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  1. 1. Learning and Memory
  2. 2. Learning Relatively permanent change in the immediate or potential behavior or mental process that results from past experiences or practice Acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors
  3. 3. 5 Processes of Learning Habituation Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Cognitive Processes in learning
  4. 4. 1. Habituation Simplest kind of learning Accounts for learning to ignore a stimulus that has become a familiar and has no serious consequences The tendency to become familiar with a stimulus after repeated exposure to it Example: Children playing in the school playground
  5. 5. 2. Classical Conditioning An individual learns that one follows another Gives emphasis on the association of the stimulus with the response Also called as Pavlonian Conditioning
  6. 6. Basic Terms Unconditioned-unlearned, untaught Conditioned- learned, taught Stimulus-something that elicits a response Response- a reaction caused by a stimulus
  7. 7. Terms  1. Neutral Stimulus- a stimulus that doesn’t produce an reflexive response until it is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.  2. UCS (unconditioned stimulus) - produces a response with no prior learning.  -an unconditioned stimulus that always elicits an reflexive or unconditioned response.  UCS - food (triggers drool reflex)  3. UCR(unconditioned response)-is an unlearned response or reflexive response automatically elicited by the UCS.  UCR - drool in response to food (not learned)
  8. 8. Terms  4. CS (conditioned stimulus) – is a previously neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response ( or eventually elicits the CR after being associated with the UCS).  CS - sound of bell (triggers drool reflex)  5. CR (conditioned response)- is a learned response to the CS that occurs after CS-UCS pairing.  CR - drool in response to sound of bell (learned)  Sample Situation:  Sarah has always felt calm and relaxed when listening to classical music. Lately, she’s been lighting a candle just before she listens to classical music. Now, she doesn’t feel the need to listen to classical music to feel relaxed.
  9. 9. Terms NS- candle UCS- classical music UCR- calm/relax feeling CR-calm/relax feeling at the sight of lighted candle CS- sight of lighted candle while hearing classical music
  10. 10. Basic Processes a. Acquisition A neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) are paired (Initial learning of the stimulus link). Example: A child learns to fear (CR) the Dental Clinic (CS) by associating it with the reflexive emotional reaction(UCR) to a painful tooth extraction (UCS)
  11. 11. Basic Processes b. Stimulus Generalization Individual’s ability to react to novel stimuli that are similar to familiar ones. A conditioned response (CR) is elicited not only by the conditioned stimulus (CS) but also by the stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus(CS) Example: A child fears (Conditioned Response) all Dental clinic (Conditioned Stimulus) and other places that smells like them (Similar CS)
  12. 12. Basic Processes c. Stimulus Discrimination A process complimentary to generalization Discrimination is a reaction to differences Limited in such that some stimulus similar to the CS do not elicit the CR Example: A child learns that his mother’s Dental Clinic is not associated only with Tooth Extraction UCS
  13. 13. Basic Process d. Extinction The CS is presented alone with the UCS. Gradually, the CS no longer elicits the CR Used to describe the elimination of the CR by repeatedly presenting the CS without the unconditioned stimulus Example: A child visits the dentist several times for prophylaxis. Fear gradually decreases
  14. 14. 3. Operant Conditioning-B. F. Skinner An organism learns a response by operating on its environment. A response an individual makes will be followed by a particular consequence Primary aim: To analyze how behavior is changed by its consequences
  15. 15. The Consequences of Behavior Reinforcement: The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows. Punishment: The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
  16. 16. Reinforcement 1. Positive Reinforcement: The frequency of the response increases because the behavior is followed by a rewarding stimulus. 2. Negative Reinforcement: The response is followed by removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of, an unpleasant stimulus.
  17. 17. Punishment 1. Positive Punishment: The behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus. 2. Negative Punishment: A behavior decreases because a positive stimulus is removed.
  18. 18. 4. Social Learning Learning from the experiences of others Example: A girl always says “thank you” whenever she receives something because she observes this from her mother, who serves as her model Bandura came up with several processes of learning  Vicarious conditioning  Observational learning
  19. 19. Processes of Learning a. Vicarious Conditioning Learning by seeing or hearing about the consequences of other people’s action Example: An IT student who has heard a batch mate being sent to the Office of Student Affairs for going to class drunk
  20. 20. Processes of Learning b. Observational Learning Learning by watching what others are doing Model – the person being watched. Requirements to determine whether observational learning has occurred Attention Retention Ability to reproduce the behavior Motivation
  21. 21. 5. Cognitive Learning Learning is not simply an automatic process Learning results from thinking and other mental processes All organisms, including animals are capable of thinking and this capacity must be considered in any explanation of learning
  22. 22. Memory The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. The ability to store information so that it can be used at a later time
  23. 23. Types of Memory Episodic Memory A memory of specific event that happened while you were present Semantic Memory Contains generalized knowledge of the world that does not involve memory of a specific event Procedural Memory Also called skill memory because it involves on how to do things Consists of a complicated sequence of movements that cannot be described adequately in words
  24. 24. Steps of Memory Storage Encoding Putting Information into memory. Storing Refers to how a system maintains or remembers information. Retrieving Getting the stored information out of memory Forgetting Inability to recall a particular piece of information accurately
  25. 25. 3 Causes of forgetting (Ebbinghaus, 1985) Retrieval Failure Due to the inability to recall the information Decay Theory This suggests that if people do not use information stored in long term memory, it gradually fades until it is lost Interference theory Forgetting of information in long term memory is due to the influences of other learning
  26. 26. Stages of Memory Sensory Memory First stage wherein the on information from the senses – sight, sound or smell is held in the sensory register.
  27. 27. Stages of Memory Short-term Memory Allows one to recall something from several seconds to as long as a minute without rehearsal.
  28. 28. Stages of Memory Long-term Memory Can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span).