19 reported speech

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19 reported speech

  1. 1. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 1 REPORTED SPEECH 47 REPORTED STATEMENTS In Reported Speech (also known as Indirect Speech), the tense used in the speaker's original words is usually (but not always) moved back a tense when the reporting verb (said, told, etc.) is in the past. The tense does not change if the reporting verb is in the present, present perfect or future. TENSE CHANGES Speaker's Words Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Going To Future Shall/Will Shall in Offers and Suggestions Must Can Reported Speech Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Simple Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Was Going To Would Should Had To Could
  2. 2. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 2 EXAMPLE: Note: It is possible to omit THAT. WHEN THE TENSE DOESN'T CHANGE The past simple and continuous often remain unchanged in reported speech, in both written and spoken English, if this can be done without causing any confusion about the time of the actions. It is also possible for other tenses to remain unchanged in reported speech in spoken English. Past Continuous The Past Continuous usually remains unchanged in reported speech: Where the Past Continuous is used to refer to an activity that was completed before an event in the past simple or present perfect, we are more likely to change the past continuous to the past perfect continuous: • A representative said (that) sales had dropped dramatically in the last (or previous) year. “Sales have dropped dramatically in the last year.” • He said that when they arrived, he was still cooking the dinner. 'When they arrived, I was still cooking the dinner.' • She said that she was working until ten o'clock last night/the previous night. 'I was working until ten o'clock last night.'
  3. 3. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 3 Past Simple When the Past Simple is used in a time clause, it does not generally change. When there is a time clause, the verb in the main clause can remain in the past simple or change to the past perfect: When the past simple is used to refer to a situation that still exists in the present, it does not generally change: In other circumstances it is better to change the past simple to the past perfect in written reporting. However, in oral reporting, it is becoming increasingly common to leave the past simple unchanged: • 'She said that they had been planning to go out but then Joe started/had started feeling sick. 'We were planning to go out but then Joe started feeling sick.' • She said that when she got there, the place was/had been almost empty. 'When I got there the place was almost empty.' • She said that they hadn't stayed in the hotel because it was too expensive. 'We didn't stay in the hotel because it was too expensive.' (And presumably the hotel is still expensive now.)
  4. 4. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 4 Present Tenses In oral reporting, it is becoming increasingly common not to change the present tenses if the activity is still going on or the situation still exists at the time of reporting: However, if the party is now finished and he is no longer doing his homework, then we change the tense in reported speech: 'I enjoyed myself last night.' Oral reporting: Clare said that she enjoyed (had enjoyed) herself last night/on Saturday night. Written reporting: Clare said that she had enjoyed herself last night/the previous night/on Saturday night. • Jo told me that Alison is living (was living) with her parents now. 'Alison's living with her parents now.' • He said that he can't (couldn't) come to the party because he was doing his homework. 'I can't come to the party because I'm doing my homework.' • He said that he couldn't come to the party because he was doing his homework. 'I can't come to the party because I'm doing my homework.'
  5. 5. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 5 Assuming that this situation still exists, the verb can stay in the present simple or change to the past simple in oral reporting: The Future In oral reporting, the future tenses can remain unchanged if the event is still in the future: 'The school takes on new students every month.' The receptionist told me that the school takes on / took on new students every month. • Sheila said that she is meeting/was meeting John tonight. (Tonight is still in the future.) • Sheila said that she was meeting John last night. (Tonight is now in the past.) 'I'm meeting John tonight.' • The police said that they are going to/were going to launch a thorough investigation. 'We're going to launch a thorough investigation.'
  6. 6. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 6 TIME AND PLACE CHANGES It is often necessary to change time, place and other references in reported speech, depending on when and where the reporting takes place in relation to the actual words. Some common changes: • The Prime Minister said that there will/would be no increase in taxes. “There will be no increase in taxes.” • They announced that the plane will/would be leaving in thirty-five minutes. “The plane will be leaving in thirty- five minutes.” now tonight yesteday tomorrow this morning last week next... ago here then that night the day before / on... the following day / the next day / on... that morning the previous week the following... before there
  7. 7. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 7 PRACTICE Note: In the following exercises, you should make the tense changes as for written reporting 47 IN YOUR NOTEBOOK, REWRITE THE SENTENCES IN REPORTED SPEECH. 1. “I'll come and see you on Friday if that's all right.” (She said) She said (that) she would come and see us on Friday if that was all right. 2. “It's pouring with rain down here.” (She told me) ___________________________________________________________________ 3. “The shop's closing in half an hour.”(She explained) ___________________________________________________________________ 4. “It will be a very difficult time for all of us.” (He agreed) ___________________________________________________________________ 5. “He's planning to set up his own business.” (Gareth tells me) ___________________________________________________________________ 6. “The club lost quite a lot of money last month.” (The treasurer told the meeting) ___________________________________________________________________ 7. “You work too hard. You should take more time off.” (He told me) ___________________________________________________________________ 8. “We're going to have to make quite a few cutbacks.” (The managing director said) ___________________________________________________________________ 9. “My new computer has made a lot of difference to me.” (She says) ___________________________________________________________________ 10.“I'll have finished writing the report by the time you get here.” (She promised me) ___________________________________________________________________
  8. 8. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 8 11. “When the project first started, there was a lot of interest in it.” (She explained) ___________________________________________________________________ 12.“The police have been investigating new allegations of fraud.” (A spokesperson said) ___________________________________________________________________ 13.“When we were setting up the organisation, we had very little money.” (They told me) ___________________________________________________________________ 14.“The 8.45 train from Waterloo will be arriving in approximately five minutes.” (The station announcer has just said) ___________________________________________________________________ 15.“The conference will be spending a considerable time discussing the world debt crisis.' (The statement said) ___________________________________________________________________ 48 REPORTED QUESTIONS The rules about tense changes apply to questions in the same way as they apply to statements. Wh Questions The subject and verb are NOT inverted in reported speech: “Why didn't you tell me the truth?” • Inversion She asked me why I hadn't told her the truth. • subject + verb
  9. 9. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 9 Yes/no Questions Put if or whether before the subject + verb: To-Infinitive in Reported Speech In reported requests, advice, commands, etc., use to-infinitive: When reporting shall/should questions, we can use to-infinitive after the question word: • She asked me if she had seen me before. 'Have I seen you before?' • She asked me to help her write her speech. 'Can you help me write my speech?' • She told me not to stay out too late. 'Don't stay out too late.' • He wanted to know how much to give them. 'How much should we give them?' • She asked me what to buy for Peter. 'What should I buy for Peter?' • He wanted to know whether to tell her what had happened. 'Should I tell her what happened?'
  10. 10. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 10 Note: We do not use the to-infinitive after why or if. PRACTICE 48 Write the following in reported speech. 1. 'Where do you think we should advertise? (He asked me) He asked me where I thought we should advertise. 2. 'Are you going to audition for the play?' (Emma asked me) ___________________________________________________________________ 3. 'Give me a ring if you need any help: (She told me) ___________________________________________________________________ 4. 'How is Laura getting on?' (She often asks me ... you ... ) ___________________________________________________________________ 5. 'Shall I ask her out for a meal?' (He's been wondering) ___________________________________________________________________ 6. 'Why did Matthew look so embarrassed when he saw Carole?' (He asked) ___________________________________________________________________ 7. 'Must we stay here all evening?' (He asked) ___________________________________________________________________ 8. 'What are they doing about publicity for the event?' (She wondered) ___________________________________________________________________ 9. 'Will you send me the report when it's finished?' (He asked me) ___________________________________________________________________ 10.'What have you done with the student records?' (She asked me) ___________________________________________________________________
  11. 11. Instituto de Estudios Superiores Belén PROFESORADO EN INGLÉS Gramática Inglesa II 11 11.'Do you think you could keep your voices down a bit?' (She asked us) ___________________________________________________________________ 12.'Where did you buy that hat?' (He wanted to know) ___________________________________________________________________ 13.'Have you been eating properly?' (The doctor asked me) ___________________________________________________________________ 14.'Were you still teaching music when you met Oliver?' (Mike asked me) ___________________________________________________________________ 15.'Don't make any noise during the performance: (They asked us) ___________________________________________________________________ SOURCE  Elanie WALKER & Steve ELSWORTH: Grammar Practice for Upper-Intermediate Students – with Key. Pearson Education Limited, England - 2000. pp. 128 - 133

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