited Bookmarks or favorites – let you store the URL of web pages you frequently visit so that you do not have to remember or retype the URLs
  49. 49. Using Your Browser to Get Around the Web• Interactivity – hyperlinks, radio buttons, and fill-in text boxes• Radio buttons – little circles located in front of various options; selecting an option with the mouse places a dot in the corresponding circle Scrolling – Navigating up and down a web page using scroll arrows Frames are independently controllable sections on a web page.They allow looking at the two pages simultaneously.
  50. 50. Web Portals: Starting Points for Finding Information• Web portal – a gateway website that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as: – online shopping malls – email support – current news and weather stock quotes – travel information – links to other popular subject categories• Examples – www.itbpiksi.ac.id; www.google.com
  51. 51. Four Types of Search Engines•Human-organized search sites•Computer-created search sites•Hybrid search sites•Metasearch sites
  52. 52. Tips for Smart SearchingChoose search items well with the correct spellingUse phrases with quotation marksPut unique words first in a phraseUse operatorsUse wildcardsRead the Help or Search Tips sectionTry an alternate general search site or a specificsearch site
  53. 53. Multimedia on the Web•Plug-in – a program that adds a specific feature to abrowser, allowing it to play or view certain files•Developing multimedia – applets, Java, and VisualStudio.NET•Text and images•Animation•Video • Download and view • Streaming video•Audio •Download and listen •Streaming audio
  54. 54. Push Technology & Webcasting •Push technology - software that automatically downloads information to your computer •Webcasting – a result of push technology, where customized text, video, and audio are sent automatically on a regular basisThe Internet Telephone & Videophone Internet telephony - using the Net to make phone calls, either one-to-one or for audio conferencing VOIP software – Netmeeting, Skype, G+, YM, etc.
  55. 55. Designing Web PagesThere are professionalweb designers whodevelop websites.Menu-driven programs,such as MicrosoftFrontPage or MacromediaDreamweaver can be usedto design websites.
  56. 56. Permit & Declaration End-user process Supporting Services Input Interface Browser Business Services Keuangan & Small Medium Kesehatan Pendidikan Sektor Transportasi BusinessArchitecture System perbankan Profile Application System Services Directory Authentication Workflow ERP and Authorization Management E-mail Management System (Non Ops ) SSL Software Support Web Application Server Server Hierarchical Storage Management Management Platform and Database Operating System Relational DBMS Considerations: Resiliency, Scalability, Flexibility, Modularity
  57. 57. WebServer WebEditor WYSIWYG editors WYSIWYM editors Languange HTML, JavaScript, CSS, Perl, Python, Ruby, PHP, Java, ASP, .NET, .NET MVCOperating System WebHosting cPanel, DirectAdmin, Domain Technologie Control, Froxlor, GNUPanel, H-Sphere, InterWorx, ISPConfig, ispCP, Kloxo, Plesk, SysCP, Usermin, Webmin
  58. 58. 2.6 The Online Gold Mine: More Internet Resources•More internet resources:•FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – forcopying all the free files you want• Telnet – to connect to remotecomputersMore Internet ResourcesNewsgroups – for online typeddiscussions on specific topicsReal-time chat – typed discussionsamong online participantsTelnet: a protocol that allows you toconnect to remote computers on theinternet by using a user name and apassword and to run programs onthose computers.FTP: a protocol that allows
  59. 59. Your Personal Cyberspace•Blogs – web logs, accessible to other users•Relationships – online matchmaking•Education – distance learning•Health – patient self-education•Entertainment – amusing yourself on theinternet Trade and Commerce• E-commerce• Auctions – linking individual buyers and sellers• Online finance – trading, banking, and e-money• Online job hunting• B2B commerce
  60. 60. Session 2Chapter 3 Application Software3.1 Application Software: For Sale, for Free, or for Rent3.2 Common Features of Software3.3 Word Processing3.4 Spreadsheets The Basics: How Spreadsheets Work3.5 Database Software3.6 Specialty SoftwareChapter 4 System Software4.1 The Components of System Software4.2 The Operating System: What It Does4.3 Other System Software:4.4 Common Operating Systems Desktop & Laptop Operating SystemsChapter 5 Hardware5.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility5.2 The System Unit The binary system has only two digits - 0 and 15.3 Future Developments in Processing5.4 Introduction Memory5.5 Secondary Storage5.6 Future Developments in Storage
  61. 61. Using Information Technology Chapter 3 Application Software
  62. 62. 3.1 Application Software: For Sale, for Free, or for Rent•Commercial software – copyrighted and must bepaid for•Public-domain software – not copyrighted•Shareware - copyrighted and free but requires a feeto be paid for continued use.•Freeware - Copyrighted and free•Rentalware – Copyrighted and leased•Pirated software – Software obtained illegally•Abandonware – Software that is no longer sold orsupported by its publisher
  63. 63. Tutorials & Documentation•Tutorial - an instruction book or program thathelps you learn to use the product by taking youthrough a prescribed series of steps•Documentation - information that describes aproduct to users. For example, a user guide orreference manual
  64. 64. A few facts about Files and the Usefulness of Importing & ExportingA file is a collection of data or programs thatexist in a computer’s secondary storage.Three well-known types of data files are:•Document files; doc, docx, txt, rtf, pdf List File Format Extension•Worksheet files; xls, xlsx,•Database files; mdb, dbf List File Useful SoftwareExchanging files between programs:•Importing•Exporting
  65. 65. Types of Application Software Productivity software - software whose purpose is to make users more productive at particular tasksExamples:• Word processing programs• Spreadsheets• Database managers
  66. 66. 3.2 Common Features of Software•User interface - the user-controllable display screenthat allows you to communicate, or interact, with thecomputer•A User can interact with the display screen using akeyboard or a mouse•Interacting with the user interface•Special-purpose keys - used to enter, delete, andedit data and to execute commands•Function keys - used to execute commands specificto the software being used
  67. 67. The GUI• Graphical user interface (GUI) - allows users to use a mouse or keyboard strokes to select icons and commands from menus• The three features of GUI are desktop, icons, and • menus Desktop, Icons & Menus Desktop - the system’s main interface screen, which displays pictures that provide quick access to programs and information
  68. 68. Desktop, Icons & Menus
  69. 69. Desktop, Icons & MenusMenu - a list of options to choose from--a list ofcommands for manipulating dataPull-down menu - a list of options that pulls down fromthe menu bar at the top of the screenCascading menus - menus that seem to fly back to theleft or explode out to the right Pull-down menu Pull-down menu
  70. 70. Desktop, Icons & Menus• Pull-up menu - a list of options that pulls up from the menu bar at the bottom of the screen• Pop-up menu - a list of command options that can “pop up” anywhere on the screen when you click the right mouse button
  71. 71. Documents, Toolbars, & Windows• Title bar - A bar that runs across the very top of the display window and shows the name of the folder you are in• Menu bar – a bar that shows the names of the various pull-down menus available
  72. 72. Documents, Toolbars, & Windows• Toolbar - A bar that displays menus and icons representing frequently used options or commands• Taskbar – the bar across the bottom of the desktop screen that contains the Start button and that appears by default• Window – A rectangular frame on the display screen, through which files of data and application programs can be viewed
  73. 73. The Help Command• Help command - a command generating a table of contents, an index, and a search feature that can help you locate answers
  74. 74. 3.3 Word Processing• Word processing software - allows users to use computers to create, edit, format, print, and store text material• Creating Documents• Creating a document - entering text using the keyboard or the dictation function associated with speech recognition software
  75. 75. Word processing software features• Cursor - the movable symbol on the display screen that shows you where you may next enter data or commandsScrolling - moving quicklyupward, downward, orsideways through the textor other screen display• Word Wrap – automatically continues text to the next line when you reach the right margin
  76. 76. Editing Documents• Insert and delete – To add to the document using the insert key and remove text using the delete or backspace key• Undo – To restore text that has been deleted• Find and replace – To find existing words, phrases, or numbers and replace them with something else• Cut/Copy and paste - To cut or copy text and move it to the clipboard and transfer the material to an existing or new document
  77. 77. Editing Documents• Spelling checker - To test incorrectly spelled words• Grammar checker - To highlight poor grammar, wordiness, incomplete sentences, and awkward phrases• Thesaurus - To present users with the appropriate word or alternative words
  78. 78. Formatting Documents with the Help of Templates & Wizards•Formatting - determining the appearance of adocument•Template - a preformatted document that providesbasic tools for shaping a final document•Wizard - answers your questions and uses theanswers to lay out and format a document
  79. 79. Formatting Documents • Font - typeface and type size Spacing and columns: Margins and justification: • Left margin • Single-spaced • Right margin • Double-spaced • Top margin • One-column • Bottom margin • Two columns • Justification • Several columns • Left-justification • Centering
  80. 80. Formatting DocumentsHeaders, footers, and page Other formatting:numbers: • Borders • Shading• Header • Tables• Footer • Footnotes• Page numbers • Graphics • Clip art
  81. 81. Printing, Faxing, or Emailing Documents• Printing:• Individual pages• Range of pages• Previewing - Viewing a document before it’s printedSaving DocumentsSaving - storing or preserving a document as anelectronic file permanently
  82. 82. Tracking Changes & Inserting Comments• Editing changes can be tracked by highlighting them, underlining additions, and crossing deletions• Comments or questions can be inserted into the documents
  83. 83. 3.4 Spreadsheets The Basics: How Spreadsheets WorkA spreadsheet is organized as:•Lettered column headings across the top•Numbered row headings down the left side•Labels - descriptive text that identifies categoriesWhere columns and rows meet:• Cell - the place where a row and a column intersect – Cell address - position of a cell – Range - a group of adjacent cells – Value - data entered in a cell• Cell pointer - indicates where data is to be entered
  84. 84. The Basics: How Spreadsheets WorkWhy the spreadsheet has become so popular:• Formulas - instructions for calculations• Functions - built-in formulas to perform common calculations• Recalculation - process of recomputing values• What-if analysisUsing worksheet templates:• Worksheet templates - forms containing formats and formulas custom-designed for particular kinds of work• Multidimensional spreadsheets – one spreadsheet can be linked to another
  85. 85. The Basics: How Spreadsheets WorkAnalytical graphics - graphical forms that make numeric data easy to analyze http://google.com/analytics/ http://www.google.com/publicdata/
  86. 86. 3.5 Database SoftwareDatabase – “a collection of interrelated files”• Database software - a program that sets up and controls the structure of a database and access to the dataBenefits of Database Software:• Reduced redundancy• Increased integrity TIMELINE DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
  87. 87. The Basics: How Databases WorkHow a relational database is organized:• Tables of rows and columns• Row (record) - example: a person’s address• Column (field) - example: the person’s last nameHow various records can be linked: Finding what you want:• Key field - a field that is used to sort data • Querying - locating and• Primary key - holds a unique displaying records value for each record• Foreign key - used to cross- reference data among relational tables
  88. 88. The Basics: How Databases WorkSorting and analyzing Putting search results to use:records and applyingformulas: • Saving • Formatting• Sorting data - • Printing alphabetically, • Copying numerically, • Transmitting geographically, or in some other order
  89. 89. Personal Information Managers Free and open-source collaborative software Personal information can include any of the Bongo · Buni Meldware · Citadel · following: Client-Server DAViCal · Kolab · OpenGroupware.org · •Personal notes/journal Open-Xchange · Scalix · Zimbra · Zarafa •Address books •Lists (including task lists) •Significant calendar dates Citadel · eGroupWare · Group-Office · •Birthdays Horde · KnowledgeTree · Kolab · Feng Web based Office Community Edition · •Anniversaries phpGroupWare · ProjectPier · Simple •Appointments and meeting Groupware · Tine 2.0 •Reminders •Email, instant message archives •Fax communications, voicemail Personal information Evolution · Kontact · Spicebird · Mozilla managers Sunbird · Mozilla Thunderbird/Lightning •Project management features •RSS/Atom feeds •Alerts •References (including scientific references, websites of interest)
  90. 90. 3.6 Specialty Software• Presentation graphics software - uses graphics, animation, sound, and data or information to make visual presentations
  91. 91. Presentation Graphics Software• Presentation-graphics programs offer templates to help organize presentations.• Templates are of two types: – Design templates - offer formats, layouts, background patterns, and color schemes that can apply to general forms of content material – Content templates - offer formats for specific subjects
  92. 92. Financial Software• Financial software - a growing category that ranges from personal- finance managers to entry-level accounting programs to business financial-management packages• Microsoft Money
  93. 93. Desktop Publishing (DTP)• DTP involves mixing text and graphics to produce high-quality output for commercial printing, using a microcomputer and mouse, scanner, laser or ink-jet printer, and DTP software.•
  94. 94. Drawing & Painting Programs• Drawing program - graphics software that allows users to design and illustrate objects and products• Painting program - Vector image graphics program that allows users to simulate painting on screen Raster image
  95. 95. Other Specialty Software•Web page design/authoring software – used to create web pages withsophisticated multimedia features.•Video editing software allows you to import video footage to a PC andedit it.•Audio editing software provides capabilities to work with sound tracks,clean up background noise, and emphasize certain sound qualities.•Project management software -•Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software -•Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM)software -
  96. 96. Using Information Technology Chapter 4 System Software
  97. 97. 4.1 The Components of System Software• Operating system - the principal component of system software• Device drivers - help the computer control peripheral devices• Utility programs - support, enhance, or expand existing programs
  98. 98. 4.2 The Operating System: What It Does• Booting - the process of loading an operating system into a computer’s main memory
  99. 99. The Operating System: What It DoesUser interface - user-controllable display screen that allows one to communicate, or interact, with a computerThe Operating System: What It DoesCPU ManagementSupervisor (kernel) - program which remains inmain memory while the computer is running,and directs other ―nonresident‖ programs toperform tasks that support application programs
  100. 100. The Operating System: What It Does File Management and Formatting•The operatingsystem’s file systemarranges files inhierarchical fashion•Formatting orinitializing a disk is theprocess of preparingthat disk for use
  101. 101. The Operating System: What It Does Task Management Number of Number of Order of Users Processors ProcessingMulti-tasking One One ConcurrentlyMulti- Multiple One ConcurrentlyprogrammingTime sharing Multiple One Round robinMulti- One or more Two or Simultaneouslyprocessing more Processing of two or more programs
  102. 102. 4.3 Other System Software: Device Drivers & Utility Programs• Device drivers - specialized software programs that allow input and output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system
  103. 103. Utilities: Service Programs•Backup utility - program which makes a duplicate copyof the information on your hard disk•Data-recovery utility - program which restores datathat has been physically damaged or corrupted•Antivirus software - program that scans hard disks, floppydisks, and memory to detect viruses•Data compression utility - program which removesredundant elements, gaps, and unnecessary data from acomputer’s storage space so that less space (fewer bits) isrequired to store or transmit data
  104. 104. Utilities: Service Programs• Fragmentation - the scattering of portions of files about the disk in nonadjacent areas, thus greatly slowing access to the files• Defragmenter utility - program that finds all the scattered files on a hard disk and reorganizes them as contiguous files
  105. 105. Utilities: Service Programs• Disk scanner and disk cleanup utilities:• Detect & remove unnecessary files• Detect & correct disk problems
  106. 106. 4.4 Common Operating Operating systemSystems History · Timeline · List · Comparison · Usage share · Development · GeneralDesktop & Laptop Operating AdvocacySystems Kernel Architectures General Monolithic kernel · Microkernel Subtypes Exokernel · Nanokernel · Hybrid Components User/Kernel space · Server · Loadable kernel module · Device driver Process management• Platform - a particular Concepts Process · Process control block · Interrupt · Thread · Context switch · processor model and Scheduling operating system on CPU modes Protected mode · Supervisor mode which a computer system is based Scheduling Cooperative multitasking · Preemptive multitasking · Round-robin scheduling · Fixed priority pre-emptive scheduling · Multilevel• Disk Operating System algorithm feedback queue · Shortest job next (DOS) - the original Memory Memory protection · Segmentation · Paging · Segmentation fault · operating system management General protection fault · Bus error produced by Microsoft, which had a hard-to-use Examples AmigaOS · BeOS · BSD · DOS · GNU · Linux · Mac OS · MorphOS · OS/2 · ReactOS · Solaris · Unix · Windows · more... command-driven user interface Miscellaneous Boot loader · Live CD · Live USB · PXE · API · Virtual file system · concepts Virtual tape library · Computer network · CLI · TUI · GUI · VUI · HAL
  107. 107. Desktop & Laptop Operating Systems• Mac OS - operating system which runs only on Apple Macintosh computers
  108. 108. Desktop & Laptop Operating Systems•Microsoft Windows 3.X - released in 1992;simply a layer over DOS•Microsoft Windows 95/98 - successors to3.XPlug and Play - the ability of a computer toautomatically configure a new hardwarecomponent that is added to it•Microsoft Windows Me (WinMe) -Millennium Edition
  109. 109. Network Operating Systems•Novell’s Netware - a popularnetwork operating system forcoordinating microcomputer-based local area networks (LANs)•Windows NT - Microsoft’s multitasking OSwhich allows multiple users to share resourcessuch as data and programs•Windows 2000 - successor to Windows NT
  110. 110. Network Operating Systems• Windows XP - Microsoft’s newest OS, which combines elements of Windows 2000 and Windows Me New GUI of Windows XP
  111. 111. Microsoft .NET• A set of Microsoft software technologies for connecting information, people, and systems through the use of special building block web service programs.• Web services programs are created using XML a web-document tagging format.
  112. 112. Network Operating Systems •UNIX - a multitasking operating system for multiple users with built- in networking capability and versionsAIX, HP-UX, IRIX, Linux, that can run on all kinds of Minix, Ultrix, Xenix. computers • Sun Microsystems’ Solaris • Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
  113. 113. Network Operating Systems• Linux - a free version of UNIX, with continual improvements resulting from the efforts of tens of thousands of volunteer programmers
  114. 114. Network Operating Systems• Linux - Open-source software - software which any programmer can download from the Internet for free and modify with suggested improvements Linus Torvalds, creator of Linux
  115. 115. Operating Systems for Handhelds• Palm OS - the dominant OS for handhelds, which runs the Palm and Handspring Visor, and is licensed to other companies• Windows CE (now Pocket PC) - slimmed- down version of Windows for handhelds
  116. 116. Embedded Systems• An embedded system is any electronic system that uses CPU chip• It is a specialized computer system that is a part of a larger system• Used extensively in cars, space vehicles, cell phones, PDAs, and robots• Many companies have formed the non-profit, vendor neutral Embedded Linux Consortium to make Linux a top OS of choice
  117. 117. 4.5 The OS of the Future: Web Services Platform•Web services allow describing, identifying, andcommunicating data over the WWW in a consistentfashion that can be read by many different types ofmachines•Microsoft .NET delivers web services•Competitors concentrating on middleware as an answer
  118. 118. Open Source Computing•Distributed system - a non-centralized networkconsisting of several computers and otherdevices that can communicate with one another•Gaining ground in foreign countries, smallcompanies, and schools
  119. 119. Using Information Technology Chapter 5 Hardware: The CPU
  120. 120. 5.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility From Vacuum Tubes to Transistors to Microchips• Transistor - a tiny electrically operated switch, or gate, that can alternate between “on” and “off” many millions of times per second 1940s vacuum tube towering over 1950s transistor
  121. 121. Miniaturization Miracles: Microchips, Microprocessors, & Micromachines• Microchips store and process data in all the electronic• gadgetry• A microprocessor is the miniaturized circuitry of a• computer processor
  122. 122. 5.2 The System Unit The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions• The binary system has only two digits - 0 and 1• Bit - binary digit• Byte - group of 8 bits used to represent one character, digit, or other value
  123. 123. The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions• Kilobyte 1000 bytes• Megabyte 1,000,000 bytes (one million)• Gigabyte 1,000,000,000 bytes (one billion)• Terabyte 1 trillion bytes• Petabyte 1 quadrillion bytes
  124. 124. The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions• ASCII - the binary code most widely used with microcomputers• EBCDIC - used with large computers• Unicode - uses two bytes for each character rather than one byte (8 bits)
  125. 125. Machine LanguageMachine language - a binary-type programming language built into the CPU that the computer can run directly
  126. 126. The Computer Case: Bays, Buttons &• Bay - a shelf or Boards opening used for the installation of electronic equipment• System unit - houses the motherboard, power supply, and storage devices• Case – the empty box with just power supply Overhead view of system unit
  127. 127. Power Supply• Power supply - a device that converts AC to DC to run the computer• Expansion – a way of increasing a computer’s capabilities by adding hardware to perform tasks beyond the scope of the basic system• Motherboard - the main circuit board in the system unit
  128. 128. The Motherboard & the CPU TECHNOLOGIES Microprocessor Chip ISA : CISC · EDGE · EPIC · MISC · OISC · RISC · VLIW · NISC · ZISC · Harvard architecture · von Neumann Architecture architecture · 4-bit · 8-bit · 12-bit · 16- bit · 18-bit · 24-bit · 31-bit · 32-bit · 36-Two principal architectures or designs of bit · 48-bit · 64-bit · 128-bit · microprocessors: Comparison of CPU architectures1 CISC (Complex Instruction Set Parallelism Computing) - Supports a large number of instructions at relatively low Instruction pipelining · In-order & out- Pipeline of-order execution · Register renaming · processing speeds Speculative execution · Hazards2 RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Level Bit · Instruction · Superscalar · Data · Computing) - Used mostly in Task workstations, a great many seldom- Multithreading · Simultaneous Threads multithreading · Hyperthreading · used instructions are eliminated. Superthreading Flynns SISD · SIMD · MISD · MIMD taxonomy
  129. 129. The Motherboard & the Microprocessor ChipTwo kinds of microprocessors used in most personal computers today:1 Intel-type chips made by Intel, AMD, and others2 Motorola-type chips made by Motorola for Apple Macintosh computers
  130. 130. Processing Speeds: From Megahertz to Picoseconds Micro- Super- Workstations Mainframes computers computers Megahertz & X Gigahertz MIPS X X FLOPS X Fractions of a second X X X X
  131. 131. How theProcessor or CPU works: ControlUnit, ALU,& Registers
  132. 132. How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Registers The CPU follows the instructions of the software to manipulate data into information.The CPU consist of:• The control unit – for directing electronic signals• The arithmetic/logic unit – for arithmetic and logical operations and to control the speed of those operations
  133. 133. How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & FlashTypes of memory chips:1 RAM – to temporarily store program instructions and data2 ROM – to store fixed start-up instructions3 CMOS – to store flexible start-up instructions4 Flash – to store flexible programs
  134. 134. How Cache Works: Level 1 (Internal) & Level 2 (External)•Cache - temporary storage for instructions and datathat the processor is likely to use frequently, thusspeeding up processing•Level 1 (L1) cache – part of the processor chip•Level 2 (L2) cache – is not part of the microprocessorchip•Virtual memory - free hard-disk space used to extendthe capacity of RAM
  135. 135. Ports & Cables•A port is a connecting socket or jack on the outside ofthe system unit into which are plugged different kindsof cables.1.Serial port - sends bits one at a time, one afteranother2.Parallel port3.SCSI port4.USB port5.FireWire port6.6Dedicated port7.Infrared port
  136. 136. Ports & Cables1. Serial port2. Parallel port - transmits 8 bits simultaneously3. SCSI port4. USB port5. FireWire port6. Dedicated port7. Infrared port
  137. 137. Ports & Cables1. Serial port2. Parallel port3. SCSI port - allows data to be transmitted in a “daisy chain” to up to 7 devices4. USB port5. FireWire port6. Dedicated port7. Infrared port
  138. 138. Ports & Cables1. Serial port2. Parallel port3. SCSI port4. USB port - can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices daisy- chained to one general- purpose port5. FireWire port6. Dedicated port7. Infrared port USB port and connector
  139. 139. Ports & Cables1. Serial port2. Parallel port3. SCSI port4. USB port5. FireWire port – for camcorders, DVD players, and TVs6. Dedicated port7. Infrared port
  140. 140. Ports & Cables 1. Serial port 2. Parallel port 3. SCSI port 4. USB port 5. FireWire port 6. Dedicated port - special-purpose ports 7. Infrared port Dedicated ports: mouse port, modem port, and keyboard port
  141. 141. Ports & Cables1. Serial port2. Parallel port3. SCSI port4. USB5. FireWire port6. Dedicated port7. Infrared port - allows a computer to make a cableless connection with infrared-capable devices
  142. 142. Expandability: Buses & Cards• Expansion slots - sockets on the motherboard into which you can plug expansion cards• Expansion cards - circuit boards that provide more memory or that control peripheral devices
  143. 143. Expandability: Buses & Cards•ISA bus - for ordinary low-speeduses; the most widely usedexpansion bus•PCI bus - for higher-speed uses;used to connect graphics cards,sound cards, modems, and high-speed network cards•AGP bus - for even higher speedsand 3D graphics
  144. 144. Expandability: Buses & Cards•Graphics cards - for monitors•Sound cards - for speakers and audio output•Modem cards - for remote communication viaphone lines•Network interface cards - for remotecommunication via cable•PC cards - for laptop computers
  145. 145. 5.3 Future Developments in Processing•Selling processing power over the internet•Combining functions on a single chip•Nanotechnology•DSP chips: Processors for the Post-Pc Era•Optical Computing•DNA Computing•Quantum Computing•Other Possibilities: Molecular & Dot Computers
  146. 146. Using Information Technology Chapter 5 Hardware: Storage
  147. 147. Hardware: The CPU & StorageHow to Buy a Multimedia Computer System5.4 Introduction Memory5.5 Secondary Storage5.6 Future Developments in Storage
  148. 148. 5.4 Introduction Memory•How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Registers•The CPU follows the instructions of the software tomanipulate data into information.
  149. 149. How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & RegistersThe CPU consist of:•The control unit – for directing electronic signals•The arithmetic/logic unit – for arithmetic and logical operations and tocontrol the speed of those operations
  150. 150. How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash• Types of memory chips:1 RAM – to temporarily store program instructions and data2 ROM – to store fixed start-up instructions3 CMOS – to store flexible start-up instructions4 Flash – to store flexible programs
  151. 151. How Cache Works: Level 1 (Internal) & Level 2 (External)•Cache - temporary storage for instructions and datathat the processor is likely to use frequently, thusspeeding up processing•Level 1 (L1) cache – part of the processor chip•Level 2 (L2) cache – is not part of the microprocessorchip•Virtual memory - free hard-disk space used to extendthe capacity of RAM
  152. 152. 5.5 Secondary Storage Floppy Disks • Floppy disk - a removable flat piece of mylar plastic packaged in a 3.5- inch plastic case
  153. 153. Floppy-Disk Cartridges• Zip disks – 100, 250, Zip or 750 megabytes disk• 3.5-inch floppy disks – 1.44 megabytes Floppy disk
  154. 154. Hard Disks• Hard disks - thin but rigid metal, glass, or ceramic platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots
  155. 155. Hard Disks• Head crash - An event that happens when the surface of the read/write head or particles on its surface come into contact with the surface of the hard-disk platter, causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk.
  156. 156. Hard DisksNonremovablehard disks -housed in amicrocomputersystem unit andused to storenearly allprograms andmost data files
  157. 157. Hard Disks• Removable hard disks - one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into Bits on disk - dark stripes are 0 a microcomputer’s bits and bright stripes are 1 bits cartridge drive
  158. 158. Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs• Optical disk - a removable disk on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams
  159. 159. Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs• CD-ROM - read only. For pre- recorded text, graphics, and sound• CD-R - for recording on once• CD-RW - for rewriting many times
  160. 160. Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs• DVD-ROM - for reading only• DVD-R - for recording on once• For rewriting many times:• DVD-RW• DVD-RAM• DVD+RW
  161. 161. Magnetic Tape• Magnetic tape - thin plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized (for 1s) or left non-magnetized (for 0s) Magnetic tape• Tape cartridges - modules resembling audio cassettes that contain tape in rectangular, plastic housings Tape cartridge
  162. 162. Smart Cards• Smart card - looks like a credit card but contains a microprocessor embedded in the card• Optical card - plastic, laser-recordable, wallet-type card Smart card used with an optical- card reader
  163. 163. Flash Memory Cards• Flash memory card - circuitry on credit-card-size PC card that can be inserted into slots connecting to the motherboard on notebook computers• Solid State Disk/Drive• Online Secondary Storage• @Backup• Connected Online Backup
  164. 164. 5.6 FutureDevelopments inStorage Higher-density disks Molecular electronics Solid State Disk Sci-Fi Disk Future: • Carbon Nanoballs • Molecular memory: • Bacteria • Quantum mechanics:
  165. 165. Chapter 6 Hardware: Input Session 36.1 Input & Output6.2 Input Hardware6.3 Input Technology & Quality of Life: Health & Ergonomics6.4 Input & Output6.5 Output Hardware6.6 Mixed Output: Sound, Voice, and VideoChapter7 Networks&Communications7.1FromtheAnalogtotheDigitalAge7.2ThePracticalUsesofCommunications7.3CommunicationsMediaandTransferRates7.4TransmittingData-Behind-the-ScenesDetails7.5Networks7.6TheFutureofCommunications7.7CyberethicsChapter8 Files,Databases,&E-Commerce8.1ManagingFiles:BasicConcepts Datastoragehierarchy-levelsofdatastoredinacomputer:8.2DatabaseManagementSystems8.3DatabaseModels8.4FeaturesofaDatabaseManagementSystem8.5Databases&theNewEconomy:E-Commerce,DataMining,&B2BSystems8.6EthicsofUsingDatabases:ConcernsaboutAccuracy&Privacy
  166. 166. Using Information Technology Chapter 6 Hardware: Input
  167. 167. 6.1 Input & Output Input hardware - devices that translate data into a form the computer can process
  168. 168. 6.2 Input Hardware• Keyboard - a device that converts letters, numbers, and other characters into electrical signals that can be read by the computer’s processor Braille keyboard
  169. 169. Keyboards• Traditional computer keyboards• Specialty keyboards and terminals  Dumb terminals  Intelligent terminals  Internet terminals Dumb terminal
  170. 170. KeyboardsSpecialty keyboards and terminals:Dumb terminal:• Airline reservationsIntelligent terminal: Point-of-sale (POS) terminal• Automatic teller machine (ATM)• Point-of-sale (POS) terminalInternet terminal:• Set-top box• PDA
  171. 171. Pointing Devices• Pointing devices - control the position of the cursor or pointer on the screen• Mouse• Trackball• Pointing stick• Touchpad Mouse for a right-handed user
  172. 172. Pointing Devices• The mouse and its variants:•• Mouse• Trackball• Pointing stick• Touchpad Ergonomic trackball
  173. 173. Pointing Devices• The mouse and its variants:•• Mouse• Trackball• Pointing stick Touchpad Pointing stick
  174. 174. Pointing Devices• The mouse and its variants:•• Mouse• Trackball• Pointing stick Touch pad• Touchpad
  175. 175. Pointing Devices Touch screens
  176. 176. Pointing Devices• Pen input:• Pen-based computer system - allows users to enter handwriting and marks onto a computer screen by means of a penlike stylus rather than by typing on a keyboard Pen-based computer
  177. 177. Pointing Devices• Pen input:• Light pen - a light- sensitive penlike device that uses a wired connection to a computer terminal Light pen
  178. 178. Pointing Devices• Pen input:• Digitizer - converts drawings and photos to digital data using a mouselike device Digitizing tablet called a puck
  179. 179. Scanning and Reading Devices• Source data-entry devices – create machine-readable data• Scanners - use light- sensing equipment to translate images of text, drawings, photos, and the like into digital form
  180. 180. Scanning and Reading DevicesBar-code readers:• Barcodes - photoelectric scanners that translate the symbols in the bar code into digital code• Quick Response code (QR) is a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code) first designed for the automotive industry.
  181. 181. Scanning and Reading DevicesMark-recognition and character-recognition devices sensemarks or characters• MICR - character recognition system that uses magnetic ink and special characters• OMR• OCR
  182. 182. Scanning and Reading DevicesMark-recognition and character- recognition devices:• MICR• OMR - uses a device that reads bubble marks and converts them into computer-usable form• OCR
  183. 183. Scanning and Reading Devices Mark-recognition and character-recognition devices: • MICR • OMR • OCR - converts scanned text from images to an editable text format that can be imported into a word processing application and manipulated
  184. 184. Scanning and Reading Devices• Fax machine – scans an image and sends it as electronic signals over telephone lines to a receiving fax machine• Types of fax machines:• Dedicated fax machine• Fax modem• Dedicated fax machine
  185. 185. Source Data-Entry Devices• Types of fax machines:• Dedicated fax machine• Fax modem Fax modem circuit board
  186. 186. Audio-Input Devices• Audio-input device - records analog sound and translates it for digital storage and processing• Digitizing an audio signal:• sound board• MIDI board
  187. 187. Webcams & Video-Input Cards• Webcam – a video camera attached to a computer to record moving images that can be posted on a website in real time• Video cards:• Frame-grabber video card•• Full-motion video card
  188. 188. Digital Cameras• Digital camera - uses a light-sensitive processor chip to capture photographic images in digital form and store them on a small diskette Digital camera attached to a computer
  189. 189. Speech-Recognition Systems• Speech-recognition system - converts a person’s speech into digital signals
  190. 190. Sensors• Sensor – an input device that collects specific data directly from the environment and transmits it to a computer
  191. 191. Radio-Frequency Identification Tags• RFID tags – based on an identifying tag bearing a microchip that contains specific code numbers RFID tag in a car for paying toll A tollbooth with RFID readers
  192. 192. Human-Biology-Input devices• Biometrics - the science of measuring individual body characteristics Palm print recognition reader Screen of face recognition system
  193. 193. Towards More Input from Remote locations•The linkage of computers and telecommunicationsmeans that data may be input from nearly anywhere•Toward More Source Data Automation•Input technology is being designed to capture data at itssource to reduce the costs and mistakes associated withcopying or preparing data in a form suitable forprocessing.• Input help for the disabled• More sophisticated touch devices
  194. 194. 6.3 Input Technology & Quality of Life: Health & Ergonomics• Health Matters:• RSIs• Eyestrain & headaches• Back & neck pains• Electromagnetic fields• Noise Carpal tunnel syndrome
  195. 195. Ergonomics: Design with People in Mind• Ergonomics - a field devoted to making working conditions and equipment safer and more efficient Ergonomic keyboard
  196. 196. Using Information Technology Chapter 6 Hardware: Output
  197. 197. 6.4 Input & Output• Output hardware - devices that translate information processed by the computer into a form that humans can understand
  198. 198. 6.5 Output Hardware•Softcopy - data that isshown on a displayscreen or is in audio or Hard copyvoice form•Hardcopy - printed Softoutput copy
  199. 199. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens• Display screens - output devices that show programming instructions and data as they are being input and information after it is processed
  200. 200. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens• Pixel (picture element) - the smallest unit on the screen that can be turned on and off or made different shades
  201. 201. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display ScreensFactors affecting screen clarity:• Dot pitch (dp) - the amount of space between the centers of adjacent pixels; the closer the dots, the crisper the image• Resolution - the image sharpness of a display screen; the more pixels there are per square inch, the finer the level of detail• Color depth - the amount of information, expressed in bits, that is stored in a dot• Refresh rate - the number of times per second that the pixels are recharged so that their glow remains bright
  202. 202. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display ScreensTwo types of monitors:•CRT (cathode ray tube)- a vacuum tubeused as a display screen in a computer orvideo display terminal•Flat-panel display PLASMA LCD•Liquid crystal display (LCD)•A plasma display•Surface-conduction electron-emitterdisplay (SED)•Digital Light Processing (DLP)•An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) Flat Panel CRT DLP SED OLED
  203. 203. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display ScreensTwo types of monitors:• CRT• Flat-panel display - made up of two plates of glass separated by a layer of a substance in which light is manipulated •Active-matrix versus passive-matrix flat-panel displays: •Active-matrix display - each pixel on the screen is controlled by its own transistor •Passive-matrix
  204. 204. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens•Active-matrix versus passive-matrix flat-paneldisplays:•Active-matrix display•Passive-matrix display - a transistor controls awhole row or column of pixels
  205. 205. Traditional Softcopy Output: Display Screens• Color & resolution standards for monitors:
  206. 206. Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers•Printer - an output device that printscharacters, symbols, and perhaps graphics onpaper or another hardcopy medium•Dpi - a measure of the number of rows andcolumns of dots that are printed in a square inch
  207. 207. Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers•Impact printer - forms characters or images bystriking a mechanism such as a print hammer orwheel against an inked ribbon, leaving an imageon paper•Non-impact printer - forms characters andimages without direct physical contact betweenthe printing mechanism and paper
  208. 208. Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers• Nonimpact printers:• Laser printer - creates images on a drum which are treated with a magnetically charged toner, and then transferred from drum to paper Replacing a laser toner cartridge
  209. 209. Traditional Hardcopy Output: PrintersNonimpact printers:• Ink-jet printers - spray small, electrically charged droplets of ink from four nozzles through holes in a matrix at high speed• Thermal printers - use colored waxes and heat to produce images by burning dots onto special paper Ink-jet printer
  210. 210. Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers• Plotter - a specialized output device designed to produce high-quality graphics in a variety of colors
  211. 211. Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers• Multifunction printer - output device that combines several capabilities, such as printing, scanning, copying, and faxing
  212. 212. 6.6 Mixed Output: Sound, Voice, and Video•Sound output devices - produce digitizedsounds, ranging from beeps and chirps to music•Voice output devices - convert digital data intospeech-like sounds•Video output - photographic images which areplayed at 15-29 frames per second to give theappearance of full motion
  213. 213. Towards More Input from Remote locationsThe linkage of computers and telecommunications meansthat data may be input from nearly anywhere Toward More Source Data AutomationInput technology is being designed to capture data at itssource to reduce the costs and mistakes associated withcopying or preparing data in a form suitable forprocessing.• Input help for the disabled• More sophisticated touch devices
  214. 214. Toward More Source Data AutomationMore refinements in sourcedata automation:•Better speech recognition•Smaller electronic cameras•Pattern-recognition &biometric devices•Brainwave devices Computer-read emotions BIOMETRIC BRAINWAVE SPEECH RECOGNITION
  215. 215. Toward More Output in Remote Locations• Output in remote locations is the wave of the future.• As TV and the personal computer converge, you can even have your PC continually receive any websites covering topics of interest to youToward More Realistic Output• Display screens - better and cheaper• Audio - higher fidelity• Video - movie quality for PC’s• Three-dimensional display
  216. 216. Using Information Technology Chapter 7 Networks & Communications
  217. 217. 7.1 From the Analog to the Digital Age•Analog - continuously varying in strength and/orquality•Digital - communications signals or informationrepresented in a two-state (binary) way using electronicor electromagnetic signals
  218. 218. Purpose of the Modem - Converting Digital Signals to Analog Signals & BackModem - short for modulate/demodulate• Sending modem - modulates digital signals into analog signals for transmission over phone lines• Receiving modem - demodulates the analog signals back into digital signals
  219. 219. 7.2 The Practical Uses of Communications Videoconferencing & VideophonesVideoconferencing - the use of television video and sound technology as well as computer to enable people in different locations to see, hear, and talk with one anotherWorkgroup Computing & GroupwareWorkgroup computing also called collaborativecomputing – teams of co-workers (often atdifferent sites) use networks of microcomputers toshare information and to cooperate on projectsMade possible by networks, microcomputers, &groupware
  220. 220. TelecommutingTelecommuting - working at home while in telecommunication with the office Virtual Offices Virtual office - an often nonpermanent and mobile office run with computer and communications technology
  221. 221. Smart Television•Digital television (DTV) - uses a digital signal, orseries of 0s and 1s•High-definition television (HDTV) – works withdigital broadcasting signals and has higher-resolution than standard television•Standard-definition television (SDTV) - allowsbroadcasters to transmit more informationwithin the HDTV bandwidth
  222. 222. 7.3 Communications Media and Transfer Rates Communications media – carries signals over a communications path, the route between two or more communications media servicesWired Communications Media - Wiresand CablesTwisted-pair wire - two strands ofinsulated copper wire, twisted aroundeach other
  223. 223. Wired Communications Channels • Coaxial cable - insulated copper wire wrapped in a solid or braided metal shield, then in an external coverWired Communications ChannelsFiber-optic cable - dozens or hundreds of thin strands ofglass or plastic that transmit pulsating beams of lightrather than electricity Fiber-optic cable Fiber-optic strand
  224. 224. The Electromagnetic Spectrum, the Radio Spectrum, & Bandwidth Radio frequency spectrum
  225. 225. Wireless Communications Channels • Infrared transmission - the transmission of data signals using infrared-light waves Broadcast radio - a wireless Microwave radio - transmits transmission medium that sends voice & data through the data over long distances-- atmosphere as super-high- between regions, states, or frequency radio waves called countries microwavesCommunicationssatellites - microwave relaystations in orbit around theearth
  226. 226. Long-Distance Wireless Communications Global Positioning System (GPS) - 27 earth-orbiting satellites continuously transmitting timed radio signals that can be used to identify earth locations Car with GPS unit toPagers - simple radio receivers guide usersthat receive data (but not voicemessages) sent from a specialradio transmitter
  227. 227. Long-Distance Wireless Communications• Analog cellphones (known as 1G- first generation) - designed primarily for communicating by voice through a system of ground-area cellsDigital wireless services (2G) - support digitalcellphones & personal digital assistants by usinga network of cell towers to send voicecommunications & data over the airwaves indigital formBroadband wireless digital services (3G) -―always on‖ technology which can quicklytransmit video, still pictures, and music Cellphone tower
  228. 228. Short-Range Wireless Communications•Bluetooth - a short-range wireless digitalstandard aimed at linking cellphones, PDAs,computers, & peripherals up to distances of30 feet•WiFi (wireless fidelity)- a short-rangewireless digital standard aimed at helpingportable computers and handheld wirelessdevices to communicate at high speeds andshare internet connections at distances upto 300 feet
  229. 229. Compression & Decompression - Putting More Data in Less Space•Compression - a method of removing repetitive elements froma file so that the file requires less storage space and thereforeless time to transmit• Lossless vs. lossy compression• Compression standards
  230. 230. 7.4 Transmitting Data - Behind-the-Scenes DetailsFactors Affecting Data Transmission• Line configurations• Point-to-point line - directly connects the sending & receiving devices• Multipoint line - a single line that interconnects several communications devices to one computer• Serial vs. parallel transmission• Serial data transmission - bits are transmitted sequentially, one after the other Serial Data Transmission
  231. 231. Factors Affecting How Data Is Transmitted • Serial vs. parallel Parallel data transmission - transmission bits are transmitted through separate lines simultaneouslyDirection of transmission - simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplexSimplex transmission - data can travel in only onedirection
  232. 232. Factors Affecting How Data Is Transmitted • Direction of transmission - simplex, half- duplex, and full-duplex • Half-duplex transmission - data travels in both directions but only in one direction at a timeFull-duplex transmission - data is transmitted back andforth at the same time
  233. 233. Factors Affecting How Data Is TransmittedTransmission mode - asynchronous vs. synchronousAsynchronous transmission - data is sent one byte at atime, with each string of bits making up the byte andbracketed with special control bitsSynchronous transmission - data is sent in blocks, withstart and stop bit patterns (synch bytes) at the beginningand end of the blocks
  234. 234. Factors Affecting How Data Is Transmitted•Circuit switching - transmitter has full use of the circuituntil all the data has been transmitted and the circuit isterminated•Packet switching - electronic messages are divided intopackets for transmission over a wide area network to theirdestination, through the most expedient routeMultiplexing - transmission of multiple signals over asingle communications channelMultiplexersConcentratorsFront-endprocessors
  235. 235. Factors Affecting How Data Is Transmitted• Protocol - a set of conventions governing the exchange of data between hardware and/or software components in a communications network
  236. 236. 7.5 Networks•Benefits of networks -• Sharing of peripheral devices• Sharing of programs and data• Better communications• Security of information• Access to databases
  237. 237. Types of Networks• Wide area network (WAN) - a communications network that covers a wide geographical area, such as a country or the worldMetropolitan area network (MAN) - acommunications network covering acity or a suburbLocal area network (LAN) - connectscomputers and devices in a limitedgeographical area
  238. 238. Types of Networks•Host computer - a mainframe or midsize centralcomputer that controls the network•Node - any device that is attached to a network•Backbone - a high-speed network that connectsLANs and MANs to the internetClient/server LAN -Clients - microcomputers thatrequest dataServer - a powerfulmicrocomputer that supplies dataand manages shared devices
  239. 239. • Peer-to-peer LAN - all of LANs Types microcomputers on the network communicate directly with one another without relying on a serverComponents of LANs-Connection or cabling system-Microcomputers with network interfacecards-Network OS-Other shared devices-Routers, bridges, and gateways-Hub
  240. 240. Topology of LANs• Bus network – all nodes are connected to a single wire or cable, the bus, which has two endpoints• Each communication device on the network transmits electronic messages to other devices.Ring network - allmicrocomputers and othercommunications devicesare connected in acontinuous loop
  241. 241. Topology of LANs• Star network - all microcomputers and other communications devices are connected to a central server
  242. 242. Intranets, Extranets, & Firewalls•Intranet - an organization’s internal private network that uses the infrastructureand standards of the internet and the web•Extranets - private intranets that connect not only internal personnel but alsoselected suppliers and other strategic parties•Firewalls - a system of hardware and software that blocks unauthorized usersinside and outside the organization from entering the intranet•Virtual private network – are private networks that use a public network (usuallythe internet) to connect remote sites.
  243. 243. 7.6 The Future of Communications• Satellite-based systems - categorized into four types• TV direct-broadcast system• GPS system• Satellite transmission to handle cellphone and paging services• Global high-speed low-orbital satellite networksBeyond 3G to 4GPhotonics - optical technologies at warp speedUtilities become communications companiesSoftware-defined radioThe grid
  244. 244. 7.7 Cyberethics• Controversial material and censorship -• Blocking software• Browsers with ratings• The V-Chip
  245. 245. Using Information Technology Chapter 8Files, Databases, & E-Commerce
  246. 246. 8.1 Managing Files: Basic Concepts • Data storage hierarchy - levels of data stored in a computer: • Bits • Character (bytes) • Fields • Records • Files •
  247. 247. Key Field• A key field uniquely identifies a record for processing and retrieval• The primary characteristic of the key field is that it is unique•Types of Files•Program files - contain computer instructions –Source program files –Executable files•Data files - files that contain data (words, numbers, pictures,sounds, etc.)
  248. 248. Other Common Types of Files•ASCII•Image (graphic)•Audio•Animation/video•Web•Desktop publishing•Drivers•Windows operating systems
  249. 249. Two Types of Data Files • Transaction file - • Master file - • a temporary holding file that • a data file containing relatively holds all changes to be made to permanent records that are the master file: additions, generally updated periodically deletions, and revisions Data Access Methods• Sequential storage - • Direct access storage -• data is stored and • the computer can go• etrieved in sequence • directly to the information desired
  250. 250. Offline versus Online Storage• Offline storage - • Online storage -• data is not directly accessible for • stored data is randomly (directly) processing until the tape or disk accessible for processing it’s on has been loaded onto an input device
  251. 251. 8.2 Database Management Systems•Database management system (DBMS) - programs that control thestructure of a database and access to the data•Types of database access:• Individual databases• Multiuser databases• Advantages of DBMS• Reduced data redundancy• Improved data integrity• Increased security• Ease of data maintenance
  252. 252. 8.3 Database Models• Hierarchical database - fields or records are arranged in related groups, resembling a family tree, with child (lower-level) records subordinate to parent (higher-level) records Example of cruise ship reservation system
  253. 253. Database Models• Network database - similar to a hierarchical database, but each child record can have more than one parent record Example of college class-scheduling system
  254. 254. Database Models• Relational database - relates (connects) data in different files through the use of a key field, or common data element Example of state department of motor vehicles database
  255. 255. Database Models•Object-oriented database - uses “objects”--software written in small,reusable chunks--as elements within database files•An object consists of:• Data in any form, and•• Instructions on the actions to take on the data
  256. 256. 8.4 Features of a Database Management System•A database management system includes the following components: lData Dictionary - procedures document or disk file that stores the data definitions and descriptions of the structure of data used in the database lDBMS Utilities are programs that allow you to maintain the database lReport Generator is a program for producing an on- screen or printed document from all or part of a database.
  257. 257. Database Management System Components•A database management system includes the following components(continued): lAccess Security - a feature allowing database administrators to specify different access privileges for different users of a DBMS lSystem Recovery - enable the database administrator to recover contents of the database in the event of a hardware or software failure
  258. 258. 8.5 Databases & the New Economy: E-Commerce, Data Mining, & B2B Systems• E-commerce (electronic commerce) - the buying and selling of products and services through computer networks No limits on the uses of e-commerce
  259. 259. Data Mining•Data mining (DM) - the computer-assisted process of sifting through andanalyzing vast amounts of data in order to extract meaning and discovernew knowledge•Data mining process consists of:• Data acquisition• Data cleansing• Meta-data generation• Data transport to data warehouse• Searching for patterns• Interpreting results
  260. 260. Business-to-Business (B2B) Systems• B2B - a system in which a business sells to other businesses, using the Internet or a private network to cut transaction costs and increase efficiencies
  261. 261. 8.6 Ethics of Using Databases: Concerns about Accuracy & Privacy• Morphing - process in which a film or video is displayed on a computer screen and altered pixel by pixel, or dot by dot, into something else
  262. 262. The Ethics of Using Databases• Manipulation of sound can be used:• Positively as in the music industry• Negatively for misrepresentation • Manipulation of video & television Manipulation of photos
  263. 263. The Ethics of Using Databases• Privacy - the right of people not to reveal information about themselves • The Ethics of Using Databases • Accuracy and completeness – can be issue when searching for historical data • Monopolizing information – by an individual or organization could lead to access related issues
  264. 264. The Ethics of Using DatabasesOnline privacy can be invaded by:• Name migration• Identity theft• Resume rustling and online snooping• Government prying and spying
  265. 265. Session 4Chapter9 TheChallengesoftheDigitalAge9.1SecurityIssues:ThreatstoComputers&CommunicationsSystems9.2Security:SafeguardingComputers&Communications9.3Quality-of-LifeIssues:TheEnvironment,MentalHealth,&theWorkplace9.4EconomicIssues:Employment&theHaves/Have-Nots Technology,theJobKiller?9.5TheDigitalEnvironment:IsThereaGrandDesign?Chapter10 ThePromisesoftheDigitalAge10.1EmergingGlobalTelecommunications10.2ArtificialIntelligence10.3Information&Education10.4Health,Medicine,&Science10.5Commerce&Money10.6Entertainment&theArts10.7Government&ElectronicDemocracy10.8Jobs&CareersChapter11 InformationSystems11.1Organizations,Managers,&Information11.2Computer-BasedInformationSystems11.3SystemsDevelopment-TheSixPhasesofSystemAnalysisandDesign
  266. 266. Using Information Technology Chapter 9The Challenges of the Digital Age
  267. 267. The Challenges of the Digital Age Society & Information Technology Today9.1 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems9.2 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications9.3 Quality-of-Life Issues: The Environment, Mental Health, & the Workplace9.4 Economic Issues: Employment & the Haves/Have- Nots9.5 The Digital Environment: Is There a Grand Design?
  268. 268. 9.1 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems• Errors & Accidents:• Human errors• - humans can’t assess own information needs• - human emotions affect performance• - humans act on their perceptions•• Software errors• Procedural errors•• Electromechanical problems• “Dirty data” problems
  269. 269. Errors & Accidents•Human errors•Procedural errors – computer failures occur as a result of non-compliance of procedures•Software errors – software bugs•Electromechanical problems – failure of mechanical systems dueto faulty construction,overheating, wearing out, or damage•“Dirty data” problems - incomplete, outdated, or otherwiseinaccurate data•
  270. 270. Natural & Other Hazards• Natural hazards• Civil strife and terrorism
  271. 271. Crimes Against Computers & Communications• Theft of hardware - shoplifting an accessory• Theft of software and data - illegal copying of programs• Theft of time and services – using employer’s computer time to play games• Theft of information – stealing confidential personal records• Crimes of malice and destruction – abusing or vandalizing computers
  272. 272. Crimes Using Computers & Communications• Using information technology to assist in a crime• Investment fraud 
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