Electricity in nepal


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Electricity in nepal

  1. 1. Submitted To: Khagendra Timilsina Presented By: Leopards The electric bill won‟t give you a fright if you remember to turn off the light Electricity In Nepal
  2. 2. Nepal has a huge hydropower potential. In fact, the perennial nature of Nepali rivers and the steep gradient of the country's topography provide ideal conditions for the development of some of the world's largest hydroelectric projects in Nepal. Current estimates are that Nepal has approximately 40,000 MW of economically feasible hydropower potential. However, the present situation is that Nepal has developed only approximately 600 MW of hydropower. Therefore, bulk of the economically feasible generation has not been realized yet. Besides, the multipurpose, secondary and tertiary benefits have not been realized from the development of its rivers. Hydropower In Nepal Although bestowed with tremendous hydropower resources, only about 40% of Nepal's population has access to electricity. Most of the power plants in Nepal are run-of-river type with energy available in excess of the in-country demand during the monsoon season and deficit during the dry season. Nepal's electricity generation is dominated by hydropower, though in the entire scenario of energy use of the country, the electricity is a tiny fraction, only 1% energy need is fulfilled by electricity. The bulk of the energy need is dominated by fuel wood (68%), agricultural waste (15%), animal dung (8%) and imported fossil fuel (8%). The other fact is that only about 40% of Nepal's population has access to electricity. With this scenario and having immense potential of hydropower development, it is important for Nepal to increase its energy dependency on electricity with hydropower development. This contributes to deforestation, soil erosion and depletion, and increased flooding downstream in the Ganges plain
  3. 3. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 HydroPower Imported Fossil Fuel Animal Dung Fuel Wood Agricultural Waste 1 8 8 68 15 Uses Of Fuels HydroPower Imported Fossil Fuel Animal Dung Fuel Wood Agricultural Waste Uses Of Fuels
  4. 4. Energy Consumption in Nepal The electricity demand in Nepal is increasing by about 7-9% per year. About 40 % of population in Nepal has access to electricity through the grid and off grid system. Nepal's Tenth Five Year Plan (2002– 2007) aims to extend the electrification within country and export to India for mutual benefit. The new Hydropower Policy 2001 seeks to promote private sector investment in the sector of hydropower development and aims to expand the electrification within the country and export. The hydropower system in Nepal is dominated by run-of-river Projects. There is only one seasonal storage project in the system. There is shortage of power during winter and spill during wet season. The load factor is quite low as the majority of the consumption is dominated by household use. This imbalance has clearly shown the need for storage projects, and hence, cooperation between the two neighbouring countries is essential for the best use of the hydro resource for mutual benefit. The system loss is one of the major issues to be addressed to improve the power system which accounts to be 25 % including technical and non-technical losses like pilferage.
  5. 5. STATUS OF POWER GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION Nepal has 600 MW of installed capacity in its Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS). The power system is dominated by the hydropower which contributes about 90 % of the system and the balance is met by multi fuel plant. The hydropower development in Nepal began with the development of 500 kW Pharping power plant in 1911. The most recent significant power plant commissioned is the 144-MW Kali Gandaki “A” Hydroelectric Plant. Until 1990, hydropower development was under the domain of government utility, Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) only. However, with the enactment of new Hydropower Development Policy 1992, the sector was opened to the private sector also. There are number of projects already built by the private developers. Private power producers contribute 148 MW of power to the „Integrated Nepal Power System'. The major hydropower plants with their capacity are listed in the table as follows:
  6. 6. WHY CAN'T NEPAL PRODUCE ENOUGH POWER ? Due to lack of electricity, many parts of Nepal share electricity. Ask any Nepali who lives here if they like the word - Load Shedding, a term commonly used in Radio/Tv’s and Publications to notify public of schedule of electricity for the coming week. Nepal has extreme land. Transportation for any construction in rural parts of Nepal is a major challenge. Many major hydropower projects require years, if not decades. Nepal realizes the problem and the need to generate electricity quickly. So, small hydropower projects, which can be done by small farmers or a group of villages, are being constructed across Nepal.
  7. 7. IS NEPAL ALL HYDRO POWER NATION? There are a few diesel power in the country. But many would like to say that Nepal is completely a hydropower nation given the comparison of projects by their capacity. Diesel-power comprises of less than 4% of the total projects and hence often is ignored. Nepal needs to import fuel/diesel from India, since it doesn't have oil. Diesel-power is expensive for this nation also Nepal doesn't need any diesel-powers if it can establish hydropower, for which, locations are in abundant Hydro power project is a big - it requires lots of manpower and money. Construction of various complex structures, Transportation of building materials, machines are key tasks which require lots of time in planning and operation. Most Government run projects are funded by donations and/or loans from foreign countries. The word Hydropower means Water Powered Electricity; Hydro means Water and Power is the Electricity. The electricity is generated by the currents of waters from rivers in the country. Project also requires great planning for electricity distribution. Of all the projects in Nepal, these are the biggest of all.
  8. 8. Even as we write here, many are currently working, others have completed their projects and many fold projects are proposed everyday!!. By the Year 2001, Number of major hydropower Projects completed is 18 and number of projects proposed is 28. And by the same period, over 45 Small hydropower projects were located throughout the country, providing electricity to otherwise rural areas such Dhading, Dolpa, Helambu. Hydropower business is a great way for Nepal to progress - It has the potential to uplift poverty, provide electricity to every household and even allow Nepal to sell electricity to other countries. Popularity of Hydropower comes closer to becoming Nepal's third most important business for earning foreign-revenue and every year, lots of foreign companies visit Nepal for project studies. IS NEPAL ALL HYDRO POWER NATION?
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