Sustainable Landscaping Practices - University of Wisconsin
Sustainable Landscaping PracticesEnvironmental Science and Policy Graduate Program. University of Wisconsin-Green BayStormwater Management Treatment Trains• On-site control strategies that stress peak flow reduction, increased •Series of BMP’s designed to handle Environmentally Friendly Urban Landscaping infiltration, and pollutant reduction. stormwater flows• Best Management Practice’s and are designed to store and/or filter runoff •Better removal of a variety of pollutants Native plant advantages before it leaves a development site. Maintain groundwater recharge and due to each BMP’s unique capabilities •Adapted to local climate and soil conditions quality •BMP’s utilized in succession •Hardier than conventional landscaping plants.• Each BMP removes different pollutants •Effective for increased sedimentation •Reduce extensive maintenance such as watering or fertilizer, pesticide, and• Limit stormwater runoff quantity herbicide application.• Reduce stormwater pollutant loads •Produce an aesthetically pleasing yard.• Protect critical habitats •Flower throughout the summer months Figure 7. Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) on a Native Wildflower, (Heath 2004) •Improve local air and water qualities as fossil fuelsThe pollutants of concern in the Joint Planning Area are varied and include: (University of Tennessee •Resistant to native pests such insects and fungi• Total Suspended Solids (Construction Sites, Erosion) 2003.) •Provide food and habitat for native fauna Community Gardens• Nutrients (Lawn fertilizer, Agricultural fertilizers) •Embodies the ideas of sustainability, conservation, and community• Heavy Metals (Streets, Buildings, Parking Infrastructure) •Open spaces managed and operated by members of the local community for Due to their aggressive competitive nature, exotic and invasive species are highly• Pesticides (Residential uses) various purposes discouraged for ornamental use. These plants typically form monotypical stands Rain Gardens that provide little value to native fauna. •Aesthetically pleasing •Shallow, vegetated depressions •Creating a sense of neighborhood. •Strengthen residents’ connection with the natural surroundings •Promotes absorption and infiltration of stormwater runoff. •Unique urban amenities Figure 8. Wild Bergamot, Monarda fistulosa,(Heath 2004) •Highly desirable in neighborhoods Table 2. Invasive Species Not Recommended for •Combine shrubs, grasses, and flowering •Serve as the source for local farmers’ markets Table 1. Recommend Species for Native Landscaping. Urban Landscaping.Figure 1. Swede Hollow Rain Garden, St. perennialsPaul, MN. (Green Institute 2004). •Serve several environmental functions including natural infiltration, buffering Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name Wildlife Attracted •Detain and trap pollutants. areas, and ground water recharge. Various birds (47 Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria •Residential front and back yards Black Cherry Prunus serotina species) Starting a Community Garden in the Joint Planning Area American Mountain Sorbus Various birds (14 Tartarian Honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica •Islands in parking lots or cul de sacs •Buffer against active agricultural lands Ash americana species) •Under roof downspouts •Select suitable soil types and locations Showy Mountain Various birds (14 Black Locust Robinia pseudo-acacia Ash Sorbus decora species) •Protect the gardens with permanent conservation easements •Commercial planting beds Juniperus Various birds (54 Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata •Partner with local gardening professionals for assistance Eastern Red Cedar virginiana species) Thuja Various birds (54 Russian Olive Elaeagnus angustifolia Figure 8. Milkweed, Asclepias ssp. (Heath 2004) White Cedar occidentalis species)Figure 2. Rain Gardens in Seattle, WA. (Low Impact Development Center, Inc. Prunus Various birds (432004). Dames Rocket Hesperis matronalis Chokecherry virginiana species)Green Roofs Lobelia Ruby Throated Reed Canary Grass Phalaris arundinacea Cardinal Flower cardinalis Hummingbird•Innovative stormwater management Monarda Dragonflies and other Crown Vetch Coronilla varia Wild Bergamot fistulosa insectstechnique Lupinus Common Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica•Control the amount of pollutants in rooftop Lupine perennis Karner Blue Butterflyrunoff Andropogon Various birds (seed Pale Yellow Iris Iris pseudacorus Bluestems spp eaters)•Reduce the overall volume of runoff from Various birds (34rooftops White Sweet Clover Melilotus spp. Dogwoods Cornus spp. species) Figure 5. Community Garden in Tuscon, AZ. Figure 6. Eagle Heights Community Garden, (Community Gardens, 2004) Aquilegia Ruby Throated Figure 9. Purple Coneflower, Echinacea purpurea (Heath Madison, WI (UW-Madison, 2004) Canada Thistle Cirsium arvense Columbine canadensis Hummingbird 2004) Figure 3. Green Roof. (Heath 2004). Asclepias Wild Parsnip Pastinaca sativa Butterfly Weed tuberosa Various butterflies Wet Detention Ponds References Impatiens •Permanent pools that collect and detain Spotted Jewelweed capensis Musk or Nodding Thistle Carduus nutans Community Gardens. (2004). Index. <http://www.communitygardensoftuscon.org>, accessed 3 December 2004. stormwater runoff. Fewless, G. (2002). <http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/herbarium/wetland_plants/corsto01.htm>, accessed 3 •Improves water quality by using the natural December 2004. physical, biological, and chemical processes Green Guerillas. (2002). Green Guerillas. <http://www.greenguerillas.org>, accessed 3 December 2004. available in the pond to remove pollutants Heath, E. (2004). Miscellaneous Native Plant and Green Roof Photographs. Rain Gardens. (2004). Low Impact Development Center, Inc. <http://www.lid- stormwater.net/bioretention/biotrans_home.htm>, accessed 3 December 2004. Stormwater Wet Detention Pond. (2004). Fairfax County, Virginia. <http://www.co.fairfax.va.us/dpwes/environmental/swm_pond_pics.htm>, accessed 3 December 2004. Swede Hollow Rain Garden. (2004). Green Institute. <http://www.greeninstitute.org/GSP/programs/stormwater/swederg.html>, accessed 3 December 2004. University of Wisconsin Department of Communication Arts. (2004). People. <http://www.commarts.wisc.edu>, Figure 10. Red-Osier Dogwood, Cornus stolonifera (Fewless accessed 3 December 2004 2002)Figure 4. Stormwater Wet Detention Pond in a University of Tennessee. 2003. <http://www.engr.utk.edu/.../sld002.htm>.Recreational Area. (Blankinship 2004).