•Allport’s Trait theory
•Catell’s Culture based system’s
•Eyesenck’s Biological theory
•Big Five Theory of Personality
A trait is a characteristic pattern of behavior or
conscious motive which can be self-assessed or
assessed by peers
The term type is used to identify a certain
collection of traits that make up a broad,
general personality classification
at birth the infant is almost entirely a
creature of heredity
with growing maturity, we become
increasingly active, creative, self-reliant,
and characteristically rational, largely as
a result of learning experiences
The proprium or self, and how they are
shaped as the self continues to develop as the
person proceeds through the lifespan.
Concept of Cardinal, Central, and Secondary
A Humanistic View of Personality
•Personality is the dynamic organization
within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his
characteristic behavior and thought
•person is in a state of becoming
traits are the key structures within the self; traits
initiate and direct the individual’s behavior in unique
system(peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to
render many stimuli
functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide
consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive
•Characteristics that are pervasive
and dominant in a person’s life
•These are master motives, ruling
passions, eminent traits.
•Characteristics that control less of a
person’s behavior but are nevertheless
Descriptions of people-intelligent,
sincere, kind, possessive, competitive,
ambitious, funny, and honest.
•Characteristics that are peripheral to
•Such traits are generally less important,
less conspicuous, less generalized, and
less often called into play than central
Common traits are categories for classifying
groups of people on a particular dimension
e.g. some people are more dominant than
others or that some people are more polite
The Personal Disposition is a unique
characteristic of the person, a trait not
shared with others.
Substituting the term proprium for self,
Allport used it to mean a sense of what
is “peculiarly ours,” including “all
aspects of personality that make for
The proprium, or self, develops
continuously from infancy to death and
moves through a series of stages.
The bodily self-Infancy
Self-identity—by around 18 months
Self-esteem-2nd or 3rd year
Self-extension--4 to 6 years
The self-as-rational-coper--6-12 years
Propriate striving- adolescence onwards
The self-as-knower—able to integrate all the
aspects of the proprium
•The development of the mature
personality takes time, he believed, so
that only the adult is capable of coming
close to self-realization.
As their propriums develop, children
also learn to protect themselves against
threats through the use of various
Early childhood-Peripheral motives
Later, as the proprium develops, there is a
shift from this type of motivation and learning
toward propriate strivings .
“Functional autonomy regards adult motives
as varied and as self-sustaining, contemporary
systems growing out of antecedent systems
but functionally independent of them”
1. Extension of the sense of self-participate
in activities that go beyond themselves.
2. Warm relatedness to others—intimacy and
3. Self-acceptance--emotionally secure.
4. Realistic perception of reality--do not
continually distort reality .
5. Self-objectification--insight into their own
abilities and limitations
commitment to religious beliefs can help organize and
give constructive meaning to our lives
Extrinsic religious orientations with immaturity-use
their religion as a means to an end
Intrinsic religious orientations with maturity-as ends
Religious Orientation Scale (Allport and Ross, 1967) a
measure of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity based on
Allport’s original conceptualization.
1.Theoretical: Focus on the discovery of truth, and
interests that are empirical, critical, and rational.
2. Economic: Focus on usefulness and being practical.
3. Aesthetic: Focus on form and harmony, and interests in
the artistic side of life.
4. Social: Focus on the altruistic love of others, and a
tendency to be kind, sympathetic, and unselfish.
5. Political: Focus on power over others, dominance,
influence, and social recognition.
6. Religious: Focus on unity, and a tendency to seek to
comprehend he cosmos as a whole.
male adolescents and young adults scored higher on the
theoretical, economic, and political values
females scored higher on the aesthetic, social, and religious
1.Constitutional and physiological diagnosis
2.studies of sociocultural membership status, and roles
3. personal documents and case studies
4.self-appraisal techniques, such as self-ratings and Q-sorts
5.conduct samplings, such as behavior assessments in
everyday situations +observer ratings personality tests and scales
7.depth analysis, such as free association and dream
8. Synaptic measures
9. Idiographic approach to measuring personality
Catell was influenced by great psychologists/psychometricians of
the Era -Spearman, G. Stanley Hall, Thorndike, William
personality as a system in relation to the environment, and seeks
to explain the complicated transactions between them as they
produce change and sometimes growth in the person
begin with empirical observation and description and, on this
basis, to generate a tentative rough hypothesis.
Cattell relied heavily on factor analysis—
procedure used to isolate and identify a
limited number of factors that underlie a
larger group of observed, interrelated
Surface vs Source traits
Cattell defined personality as “that which
tells what [a person] will do when placed
in a given situation”
R =f(S, P)
Constitutional traits vs EnvironmentalMold Traits
Ability Traits, Temperament Traits, and
Common vs Unique traits
Surface traits are “simply a collection of
trait elements, of greater or lesser width
of representation which obviously‘ go
together’ in many different individuals
A source trait, in contrast, is the
underlying factor that controls the
variation in the surface cluster
Cattell began by examining the 4500 trait
names found in the English language by
Allport and Odbert.
Reduced them down by eliminating
synonyms to 171
By observer ratings by experts-46 surface
16 primary factors or major source traits These 16 basic traits were then used in
Questionnaire( from A to Q)
1. Life data (or L-data)- data from the
individual’s natural, everyday life behaviors,
measuring their characteristic behavior
patterns in the real world.
2. Experimental data (or T-data) -which
experimental situations created in a lab
where a subject’s behavior can be objectively
observed and measured.
3. Questionnaire data
(or Q-data), which
involves responses based on introspection by
the individual about their own behavior and
an Erg is an innate drive triggered by stimuli in
the environment that ceases when its goal is
Attitudes as specific interests in particular
courses of action toward certain objects in a
Sentiments are large, complex attitudes. They
incorporate a host of interests, opinions, and
Dynamic traits are organized in complex ways
within the cognitive and motivational structure
of the organism, and form a Dynamic Lattice.
Subsidiation—the process whereby certain
dynamic traits are subsidiary to (or dependent
on) other traits.
The Dynamic Lattice describes a complicated and
often bewildering intertwining of interests,
attitudes, sentiments, goals, and drives.
Heredity and Environment- prenatal
Classical Conditioning- Fears and inhibitions
Instrumental conditioning-personality learning
Integration learning-form of cognitive and
instrumental learning in which the developing
person uses ego and superego processes to
maximize long-term satisfactions.
Cattell sought to develop quantitative
techniques to aid the therapist in
diagnosis and treatment
Clinical Analysis Questionnaire