Ageing in world


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Ageing in world

  1. 1. Agein g Ageing is not lost youth but a new stage of opportunity and strength. Submitted To: Mr. Udit Chhetri
  2. 2. Introduction To Ageing Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the accumulation of changes in a person over time. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change.
  3. 3. Introduction To Ageing Some dimensions of ageing grow and expand over time, while others decline. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Research shows that even late in life, potential exists for physical, mental, and social growth and development. Ageing is an important part of all human societies reflecting the biological changes that occur, but also reflecting cultural and societal conventions. Roughly 100,000 people worldwide die each day of age-related causes.
  4. 4. Population ageing Population ageing is the increase in the number and proportion of older people in society. Population ageing has three possible causes: migration, longer life expectancy (decreased death rate), and decreased birth rate. Ageing has a significant impact on society. Young people tend to commit most crimes, they are more likely to push for political and social change, to develop and adopt new technologies, and to need education.
  5. 5. Population ageing Older people have different requirements from society and government as opposed to young people, and frequently differing values as well. Older people are also far more likely to vote, and in many countries the young are forbidden from voting. Thus, the aged have comparatively more political influence.
  6. 6. Senescence In biology, senescence is the state or process of ageing. Cellular senescence is a phenomenon where isolated cells demonstrate a limited ability to divide in culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961), while organismal senescence is the ageing of organisms. After a period of near perfect renewal (in humans, between 20 and 35 years of age), organismal senescence is characterised by the declining ability to respond to stress, increasing homeostatic imbalance and increased risk of disease.
  7. 7. Senescence This currently irreversible series of changes inevitably ends in death. Some researchers are treating ageing as a disease. As genes that have an effect on ageing are discovered, ageing is increasingly being regarded in a similar fashion to other genetically influenced "conditions", potentially "treatable". Some claim aging is an avoidable property of life, that it is the result of a genetic program. Numerous species show very low signs of aging ("negligible senescence"), the best known being trees like the bristlecone pine (however Hayflick states that the bristlecone pine has no cells older than 30 years), fish like the sturgeon and the rockfish, invertebrates like the quahog and sea anemone
  8. 8. Dividing the lifespan  An animal's life is often divided into various age ranges. However, because biological changes are slow-moving and can vary within one's own species, arbitrary dates are usually set to mark periods of life. The human divisions given below are not valid in all cultures:  Juvenile (via infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence): 0–19  Early adulthood: 20–39  Middle adulthood: 40–59
  9. 9. Dividing the lifespan People from 13 to 19 years of age are also known as teens or teenagers. Tween or Twelvie is an American neologism referring to someone aged 10 through 12. The casual terms "twentysomething", "thirtysomething", etc. are also in use to describe people by decades of age, along with the systematic terms "vicenarian", "tricenarian", "quadragenarian" etc.
  10. 10. Successful ageing  The concept of successful ageing can be traced back to the 1950s, and was popularised in the 1980s. Previous research into ageing exaggerated the extent to which health disabilities, such as diabetes or osteoporosis, could be attributed exclusively to age, and research in gerontology exaggerated the homogeneity of samples of elderly people.  Successful ageing consists of three components:  Low probability of disease or disability;  High cognitive and physical function capacity;  Active engagement with life.
  11. 11. Successful ageing Successful ageing may be viewed an interdisciplinary concept, spanning both psychology and sociology, where it is seen as the transaction between society and individuals across the life span with specific focus on the later years of life. The terms "healthy ageing" and "optimal ageing" have been proposed as alternatives to successful ageing, partly because the term "successful ageing" has been criticised for making healthy ageing sound too competitive.
  12. 12. Successful Ageing Six suggested dimensions of successful ageing include:  No physical disability over the age of 75 as rated by a physician;  Good subjective health assessment (i.e. good self-ratings of one's health);  Length of undissembled life;  Good mental health;  Objective social support;  Self-rated life satisfaction in eight domains, namely marriage, income-related work, children, friendship and social contacts, hobbies, community service activities, religion and recreation/sports.
  13. 13. Causes Of Ageing Ageing is caused by various reasons and They are given below:  Decrease in Immunity Power.  Decline of cells resulting weakness.  Decrease in physical strength and power.  Increase in mental tension.  Lack of proper care, nutrition and immunization during childhood.  Getting sick to large extent.  Lack of adjustment and adaptation.  Overwork which leads to tear of the body.
  14. 14. Changes Seen in Ageing Period Many Changes take place during the old age. Some changes occur fast while some take place slowly. The changes seen in ageing are described below:  Physical Changes  Mental Changes  Emotional Changes  Social Changes  Economic Changes
  15. 15. Physical Changes: o Weak ness of immune system. o Decrease in vision, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, hearing power and so on. o Wrinkling Of Face. o Backbone is weak and bending occurs. o Leading to fatigue. o Flexibility and alertness decrease. o General dryness and easily susceptible to diseases. o Decrease in reproduction hormones, leading to menopause and sexual disability. o Digestion takes long time. o Taste buds become ineffective. o Diminishing touch sensation. Changes Seen in Ageing Period
  16. 16. Mental Changes: • Loss of memory power. • Always anxious towards the dark future and altered young generation. • Creativity level decreases in them. • Decrease in decision making capacity. • Inclined more to religiosity and superstition. Changes Seen in Ageing Period
  17. 17. Emotional Changes:  Easily irritative.  Sense of apathy increases. They feel neglected even in simple matters.  Desire more to expose the past the recurring nostalgia (happiness or longing) makes them sad. Changes Seen in Ageing Period
  18. 18. Social Changes:  Desire more to mix with the peer of contemporary era.  Loss of spouse and friends evokes the sense of loneliness.  Hungry of affection and respect from the family and society. Changes Seen in Ageing Period
  19. 19. Economic changes:  Dependent upon other.  Loss of job and the problem of income arise as they reach the retirement age. Changes Seen in Ageing Period