Motivation and emotion


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Motivation and emotion

  1. 1. Motivation and Emotion
  2. 2. Motivation • Instinct Theory: we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors. • But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors. Click on the fish to watch it’s instinctual behavior.
  3. 3. Drive Reduction Theory • Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS. • Wants to maintain homeostasis. • When we are not, we have a need that creates a drive. • Primary versus Secondary drives
  4. 4. Arousal Theory • We are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal. • Yerkes-Dodson Law
  5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Abraham Maslow said we are motivated by needs, and all needs are not created equal. • We are driven to satisfy the lower level needs first.
  6. 6. Motivation of HUNGER
  7. 7. Biological Basis of Hunger • Hunger does NOT come from our stomach. It comes from our… • Brain What part of the brain? • The Hypothalamus
  8. 8. Hypothalamus Lateral Hypothalamus • When stimulated it makes you hungry. • When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again. Ventromedial Hypothalamus • When stimulated you feel full. • When lesioned you will never feel full again.
  9. 9. Set Point Theory • The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat. • Wants to maintain a stable weight. • Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight. • Leptin theory
  10. 10. Body Chemistry • Glucose • The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat. • When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
  11. 11. Psychological Aspects of Hunger • Internals versus Externals • The Garcia Effect
  12. 12. Culture and Hunger
  13. 13. Dog Mice Wine Fried Frog Legs Criadillas- bull testicles.
  14. 14. Eating Disorders Bulimia Nervosa • Characterized by binging (eating large amounts of food) and purging (getting rid of the food).
  15. 15. Anorexia Nervosa • Starve themselves to below 85% of their normal body weight. • See themselves as fat. • Vast majority are woman. Click on the woman to watch a case study of an anorexic.
  16. 16. Obesity • Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues. • Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity. Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.
  17. 17. Sexual Motivation • Sex is natural. • Without sex, none of us would be here. • How do scientists (or you) find out about sex? YOU ASK!!!!!!
  18. 18. Kinsey’s Studies • Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s). • Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female • Scale of sexuality….0 to 6 where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 homosexual and 7 is asexual. Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.
  19. 19. Masters and Johnson Study • In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex. • 382 females and 312 males. After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight. Click on Masters and Johnson to see a more detailed explanation of their research.
  20. 20. Mapped out the Sexual Response Cycle • • • • Initial Excitement Plateau Phase Orgasm Resolution Phase (with refractory period).
  21. 21. Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation • Only some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex. • Heiman 4 tape study. • People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing.
  22. 22. We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction: Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender. Percentage, brothers and cities
  23. 23. How is Sexual Orientation Determined • There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined. • Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents. • This it is likely biologically determined.
  24. 24. The Brain • Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men.
  25. 25. Prenatal Environment • Current research seems to point to the hormonal levels in the prenatal environment. • We have created homosexual male fruit flies and lesbian sheep!!!
  26. 26. Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..) Intrinsic Motivators • Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction. Extrinsic Motivators • Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..) • Work great in the short run.
  27. 27. Management Theory Management/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivators. Theory X • Managers believes that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment. • Think employees are Extrinsically Motivated. • Only interested in Maslow’s lower needs. Theory Y • Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive. • Interested in Maslow’s higher needs.
  28. 28. When Motives Conflict • approach-approach conflict • avoidance-avoidance conflict • approach-avoidance conflict • Multiple approachavoidance conflicts
  29. 29. Emotion • Willam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion. • We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress. • The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling. • Stimulus ArousalEmotion
  30. 30. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion • Say James-Lange theory is full of crap. • How can that be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states. • The physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously. • Stimulus Arousal/Emotion • They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.
  31. 31. Two-Factor Theory of Emotion • Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories. • They happen at the same time but… • People who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli. • Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience. • Stimulus Arousal+Cognitive Label  Emotion