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  1. 1.  An unreasonable sort of fear that can cause avoidance and panic. Phobias are a relatively common type of anxiety disorder. A persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid it, despite the awareness and reassurance that it is not dangerous. a persistent irrational fear of an object, situation, or activity that the person feels compelled to avoid.
  2. 2.  Specific phobias As its name suggests, a specific phobia is the fear of a particular situation or object, including anything from airplane travel to dentists. Found in one out of every 10 Americans, specific phobias seem to run in families and are roughly twice as likely to appear in women. If the person rarely encounters the feared object, the phobia does not cause much harm.
  3. 3.  Social phobia  People with social phobia have deep fears of being watched or judged by others and being embarrassed in public. This may extend to a general fear of social situations—or be more specific or circumscribed, such as a fear of giving speech.  More rarely, people with social phobia may have trouble using a public restroom, eating in a restaurant, or signing their name in front of others.
  4. 4.  Agoraphobia  Is the intense fear of feeling trapped and having a panic attack in a public place.  An episode of spontaneous panic is usually the initial trigger for the development of agoraphobia.  After an initial panic attack, the person becomes afraid of experiencing a second one. Patients literally "fear the fear," and worry incessantly about when and where the next attack may occur.  As they begin to avoid the places or situations in which the panic attack occurred, their fear generalizes. Eventually the person completely avoids public places. In severe cases, people with agoraphobia can no longer leave their homes for fear of experiencing a panic attack.
  5. 5.  Alektorophobia- Fear of  Claustrophobia: Fear of chickens. enclosed spaces Acrophobia- Fear of heights.  Coulrophobia - Fear of clowns. Androphobia- Fear of men.  Dentophobia - Fear of Aviophobia - Fear of flying. dentist. Achluophobia - Fear of  Gamophobia - Fear of darkness marriage. Agoraphobia - Fear of open  Homophobia: Fear and spaces or of being in revulsion toward crowded, public places like homosexuals. markets.  Iatrophobia - Fear of going to Arachnophobia - Fear of the doctor or doctors. spiders.  Farmacofobia: Fear of drugs. Amaxofobia: Fear of vehicles, fear of driving  Ostraconophobia - Fear of
  6. 6.  Statistics Indicate That Approximately 1 in 23 people Suffer from phobias. Thats Nearly 4.25% of the population. 2.5 million in the UK. Only about 20% of phobias disappear on their own for an adult. Approximately 4 to 5% of the U.S. population has one or more clinically significant phobias in a giving year. Specific phobias affect an estimated 6.3 million Americans adults age group in a given year, and are twice as common in women as in men.
  7. 7.  The average age of onset for social phobia is between 15 and 20 years of age, although it can begin in childhood. Approximately 5.3 million Americans adults 18 to 54, or about 3.7 percent of people in this age group in given year, have social phobia. Social phobia typically begins in childhood or adolescence.
  8. 8.  Approximately 3.2 million American adults ages 18 to 54 (2.2%) have agoraphobia.
  9. 9.  While there is no one specific known cause for phobias, although research suggests the tendency to develop phobias may be a complex interaction between heredity and environment. and can be triggered by life events. Immediate family members of people with phobias are about three times more likely to also suffer from a phobia than those who do not have such a family history. People whose parents either were overly protective or were distant in raising them may be at more risk of developing phobias.
  10. 10.  Phobia sufferers have been found to be more likely to manage stress by avoiding the stressful situation and by having difficulty minimizing the intensity of the fearful situation. Another possible contributor to the development of phobias is classical conditioning. As it relates to phobias, in classical conditioning, a person responds to something frightening by generalizing the fear of that specific object or situation to more generalized objects or situations. For example, an individual may respond to a real threat by one dog to a fear of all dogs.
  11. 11.  If left untreated, a phobia may worsen to the point in which the persons life is seriously affected, both by the phobia itself and/or by attempts to avoid or conceal it. For example, a fear of flying can result in the individual being unable to travel. In fact, some people have had problems with friends and family, failed in school, and/or lost jobs while struggling to cope with a severe phobia.
  12. 12.  There may be periods of spontaneous improvement, but a phobia does not usually go away unless the person receives treatments designed specifically to help phobia sufferers. Alcoholics can be up to 10 times more likely to suffer from a phobia than those who are not alcoholics, and phobic individuals can be twice as likely to suffer from an alcohol addiction than those who have never been phobic. It has even been found that phobic anxiety can be life-threatening for some people, increasing the risk of suffering from heart disease in both men and women.
  13. 13.  Symptoms of phobias often involve having a panic attack in that they include feelings of panic, dread, or terror, despite recognition that those feelings are excessive in relationship to any real danger as well as physical symptoms like shaking, sweating, trouble thinking clearly, nausea, rapid heart beat, trouble breathing, and an overwhelming desire to escape the situation that is causing the phobic reaction. Also, extreme measures are sometimes taken to avoid or escape the situation.
  14. 14.  Helping those who suffer from phobias is thought to be most effective when psychotherapy and medications that are specific to the treatment of phobia are both used. One form of psychotherapy involves the supportive and gradual exposure of the individual with phobias to circumstances that are increasingly close to the one they are phobic about (desensitization). These situations can either consist of actual or computer-generated anxiety-provoking stimuli.
  15. 15.  Cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT) has been found to significantly decrease phobic symptoms by helping the phobia sufferer change his or her way of thinking. CBT uses three techniques to accomplish this goal: Didactic component: This phase involves educating the individual about phobias and treatment and helps to set up positive expectations for therapy and promote the cooperation of the person with a phobia. Cognitive component: It helps to identify the thoughts and assumptions that influence the persons behavior, particularly those that may predispose him or her to being phobic. Behavioral component: This employs behavior-modifying techniques to teach the individual with a phobia more effective strategies for dealing with problems.
  16. 16.  Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are often used to treat phobias, particularly when desensitization and CBT are inadequately effective. These medications affect levels of serotonin in the brain. Examples of these medications include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). The possible side effects of these medications can vary greatly from person to person and depend on which medication is being used. Common side effects of this group of medications include dry mouth, sexual dysfunction, nausea, tremors, trouble sleeping, blurred vision, constipation or soft stools, and dizziness. In very rare cases, some people have been thought to become more acutely more anxious or depressed once on the medication, even trying to or completing suicide or homicide. Children and teens are thought to be particularly vulnerable to this rare possibility.
  17. 17.  Phobias are also sometimes treated using beta- blocker medications, which decrease the physical symptoms associated with panic by blocking the effects that adrenaline has on the body. An example of a beta blocker is propranolol. These disorders are less commonly treated with drugs in a medication class known as benzodiazepines. This class of medications causes relaxation but is used much less often these days to treat anxiety due to the possibility of addiction and the risk of overdose, especially if taken when alcohol is also being consumed. Examples of medications from that group include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin).
  18. 18.  Phobias are a serious problem. But if the persons now how to now the signs or deferents Las fobias son un serio problema debido a que en un extremo caso afectan el diario vivir de una persona. Estas pueden tener tratamiento si las personas cercanas saben reconocer la diferencia entre el miedo y el pánico, cuando ocurre una situación. Las fobias se pueden superar cuando se busca ayuda de un profesional. Para mi lo mas importante es el apoyo de la familia.
  19. 19. Http://
  20. 20. Puntos para yo hablar Reactions that are automatic and uncontrollable, practically taking over the person’s thoughts Specific phobia-However, if the feared object or situation is common, it can seriously disrupt everyday life. Common examples of specific phobias, which can begin at any age, include fear of snakes, flying, dogs, escalators, elevators, high places, or open spaces. Social phobia-It is not unusual for people with social phobia to turn down job offers or avoid relationships because of their fears.