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Unbiased customer interviews v022 for slideshare kall consulting

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Every person in your company that comes in contact with your customers is a potential valuable source of customer insight, or they could be misinforming your business decisions with biased information without knowing it. As user experience thinking becomes part of corporate culture, everyone is getting on the “talk with the customer” bandwagon and they need to be aware of the pitfalls, biases, and risks to information gathering.
In this talk Darren covers some of the common biases and effects that can impact customer interviews and touches on techniques to mitigate and avoid them from the Kall Consulting workshop on Customer Interviews. You don’t need to be a trained interviewer to reduce the biases in your customer contact. Benefits include simple techniques you can start using today. You can not be bias-free but you can manage the biases to increase the value of the customer insights you bring back.
Audience: Any employee who has customer contact; marketing, sales, customer support, executives, designers, customer researchers, user researchers, etc.

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Unbiased customer interviews v022 for slideshare   kall consulting Unbiased customer interviews v022 for slideshare kall consulting Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Unbiased Customer UX Review InterviewsUnbiased Customer Interviews: What insight can we trust? KALL Consulting customer and user experience design and strategy full version: 16Sep2011 © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 1
  • 2What’s the problem? Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews 1. Informed business decisions need accurate customer insight. 2. Customer interviews for insight are different than other interactions with customers. 3. People accidentally introduce biases in customer interactions. 4. These biases taint the information they bring back. 5. Business decisions are made on this tainted information. 6. Tainted decisions increase business costs unnecessarily, and result in lost revenue. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 2
  • 3Volunteers Needed Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Every customer interaction is not an interview Selling Effect Your approach can influence responses That’s not it! Effect How information is gathered makes a difference Number Bias Demand Characteristics Effect © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 3
  • 4Customer Interview Workshop Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Recording your Interviews An Interview Coach Interview Logistics Biases in Interviewing Picking an Interview Methodology Question Design Using Persona to Pre-categorize Interviewees Data Analysis and Reporting Learning to share: Customer insight database © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 4
  • 5 Biases and Effects12 Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews 1. Selling Effect 7. Confirmation Bias 2. “That’s not it!” Effect 8. Framing Effect Bias 3. Number Bias 9. Encouragement Bias 4. Demand 10. Correlation and Characteristic Effect Causality Bias 5. Scaling and Anchor 11. Ingrained Biases Biases 12. Status Quo Bias 6. Consistency Bias © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 5
  • 6 Biases and EffectsExtra Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews • Not Remaining • Recency Effect Neutral Effect • Anchor Bias • Script Bias 1 • Impact Bias • Script Bias 2 • Not Invented Here • White Lie Effect Bias • Not Listening Effect • Bandwagon Effect • Value Bias © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 6
  • 7 More Biases not Covered Today22 Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews • Ambiguity effect • Information bias • Black swans (attention) • Loss aversion bias • Choice supportive bias • Misunderstanding • Clustering illusion probability • Contrast effect • Negativity bias • Denomination effect • Omission bias • Detection bias • Overconfidence effect • Endowment effect • Reporting bias • Funding bias • Scope neglect bias • Halo effect • Unit bias • Hindsight effect • Zero-risk bias • Hyperbolic discounting • Etc. The list goes on. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 7
  • 8 or Effect NameBias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews The behavior, perception, or preference that causes the problem. How the bias gets introduced and/or what happens when it does. What you should do instead. Rationale for why people behave this way or why you should avoid this bias. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 8
  • 9Selling Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 9
  • 10 EffectSelling Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Selling your product or your idea instead of interviewing. Customers respond to pitch, not to the interview. Your insight is limited. Don’t sell. Save the selling for another interaction. You’re not there to sell. Youre trying to understand who the customer is in order to get insight into their world. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 10
  • 11 not it!” Effect“That’s Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 11
  • 12 not it!” Effect“That’s Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Correcting, demeaning, blaming, etc. the customer. Treating the customer this way gets them defensive or shuts them down. Dont be corrective or pedantic. Reward the customer for telling you things even if you disagree with them. Clarify your understanding, capture the ideas, and move on. The customer has their opinions and ideas. A customer interview is not the place to be correcting them, even if the idea is something the company will never do or that you disagree with. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 12
  • 13Number Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 13
  • 14Number Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Thinking and reporting of numbers is highly influenced without awareness. 13 People avoid some numbers. They “round” numbers to align with their base system. Different cultures have different biases. If asked for a number, people will make up answers. Be aware that the numbers you get back are not absolute but are shaped. They are not data. Culture, base 10, 6, 8 or 60 numbering systems, whole numbers over fractions, having 24 hours, 7 days, all frame the number bias. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 14
  • 15Demand Characteristics Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 15
  • 16Demand Characteristics Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews You provide cues to your purpose and interviewees give you a “right” answer. You don’t get a true answer, you get the biased answer you “ask” for. Remove demand characteristics, encourage open and difficult responses. Only by eliminating the expectation of a “right” answer can you get to unbiased answers. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 16
  • 17 and Anchors BiasesScaling Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 17
  • 18 and Anchors BiasesScaling Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Making up scaling anchors, making up scales, changing scales. Introduces biases in customer answers, make interpretation impossible. Get an expert to build your scales and set anchors. Don’t make them up, change them, or try to be funny. Inappropriate scales, changing them, etc. makes them meaningless and impossible to compare. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 18
  • 19Consistency Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 19
  • 20Consistency Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Filtering out information accidentally to make things consistent. Extrapolating from one example to all cases. Conclusions drawn won’t reflect the reality of the customer’s variety. Report what you observe not what you want to see. Report all that you observe. Forcing consistency where it does not exist is biasing the information. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 20
  • 21Confirmation Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 21
  • 22Confirmation Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 22
  • 23Confirmation Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Find only supportive information, interpret or avoid contradictions to fit your idea. You only report supporting information and you don’t SEE what you filtered out with your bias. Attempt to capture everything and make fair assessments. Get someone else to review your interview recordings. Confirmation bias is ingrained and hard to undo without conscious attention and practice. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 23
  • 24Framing Effect Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 24
  • 25Framing Effect Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews 600 People with a fatal disease Drug A saves 200 peoples lives Drug B has a 33% chance of saving all 600 people and a 66% possibility of saving no one © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 25
  • 26Framing Effect Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews 600 People with a fatal disease If Drug C is taken, then 400 people die If Drug D is taken, then there is a 33% chance that no people will die and a 66% probability that all 600 will die © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 26
  • 27Framing Effect Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Framing a question or choice in a way that manipulates its perceived value. How a question or choice is presented biases the listener’s answers. Get an expert question designer to review your question script. Explore different ways to present the question to see if it influences the answer. Framing effects work because of human nature preferring gain over loss, certainty over doubt, positive over negative. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 27
  • 28Encouragement Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 28
  • 29Encouragement Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Encouraging a particular result, giving “good answer” cues. Responses can be biased and shaped in one direction or another. Don’t reveal desired goal, don’t reward positive or punish negative responses; or vice versa. Remain consistent customer to customer. Encouragement sends information to the user as to the desired outcome and they may respond without even being aware. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 29
  • 30Correlation and Causality Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 30
  • 31Correlation and Causality Bias Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Assuming that because things occur together, or close in time, that one causes the other. When you ask interviewees for root causes they will report correlations which may not be the true root cause. Correlations do not imply causality. Consider but don’t blindly accept the rationale without triangulation. General rules (heuristics) are built from experience and applied incorrectly to all occasions. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 31
  • 32Ingrained Biases Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 32
  • 33Ingrained Biases Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Cultural, gender, national, geographic and other backgrounds bias behavior, preferences, and perceptions. Both interviewers and interviewees respond to each other filtered with these biases. Mitigate your own ingrained biases as much as possible. Counter balance interviewers. Use interviewers from the same culture and country. You can’t get away from your accent or other culture you wear. You cannot control how others see you. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 33
  • 34 Quo BiasStatus Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 34
  • 35 Quo BiasStatus Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Some people you will interview will have a preference to keep things as they are regardless of what you are proposing. This biases the response away from new things that will introduce change even if they are better options giving them false values. Understand the motivations and loss for this persona and address them. Study on rats, cheese, hunger and shock grid: status quo tipping point. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 35
  • 36 Biases and EffectsExtra Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews • Not Remaining • Recency Effect Neutral Effect • Anchor Bias • Script Bias 1 • Impact Bias • Script Bias 2 • Not Invented Here • White Lie Effect Bias • Not Listening Effect • Bandwagon Effect • Value Bias © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 36
  • 37 Bias 1Script Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 37
  • 38 Bias 1Script Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Skipping questions in the script and improvising question variations. Skipping questions and significant improvisation force biases in analysis when combining information. Hit all the questions. Dont improvise too much or you wont have fair comparisons. These are parts of normal conversation but interviews are not normal conversations. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 38
  • 39 Bias 2Script Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 39
  • 40 Bias 2Script Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Ignoring or cutting off customer attempts to roam away from script. You can miss gems of insight. You are blind-sided by your focus/belief in your survey and your bias limits the scope of information. Allow enough time to let the customer lead you “off track”. Explore, evaluate, capture, then get them back on track. The best stuff may be in what the customer knows that you did not think to ask about. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 40
  • 41 Lie EffectWhite Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 41
  • 42 Lie EffectWhite Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Telling white lies for approval, support, encouragement, etc .. Lies introduce biases in future responses since based on falsehoods. Dont lie. Dont make false promises. Don’t confirm just because they ask. White lies seem like a kindness or an easy avoidance but they have a devastating effect on the value of the information. And you have to remember your lie. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 42
  • 43 Listening EffectNot Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 43
  • 44 Listening EffectNot Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Allowing interruptions such as email, or thinking of next appointment, to shift your focus from the customer. This biases the customer against you and changes their responses. Stay focused. Take break if need one. Reschedule if needed. Actively listen. If you’re not listening, you’re missing things. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 44
  • 45 BiasValue Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 45
  • 46 BiasValue Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Using customer information as a weapon. It and your conclusions are complete perfect answers. This blinds you to alternatives, gives you false confidence in partial information, & shuts down other people. Do interviews, bring back impressions, draw conclusions and innovate ideas. But don’t treat them as data and facts. They are only impressions; treat them that way. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 46
  • 47 Remaining Neutral EffectNot Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 47
  • 48 Remaining Neutral EffectNot Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Show positive or negative reactions to customer responses, opinions, or actions. Giving feedback teaches the customer too much about your views, and biases their responses. Remain neutral and indifferent to their answers, opinions, etc. Remain calm and non-committal. Show no value reactions. It is human nature to give feedback but doing so taints responses. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 48
  • 49Recency Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 49
  • 50Recency Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Human memory biases toward the last item in lists being remembered better. The most recent interview or last comments will influence your conclusions or reporting of findings more. Take notes on all interviews, review all materials when doing analysis. This is a core way human memory works along with the Primacy Effect. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 50
  • 51 BiasAnchor Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 51
  • 52 BiasAnchor Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Interviewees focus on one aspect (speed, color, size, etc.) and give it more importance making it a reference or anchor for all other comparisons. People are biased by this one aspect skewing all their responses. Discover and dismiss the anchor “Ignoring color…”. Use paired comparisons. Define the anchor instead. First exposed or obvious aspects often become the comparison for all other judgments. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 52
  • 53 BiasImpact Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 53
  • 54 BiasImpact Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews When people make judgments of future impacts they exaggerate both the positive and negative aspects. The estimates you get back are biased to overestimation in both directions. This is not data, it is perspective and opinion information that you should note on questions where you asked for judgments of future impact. This is a natural tendency without awareness. People believe the numbers they give you. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 54
  • 55 Invented Here BiasNot Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 55
  • 56 Invented Here BiasNot Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Bias in interviewees and interviewers that what we create is better than what someone else creates. Interviewees give false feedback on ideas that are not theirs. Interviewers miss better solutions that customers may create. Be aware of biases on both sides and keep consideration open. There are many reasons: fear of unknown, unwilling to value others, lack of control, etc. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 56
  • 57Bandwagon Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 57
  • 58Bandwagon Effect Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Some people influence group opinion and others adopt it. Strong personalities can influence people interviewed in groups. Not always a bad thing. If you want unbiased opinions, interview alone. If you want to generate conversation to get more information, use a group. Group dynamics influence, behaviors, perceptions and preferences. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 58
  • 59 Consulting SpecialtiesKALL Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Product and Service Development and Improvement: Applying user experience techniques to the end-to-end customer and user experience design Product Integration: Integrating the functionality of multiple products, combining several products into one product, and integrating acquired products into a product family Merger and Acquisition User Experience: User experience evaluations in due diligence for buyers, user experience strategy as part of long term exit plan strategy for sellers, integration of products post M&A © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 59
  • 60Caution Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews What I’ve told you about today can also be used for eviL Please don’t. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 60
  • 61 YouThank Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews Darren Kall • darrenkall@kallconsulting.com • http://www.linkedin.com/in/darrenkall • @darrenkall • +1 (937) 648-4966 I’m glad to help your company become more customer and user-centric. © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 61
  • 62 CreditsPhoto Unbiased Customer UX Review Interviews blood splat http://www.centrepatriotes.com clock http://www.armyproperty.com/Resources/NSN-Listings/Clocks.htm salesman http://www.expressionsofexcellence.com/GIFs/creative_selling.gif buttons http://dragonlily.com.au/shop/popup_image.php?pID=154 script http://www.hearingreview.com/issues/articles/2003-10_02.asp wrangler round up http://www.thebigquestions.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/roundup.jpg liar http://www.mediabistro.com/fishbowldc/files/original/art_lie.jpg scolding teacher http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_NjXJS2YMaYw/SyBiwnntCkI/AAAAAAAAAGY/hZjiRbF4TZg/s200/scold.gif ear bud yeller http://quickbase.intuit.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/92038203_5d8d68f920.jpg knowledge is power cartoon http://llenrock.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/knowledge-is-power.gif Home Depot survey http://www.homedepotopinion.com/ neutral shirt http://www.zazzle.com/ Rosie riveter http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosie_the_Riveter confirmation bias http://www.agenarisk.com/resources/probability_puzzles/confirmation_bias.shtml matrix choices http://imo-networker.com/two-roads-to-take/ brick framed http://twistedphysics.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8341c9c1053ef0148c85e67e9970c-pi brain http://www.internettime.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/brain-300x226.png anchor http://www.boatweb.com.au/images/admiralty.gif fear status quo http://writingcreativenonfiction.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/fear-of-change.jpg bingo balls http://www.bingo-balls.com/ family circus cartoon http://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/wp-content/uploads/causation-v-correlation-cartoon-246x300.gif cultural bias faces http://news.brown.edu/node/10388?size=large flying car http://www.metro.co.uk/weird/58822-flying-cars-are-here-at-last bridge jumpers http://diyblogger.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/jumping_bridge.jpg © Kall Consulting 2011 --- +1 937-648-4966 --- darrenkall@kallconsulting.com 62