Linked In Radiant Panel Presentation

1,378 views
1,246 views

Published on

Presentation discussing radiant heating and cooling technologies.

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,378
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
74
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Valves need to be characterized and have pressure independent response to maintain water flow rate.
  • More expensive but provides decent loop balance.
  • Temperature difference across panels should be less than 6° in heating and around 4° in cooling.
  • Temperature difference across panels should be less than 6° in heating and around 4° in cooling.
  • Linked In Radiant Panel Presentation

    1. 1. Hydronic Radiant Heating & Cooling Twa Panel Systems Inc. 1201 – 4th Street Nisku, AB Canada, T9E 7L3 (780)-955-8757 www.twapanels.ca
    2. 2. Hydronic Radiant Heat. & Cool.Agenda• Radiant Panel Systems • Background• Radiant Panel System Design • Air-Side Design • Water-Side Design • Capacity • Thermal Comfort• Benefits & Limitations• Radiant Panel Products• Applications
    3. 3. Radiant Panel Systems – Background
    4. 4. Radiant Panel SystemsBackground• Origins in Europe• Introduced to North America – Metal ceilings and radiant systems (1950’s)• Seeking more capacity (Convection) – Chilled Sails (1990’s) – Passive beams (1990’s)• Seeking integration of ventilation system and more capacity – Active beams (Forced Convection) (2000’s)
    5. 5. Radiant Panel SystemsBackground• High acceptance rate in Europe • Historically high energy costs• North American market increasing due largely to: • Green initiatives • Increasing energy costs • Increased installed base (Familiarity & Successful projects) • Lowering cost due to increasingly competitive market
    6. 6. Radiant Panel SystemsBackground• Hydronic systems use water as the energy transport medium• Water has many times the thermal capacitance as compared to air
    7. 7. Radiant Panel Systems Background Modes of Heat TransferConduction Convection Radiation
    8. 8. Radiant Panel Systems Background – What is Radiation?• Heat transfer through Electromagnetic Waves between surfaces• The radiation is defined by the wave length or frequency: – Infrared / thermal radiation 0.8 – 100 μm – Solar radiation 0.3 – 3.0 μm – Light 0.4 – 0.7 μm• Only mode that can travel through a vacuum• Process for heating and cooling the EARTH
    9. 9. Radiant Panel SystemsBackground• Radiant panel systems must be combined with a ventilation system – Displacement ventilation – Traditional overhead air distribution – Active beams – Natural ventilation • Operable windows Terminology – Decoupled Ventilation Terminology – Mixed-mode Ventilation
    10. 10. Radiant Panel System Basics SystemsBackground – Construction• Steel or aluminum panel – Aluminum extrusions – Aluminum sheet metal – Steel sheet metal• Copper coil attached to panel – Integrated saddle – Mechanically attached saddle• Conductive thermal paste• Insulation• Acoustic perforations• Panels available in different styles and shapes
    11. 11. Radiant Panel System Basics SystemsBackground – How Heating Works Perimeter Radiant Ceiling Radiant Ceiling net heatnet heat = + + = transfertransfer + objects = net heat transfer
    12. 12. Radiant Panel System Basics SystemsBackground – How Cooling Works Radiant Ceiling net heatnet heat = + + = transfertransfer + objects = net heat transfer
    13. 13. Air-side System Design
    14. 14. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Overview• Meet all ventilation requirements – Min. Vent. (O/A requirements) – Remove 100% of the latent loads (Psychrometrics) – Maintain building static pressure – Supplement sensible loads**Greatest of these factors sets the minimum air flow rate**• Higher SAT may be used (Displacement Vent.) – May use heat recovery strategies for increased energy savings• Decreased AHU & Duct size• Decrease in fan energy
    15. 15. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Energy Savings• Majority of energy is saved at the FAN• Air-side Load Fraction (ALF) – The smaller the air-side load fraction, the more energy can be saved by using a radiant system Office Classroom Lobby O/A Requirement (cfm/ft2) 0.15 0.5 1Air Volume (All Air System) 1 1.5 2(cfm/ft2)Air-side Load Fraction 15% 33% 50%• Suitability engineering check - % of Sensible from CFMLatent
    16. 16. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Energy Savings
    17. 17. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignAir-side Design Principles – PsychrometricsPsychrometric review required to prevent condensationStandard Procedure: • Remove moisture from the P/A at AHU • Dry P/A lowers the space dew point temperature • To prevent condensate on the coil: Space dew point temp. < EWT
    18. 18. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Psychrometrics Option 1 Option 2 Primary air dew point 48°F 51.5°F Room air dew point 55°F 57.8°F Secondary CWT 55°F 58°F Dehumidification 0.002 lbs/lbDA 0.002 lbs/lbDA RESET FOR ENERGY SAVINGS!
    19. 19. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Psychrometrics & Region Legend: ■ Easy , Application of radiant products is natural ■ Medium , Application of radiant products requires some additional design to control building moisture ■ Difficult, Application of radiant products is more difficult and humidity must be carefully considered
    20. 20. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Design ParametersTypical Design Conditions (Cooling): S/A Space TDry Bulb: 55 - 65 F TDry Bulb: 75 F TWet Bulb: 53 - 57 F TWet Bulb: 64 F TDew point: 52 F TDew point: 58 F R.H.: 55% ΔGr = 13.64 Gr/lbTypical Design Conditions (Heating): S/A Space TDry Bulb: 65 F TDry Bulb: 70 F R.H.: 50% QL = 0.68*CFM*ΔGr Qs = 1.08*CFM*ΔT
    21. 21. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles - Considerations• Maintain reasonable dew point control – Meet 100% of latent load under Peak Design conditions • Infiltration • Maximum occupancy • Other sources of moisture• Limit over-cooling – Keep air-side load fraction low – Reset air temperature – CHWS Shut-off control or EWT reset – VAV for fluctuating occupancy
    22. 22. Radiant Panel System Basics Design Air-side Design Principles – Control Sensors • %RH sensor • Condensation sensors – Typically locate one on the supply water tubing in an area most likely to have the highest dew point – Use a sensor to shut off valve or reset EWTSensor Location Advantages DisadvantagesOn the face of the beam / panel Humidity is measured where the Integration into the beam or panel risk of room condensation is the may require increased highest. coordination. Sensor may be difficult to access for calibration.In the zone Humidity is measured at the Local spikes in the humidity may source of the moisture cause the system to be overly Sensor is easily accessible. responsive, reducing capacity.In the return duct A more average reading of the Cannot respond to local humidity zone humidity is taken, issues. maximizing the operation of the beam.
    23. 23. Radiant Panel System DesignAir-side Design Principles – Common Pitfalls• Two Air-side Design Concerns: 1) Psychrometrics (Cooling only) 2) Preliminary Design based on DOAS system
    24. 24. Water-side System Design
    25. 25. Radiant Panel System DesignWater-Side Design Principles – Overview• Responsible for majority of the sensible loads• Coil – ½” nom. Pipe with 180°bends• Design requires: – Water flow rate – Circuit pressure drop – Temperatures (EWT, MWT, LWT)• Increase in pump size and pump energy – Fan Energy vs. Pump Energy = Net energy savings
    26. 26. Radiant Panel System DesignWater-Side Design Principles – Design Parameters• Radiant Cooling: – EWT temperature, typically between 56 – 62°F • Secondary CHWS loop required – ΔT across panel, typically 4 - 6°F – Psychrometrics – (Condensation control) – Generally EWT = 2 – 3 °F above SPACE dew point temp.• Radiant Heating: – EWT temperature, typically between 120 – 180°F – ΔT across panel, typically 20 - 30°F• Minimum flow rate per circuit = 0.65 GPM – Prevent laminar flow (more important for cooling)
    27. 27. Radiant Panel System Basics Design Water-Side Design Principles – PipingWater system pressure control• Variable speed pump and differential pressure sensor• Reduces energy by lowering pump loading• Can cause imbalances in the system when not at full flow if pressure independent flow control valves are not used
    28. 28. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignWater-Side Design Principles – PipingDirect return• Length of pipe varies from supply header to return header for each unit• Change in pressure drop from one circuit to another, affects flow rates• Use balancing valves or circuit setters• Can cause imbalances in the system when not at full flow if pressure independent flow control valves are not used
    29. 29. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignWater-Side Design Principles – PipingReverse return• First supplied, last returned• Zone or array is self-balancing• Number of balancing valves can be reduced• Additional pipe length required• May require pressure independent flow control valves at mains for zone take off
    30. 30. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignWater-Side Design Principles – PipingSeries piping• Used to connect panels smaller zones• Reduced piping, valving, and balancing costs• Higher flow rate to maintain ΔT• Too many panels in series leads to reduced response and large temperature difference between 1st and last panels• 200’ total of coil piping is upper limit for ΔT and W.P.D.
    31. 31. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignWater-Side Design Principles – PipingParallel piping• Used with large panels and connecting several sets of panels in series• Reduced pressure loss• Lower flow rates to achieve ΔT• Better temperature distribution and response
    32. 32. Radiant Panel System DesignWater-Side Design Principles – Future Advancements• Integrated Reverse-Return Piping: • 30” wide – 6 pass panel • 6 interconnectors per joint vs. 2 • Uniform heat distribution
    33. 33. Radiant Panel System DesignWater-Side Design Principles – Common Pitfalls• Three water-side Design Concerns: 1) Use of Glycol as the operating fluid • Especially in cooling 2) Not considering Pressure independent flow control valves • Especially with large hydronic systems • Modulating valves • Variable frequency drive pumps 3) Valve & Entrapped air noise
    34. 34. 73F 60FRadiant Panel Capacity
    35. 35. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignHeating / Cooling Capacity• Capacity is a function of: – Emissivity of panel surface (ε= 0.9 – 0.98) • Paint Color, finish, etc. – Radiation (50-70%, Heating & Cooling) • Stefan-Boltzmann Equation – qr = 0.15x10-8 · [(tpanel+460)4 – (AUST+460)4] for ε = 0.9 – Convection (20-50%, Cooling currents from panel surfaces) – qc = 0.31 · |tpanel- tair|0.31 · (tpanel- tair) cooled ceiling surface – Location of panel • Proximity to warm / cool surfaces
    36. 36. Radiant Panel System Basics SystemsCharacteristic Radiant Field• Radiation Angle – View factor (Line of sight) – Effectiveness of radiant panels
    37. 37. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignHeating / Cooling Capacity• Selection Tables:• Cooling requires larger area of panel
    38. 38. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignHeating / Cooling Capacity• Typically active area is limited to <70% of entire ceiling area – Fire, PA System, Lighting, Ventilation services…etc – Systems can be integrated into the panels• Insulation can improve performance
    39. 39. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignPerformance Data• Applicable standards: – EN 14037: panel heating – EN 14240: panel cooling – EN 4715: previous standard – ASHRAE 138• When choosing a manufacturer, ensure they test to an applicable standard!
    40. 40. 73F 60FThermal Comfort
    41. 41. Radiant Panel System Basics DesignThermal Comfort• Radiant asymmetry: – Caused by large difference in surface temperatures • Think – Sitting by a campfire – Usually from panel in heating mode (Hot panel surface) • Modulating valve can reduce risk • Index HWS temp. relative to O/A temp. – Usually from glazing in cooling mode (Hot glass surface) • Perimeter panels in cooling mode can reduce risk• Draft: – Usually caused by improperly designed air diffusion
    42. 42. Radiant Panel System Basics Design Thermal Comfort• Radiant asymmetry – Temperature difference between opposing surfaces – < 5% People Dissatisfied – Based on average ceiling temperature – Thermostat may read proper air temp., but space may still be uncomfortable for occupant
    43. 43. Benefits & Limitations
    44. 44. Benefits & LimitationsBenefits of Radiant Systems• Energy efficiency – Significant fan energy savings • Overall reduction in S/A • Night Setback of fan• Smaller AHU & Ductwork – Lower floor-floor heights – Good retrofit applications – Significant reduction of riser space• Low maintenance• High Level of thermal comfort• Low acoustics• Custom Architectural looks
    45. 45. Benefits &System TheoryHydronic LimitationsBenefits of Radiant Systems• Energy savings on the order of 10 – 40% compared to overhead VAV systems – Ex. East Coast University Overhead VAV lab 4,107,200 +Fan Coils 10.5% Radiant ceiling with VAV lab +Fan Coil 3,676,279 + $220,000/year utility savings
    46. 46. Benefits &System TheoryHydronic LimitationsOther Benefits of Radiant Systems• Spaces may be zoned – Increased Comfort – Reduced energy consumption – Individual space temperature control (LEED Compliant)• Quick response time – Radiant panels are lightweight and have a relatively short response time (0.5°F/min) Terminology – Low Mass Radiant System
    47. 47. Benefits &System Theory Hydronic Limitations Other Benefits of Radiant Systems• Heat up response – Based on a Consulting Engineers Report – Rate of change from cooling mode – Temperature at low level rose from 70°to 82°in 21 mins. – 0.57°/min• Cool down response – Based on a Consulting Engineers Report – Rate of change from heating mode – Temperature at low level decreased from 82°to 72°in 20 mins. – 0.5°/min
    48. 48. Benefits &System TheoryHydronic LimitationsLimitations of Radiant Systems• Potential for higher first cost• Increase in pump energy • Small Compared to Fan Energy Savings• Limited air-side free cooling• Limited VAV modulating range• High importance for building humidity control in Cooling • Dehumidification at the AHU is required • May require a building envelope upgrade • May require more sophisticated controls for humidity control • May not be acceptable for all spaces, based on latent loads
    49. 49. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics Products
    50. 50. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsModular Type Radiant Panel• Tegular or T-Bar panels• Security panels
    51. 51. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsLinear Type Radiant Panel• Trimmable• Series• Mitered corners
    52. 52. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsWall Mounted Radiant Panels• Used where overhead panel systems are not available• Part of design element in space• Bull nose, Corner, or Bull nose/Corner panels
    53. 53. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsSurface Mounted Radiant Panels• Mounted to dry wall ceiling/wall in perimeter or interior• Part of design element in space• Bull nose or Corner panels
    54. 54. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsFree Hanging (Exposed) Radiant Panels• Integrate into building architecture – Open ceiling spaces (warehouses, schools, etc.) – High ceiling areas• Bull nose or Corner panels
    55. 55. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsLight Shelf Radiant Panels• Manage perimeter load• Inactive top – Allow light to penetrate (winter) or limit radiant penetration (summer)• Activate top – Frost (winter) or limit radiant penetration (summer)• Bull nose or Corner panels
    56. 56. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsChilled Sails• Architectural or concealed
    57. 57. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsCustom Linear Panels• Architectural requirements• Component integration (lights, sprinklers)• Custom sizes• Curved panels• Security panels• Hinged panels
    58. 58. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsFinish Options• Castellated• Smooth• Smooth perforated block• Smooth perforated continuous• Silk Screen match
    59. 59. Radiant Panel ProductsHydronics ProductsAccess Panels• Integrated removable inactive access sections• Hinged access panel – Simply release from grid system – Secured with cables – Flexible connection hoses
    60. 60. Applications
    61. 61. Applications • Laboratories • Long term care facilities • Office Buildings • Historical Retrofits • Hospitals – Low ceiling space • Educational facilities – Universities incld. Residence buildings• District cooling/heating plant systems are great • Higher CHWS & Lower HWS temps can help reduce “Low ΔT Syndrome” and improve efficientcies• Large buildings have a greater argument for hydronic systems • Justify equipment costs with respect to savings
    62. 62. Applications Office Space Radiant Sail Radiant Panels
    63. 63. Applications Lab/Classroom Radiant Panels
    64. 64. Applications Retail Radiant Chilled Ceiling
    65. 65. Applications Exhibition Space Radiant Chilled Ceiling
    66. 66. Applications Common Area Radiant Panel
    67. 67. Applications TheaterDesign Concerns:• Latent Load• Ceiling Heights Radiant Sails
    68. 68. Applications CasinoDesign Concerns:• Latent Load Radiant Sails
    69. 69. ApplicationsEast Coast University – Retrofit chilled ceiling• Original ceiling height 7’• Evaluated as only feasible solution for mechanical system
    70. 70. ApplicationsWest Coast – University Residence
    71. 71. ApplicationsWest Coast - High School
    72. 72. ApplicationsNorthern – Rural School
    73. 73. Applications Children’s Hospital Custom Curve Radiant Panels
    74. 74. Applications Science Center Custom fit Radiant Panels
    75. 75. ApplicationsEast Coast University – Third party activated ceiling panels
    76. 76. Questions?

    ×