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Learning Learning Presentation Transcript

  • Learning and Memory
  • Learning Relatively permanent change in the immediate or potential behavior or mental process that results from past experiences or practice Acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors
  • 5 Processes of Learning Habituation Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Cognitive Processes in learning
  • 1. Habituation Simplest kind of learning Accounts for learning to ignore a stimulus that has become a familiar and has no serious consequences The tendency to become familiar with a stimulus after repeated exposure to it Example: Children playing in the school playground
  • 2. Classical Conditioning An individual learns that one follows another Gives emphasis on the association of the stimulus with the response Also called as Pavlonian Conditioning
  • Basic Terms Unconditioned-unlearned, untaught Conditioned- learned, taught Stimulus-something that elicits a response Response- a reaction caused by a stimulus
  • Terms  1. Neutral Stimulus- a stimulus that doesn’t produce an reflexive response until it is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.  2. UCS (unconditioned stimulus) - produces a response with no prior learning.  -an unconditioned stimulus that always elicits an reflexive or unconditioned response.  UCS - food (triggers drool reflex)  3. UCR(unconditioned response)-is an unlearned response or reflexive response automatically elicited by the UCS.  UCR - drool in response to food (not learned)
  • Terms  4. CS (conditioned stimulus) – is a previously neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response ( or eventually elicits the CR after being associated with the UCS).  CS - sound of bell (triggers drool reflex)  5. CR (conditioned response)- is a learned response to the CS that occurs after CS-UCS pairing.  CR - drool in response to sound of bell (learned)  Sample Situation:  Sarah has always felt calm and relaxed when listening to classical music. Lately, she’s been lighting a candle just before she listens to classical music. Now, she doesn’t feel the need to listen to classical music to feel relaxed.
  • Terms NS- candle UCS- classical music UCR- calm/relax feeling CR-calm/relax feeling at the sight of lighted candle CS- sight of lighted candle while hearing classical music
  • Basic Processes a. Acquisition A neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) are paired (Initial learning of the stimulus link). Example: A child learns to fear (CR) the Dental Clinic (CS) by associating it with the reflexive emotional reaction(UCR) to a painful tooth extraction (UCS)
  • Basic Processes b. Stimulus Generalization Individual’s ability to react to novel stimuli that are similar to familiar ones. A conditioned response (CR) is elicited not only by the conditioned stimulus (CS) but also by the stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus(CS) Example: A child fears (Conditioned Response) all Dental clinic (Conditioned Stimulus) and other places that smells like them (Similar CS)
  • Basic Processes c. Stimulus Discrimination A process complimentary to generalization Discrimination is a reaction to differences Limited in such that some stimulus similar to the CS do not elicit the CR Example: A child learns that his mother’s Dental Clinic is not associated only with Tooth Extraction UCS
  • Basic Process d. Extinction The CS is presented alone with the UCS. Gradually, the CS no longer elicits the CR Used to describe the elimination of the CR by repeatedly presenting the CS without the unconditioned stimulus Example: A child visits the dentist several times for prophylaxis. Fear gradually decreases
  • 3. Operant Conditioning-B. F. Skinner An organism learns a response by operating on its environment. A response an individual makes will be followed by a particular consequence Primary aim: To analyze how behavior is changed by its consequences
  • The Consequences of Behavior Reinforcement: The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows. Punishment: The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
  • Reinforcement 1. Positive Reinforcement: The frequency of the response increases because the behavior is followed by a rewarding stimulus. 2. Negative Reinforcement: The response is followed by removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of, an unpleasant stimulus.
  • Punishment 1. Positive Punishment: The behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus. 2. Negative Punishment: A behavior decreases because a positive stimulus is removed.
  • 4. Social Learning Learning from the experiences of others Example: A girl always says “thank you” whenever she receives something because she observes this from her mother, who serves as her model Bandura came up with several processes of learning  Vicarious conditioning  Observational learning
  • Processes of Learning a. Vicarious Conditioning Learning by seeing or hearing about the consequences of other people’s action Example: An IT student who has heard a batch mate being sent to the Office of Student Affairs for going to class drunk
  • Processes of Learning b. Observational Learning Learning by watching what others are doing Model – the person being watched. Requirements to determine whether observational learning has occurred Attention Retention Ability to reproduce the behavior Motivation
  • 5. Cognitive Learning Learning is not simply an automatic process Learning results from thinking and other mental processes All organisms, including animals are capable of thinking and this capacity must be considered in any explanation of learning
  • Memory The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. The ability to store information so that it can be used at a later time
  • Types of Memory Episodic Memory A memory of specific event that happened while you were present Semantic Memory Contains generalized knowledge of the world that does not involve memory of a specific event Procedural Memory Also called skill memory because it involves on how to do things Consists of a complicated sequence of movements that cannot be described adequately in words
  • Steps of Memory Storage Encoding Putting Information into memory. Storing Refers to how a system maintains or remembers information. Retrieving Getting the stored information out of memory Forgetting Inability to recall a particular piece of information accurately
  • 3 Causes of forgetting (Ebbinghaus, 1985) Retrieval Failure Due to the inability to recall the information Decay Theory This suggests that if people do not use information stored in long term memory, it gradually fades until it is lost Interference theory Forgetting of information in long term memory is due to the influences of other learning
  • Stages of Memory Sensory Memory First stage wherein the on information from the senses – sight, sound or smell is held in the sensory register.
  • Stages of Memory Short-term Memory Allows one to recall something from several seconds to as long as a minute without rehearsal.
  • Stages of Memory Long-term Memory Can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span).