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  • 1. Asteraceae (Compositae)
  • 2. Sunflower family (after Aster,
    meaning star)
    -1528 genera / 22,750 species
  • 3. Silversword (Argyroxiphiumsandwicense)
  • 4.
    • consist of herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines
    • 5. laticifersor resin ducts present in some taxa
  • leaves
    • are simple or compound, spiral or opposite [rarely whorled]
    • 6. exstipulate.
  • Infloresence
    • consists of one or more heads (capitula)-arranged in various secondary inflorescences, each head consisting of a flat to conical compound receptacle that bears one to many flowers (developing centripetally) and is subtended by one or more series of bracts, the phyllaries(collectively termed the involucre)
    • 7. heads of five general types
  • discoid, with only disk flowers, all bisexual
    disciform, with only disk flowers, a mixture of pistillate and sterile with bisexual and staminate, in the same or different heads
    radiate, with central (bisexual or male) disk flowers and peripheral (female or sterile) ray flowers
    ligulate, with all ray flowers (typically with
    5-toothed corolla apices)
    bilabiate, with all bilabiate
    Radiate head, face view.
  • 8. Malacothrixcalifornica
    Ligulate head
    Radiate heads, having inner disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers
    Aster sp
    Bilabiate heads, i.e., having bilabiate flowers; Acourtiamicrocephala.
  • 9. Discoid heads,
    with all disk flowers. ChaenactisartemisiifoliaandChaenactisgabriuscula
    Disciformheads, with inner staminate or bisexual and outer pistillateflowers. Cotulacoronopifolia, brass buttons. Note reduced,
    4-merous flowers
  • 10.
    • The flowers are epigynous, bisexualor unisexual, subtended in some taxa by bracts, known as chaff, or bristles(as in the thistles).
    • 11. The perianth is biseriate or uniseriate with hypanthium absent.
    • 12. The calyx, known as the pappus, is modified as 2 ∞ (sometimes connate) awns, scales, or capillary bristles (typically barbed or plumose), pappusabsent in some.
    a thistle.
  • 13. The corolla is sympetalous with 5 [rarely 4] lobes (reduced to 3 marginal teeth in some), of three structural types (also called flower types):
    (1) bilabiate, corolla zygomorphic with a short tube having upper and lower lips
    (2) disk, corolla actinomorphicwith short
    to elongate tube bearing 5 [4] teethlike
    or elongate lobes; or
    (3) ray or ligulate, corolla zygomorphic
    with generally short tube having elongate,
    flat, extension bearing 3 5 apical teeth.
  • 14.
    • The stamens are 5 [4], whorled, alternipetalous, usually syngenesious, the anthers fused into a tube through which the style grows.
    • 15. Anthersare basifixed, with apical extensions and sometimes basal lobes, longitudinal and introrse in dehiscence.
    Ambrosia [Hymenoclea] salsola
    Discoid heads; male heads
    Female heads.
  • 16.
    • The gynoecium is syncarpous, with an inferior ovary, 2 carpels, and 1 locule.
    • 17. The styleis solitary and apically two-branched; stigmas are two, occuringas stigmatic lines on the adaxial surface of style branches.
    -disk flower, showing inferior ovary and corolla
  • 18.
    • Placentation is basal; ovules are anatropous, unitegmic, 1 per ovary.
    • 19. Nectariesare usually present at apex of ovary.
    • 20. The fruit is an achene (or cypsela, an achenederived from an inferior ovary), typically a multiple fruit of achenes, an elongate beak forming between fruit and pappus in some taxa.
    • 21. The seeds are exalbuminous.
  • The Asteraceae has recently been classified into at least ten subfamilies.
    Members of the family have a worldwide distribution. Economic importance
    includes some food (e.g., Cynara
    scolymus, artichoke, and Helianthus
    annuus, sunflower), a number of ornamental cultivars, and
    various species used locally or industrially.
  • 22.
    The Asteraceae are distinctive in being herbs,
    shrubs, vines,
    or trees, the inflorescence a head (capitulum) subtended by
    an involucre of phyllaries, flowers either bilabiate, disk, or
    ray/ligulate (heads of many taxa a mixture of central disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers), with the calyx, termed
    a pappus, modified as scales, awns, or capillary bristles
    (or absent), the androeciumsyngenesious, and with an
    inferior ovary with a single, basal ovule, the fruit a multiple of achenes.
  • 23. K 0-∞ (pappus) C (5) [(4)] or (3) in some ray flowers A (5) [(4)] G (2), inferior.
  • 24. End