Trait approach


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Trait approach

  1. 1. •Allport’s Trait theory •Catell’s Culture based system’s theory •Eyesenck’s Biological theory •Big Five Theory of Personality
  2. 2. A trait is a characteristic pattern of behavior or conscious motive which can be self-assessed or assessed by peers The term type is used to identify a certain collection of traits that make up a broad, general personality classification
  3. 3. at birth the infant is almost entirely a creature of heredity with growing maturity, we become increasingly active, creative, self-reliant, and characteristically rational, largely as a result of learning experiences
  4. 4. The proprium or self, and how they are shaped as the self continues to develop as the person proceeds through the lifespan. Concept of Cardinal, Central, and Secondary Traits Personal dispositions Values
  5. 5. A Humanistic View of Personality •Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought •person is in a state of becoming
  6. 6. traits are the key structures within the self; traits initiate and direct the individual’s behavior in unique ways. “a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system(peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior”
  7. 7. •Characteristics that are pervasive and dominant in a person’s life •These are master motives, ruling passions, eminent traits.
  8. 8. •Characteristics that control less of a person’s behavior but are nevertheless important Descriptions of people-intelligent, sincere, kind, possessive, competitive, ambitious, funny, and honest.
  9. 9. •Characteristics that are peripheral to the person––preferences •Such traits are generally less important, less conspicuous, less generalized, and less often called into play than central traits.
  10. 10. Common traits are categories for classifying groups of people on a particular dimension e.g. some people are more dominant than others or that some people are more polite than others. The Personal Disposition is a unique characteristic of the person, a trait not shared with others.
  11. 11. Substituting the term proprium for self, Allport used it to mean a sense of what is “peculiarly ours,” including “all aspects of personality that make for inward unity” The proprium, or self, develops continuously from infancy to death and moves through a series of stages.
  12. 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The bodily self-Infancy Self-identity—by around 18 months Self-esteem-2nd or 3rd year Self-extension--4 to 6 years Self-image The self-as-rational-coper--6-12 years Propriate striving- adolescence onwards The self-as-knower—able to integrate all the aspects of the proprium
  13. 13. •The development of the mature personality takes time, he believed, so that only the adult is capable of coming close to self-realization. As their propriums develop, children also learn to protect themselves against threats through the use of various defensive strategies
  14. 14. Early childhood-Peripheral motives Later, as the proprium develops, there is a shift from this type of motivation and learning toward propriate strivings . “Functional autonomy regards adult motives as varied and as self-sustaining, contemporary systems growing out of antecedent systems but functionally independent of them”
  15. 15. 1. Extension of the sense of self-participate in activities that go beyond themselves. 2. Warm relatedness to others—intimacy and compassion 3. Self-acceptance--emotionally secure. 4. Realistic perception of reality--do not continually distort reality . 5. Self-objectification--insight into their own abilities and limitations
  16. 16. commitment to religious beliefs can help organize and give constructive meaning to our lives Extrinsic religious orientations with immaturity-use their religion as a means to an end Intrinsic religious orientations with maturity-as ends in themselves. Religious Orientation Scale (Allport and Ross, 1967) a measure of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity based on Allport’s original conceptualization.
  17. 17. 1.Theoretical: Focus on the discovery of truth, and interests that are empirical, critical, and rational. 2. Economic: Focus on usefulness and being practical. 3. Aesthetic: Focus on form and harmony, and interests in the artistic side of life. 4. Social: Focus on the altruistic love of others, and a tendency to be kind, sympathetic, and unselfish. 5. Political: Focus on power over others, dominance, influence, and social recognition. 6. Religious: Focus on unity, and a tendency to seek to comprehend he cosmos as a whole.
  18. 18. male adolescents and young adults scored higher on the theoretical, economic, and political values females scored higher on the aesthetic, social, and religious values
  19. 19. 1.Constitutional and physiological diagnosis 2.studies of sociocultural membership status, and roles 3. personal documents and case studies 4.self-appraisal techniques, such as self-ratings and Q-sorts 5.conduct samplings, such as behavior assessments in everyday situations +observer ratings personality tests and scales 6.projective tests 7.depth analysis, such as free association and dream Analysis 8. Synaptic measures 9. Idiographic approach to measuring personality
  20. 20. Catell was influenced by great psychologists/psychometricians of the Era -Spearman, G. Stanley Hall, Thorndike, William McDougall personality as a system in relation to the environment, and seeks to explain the complicated transactions between them as they produce change and sometimes growth in the person begin with empirical observation and description and, on this basis, to generate a tentative rough hypothesis. inductive-hypothetico-deductive spiral
  21. 21. Cattell relied heavily on factor analysis— a highly complicated statistical procedure used to isolate and identify a limited number of factors that underlie a larger group of observed, interrelated variables Surface vs Source traits
  22. 22. Cattell defined personality as “that which tells what [a person] will do when placed in a given situation” R =f(S, P) Constitutional traits vs EnvironmentalMold Traits Multiple abstract (MAVA)-Catell variance analysis
  23. 23. Ability Traits, Temperament Traits, and Dynamic Traits Common vs Unique traits Surface traits are “simply a collection of trait elements, of greater or lesser width of representation which obviously‘ go together’ in many different individuals and circumstances” A source trait, in contrast, is the underlying factor that controls the variation in the surface cluster
  24. 24. Cattell began by examining the 4500 trait names found in the English language by Allport and Odbert. Reduced them down by eliminating synonyms to 171 By observer ratings by experts-46 surface traits 16 primary factors or major source traits These 16 basic traits were then used in the construction of the Sixteen Personality Factor (16 PF) Questionnaire( from A to Q)
  25. 25. 1. Life data (or L-data)- data from the individual’s natural, everyday life behaviors, measuring their characteristic behavior patterns in the real world. 2. Experimental data (or T-data) -which involves reactions to standardized experimental situations created in a lab where a subject’s behavior can be objectively observed and measured. 3. Questionnaire data (or Q-data), which involves responses based on introspection by the individual about their own behavior and feelings
  26. 26. (A) Reasoning Ability (B) Emotional Stability (C) Dominance (E) Liveliness (F) Rule Consciousness (G) Social Boldness (H) Sensitivity (I),Vigilance (L),Abstractedness (M), Privateness (N), Apprehension (O), Openness to Change (Q1), Selfreliance (Q2), Perfectionism (Q3), and Tension (Q4).
  27. 27. an Erg is an innate drive triggered by stimuli in the environment that ceases when its goal is reached. Attitudes as specific interests in particular courses of action toward certain objects in a given situation Sentiments are large, complex attitudes. They incorporate a host of interests, opinions, and minor attitudes.
  28. 28. Dynamic traits are organized in complex ways within the cognitive and motivational structure of the organism, and form a Dynamic Lattice. Subsidiation—the process whereby certain dynamic traits are subsidiary to (or dependent on) other traits. Ergs↦Attitudes↦Sentiments The Dynamic Lattice describes a complicated and often bewildering intertwining of interests, attitudes, sentiments, goals, and drives.
  29. 29. Heredity and Environment- prenatal development, maturation Classical Conditioning- Fears and inhibitions Instrumental conditioning-personality learning Integration learning-form of cognitive and instrumental learning in which the developing person uses ego and superego processes to maximize long-term satisfactions.
  30. 30. Cattell sought to develop quantitative techniques to aid the therapist in diagnosis and treatment Clinical Analysis Questionnaire