However, there are concerns over the skill base of coaches working in schools. Research suggests a lack of relevant skill base in community football coaches in promoting physical activity It has been suggested that the FA’s accreditation programme does not equip the ‘community coach’ with a full skill set to work across complex situationsFor example, Parnell Stratton, Drust and Richardson (2013) It appears that due to the deficiencies (or gaps) in the coaches’ skill base, and subsequent inappropriate working practices, the potential effectiveness of this intervention has been limited to ‘keeping active children active, through fun and enjoyable sessions. Therefore, FitC schemes must make sure the right people with the right skills are employed (i.e. including the coaches’ skill base, qualifications and experience across populations) in order to ensure that FitC schemes can attend to the increasingly complex social and health agendas that they are being asked to tackle. Consequently, it therefore appears pertinent to explore this on-going relationship between football clubs and schools (Number 10, 2013).
Survey data will collect both statistical and qualitative data responses, which will add to the research in future publications and reports.After transcribing sport and education interviews, making participants and locations anonymous, we began extracting common themes. We read through the transcripts several times and began picking out common words and terminology between the different discourses. Through doing this we were able to remain as objective as possible as we were looking at words rather than interpreting their meaning. We made lists of the themes identified and began searching for them, which enabled us to see whether there was enough content to create a theme under this heading or not. For example, themes we thought may be likely would be taken out if they were only actually referred to a couple of times. We used an excel spreadsheet to collect the extracts alongside the themes. Firstly themes were extracted amongst all sport interviews then all education interviews. We then collaborated common themes between both interview sets. We have put together some preliminary findings as the research project is currently on-going and has not been completed.
ABCD – footballE onwards is school
The role of the coach, became a re-emerging theme, with all participants highlighting skills and the importance of the coach in effective delivery. From communication, engagement, being a role model to being able to adapt.Communication needed between sports/schools-To make partnerships effective communication appeared a vital aspect both for sports clubs and schools. Communication between organisations, staff and the ability to communicate with the children in sessions.EngagementBeing able to engage children in sports sessions was highlighted by both schools and sports clubs.The following suggestions can help coaches provide multiple means of engagement: Goal Setting, build a community of practice, know customer interests, ask questions, peer demonstration, allow risk taking, structure, Adapting to needs – the coaches ability to adapt to different needs came into both school and sports clubs discourse. Being able to adapt and deliver according to the individual child was highlighted as a Role Model: Research emphasizes that coaches have a critical role in conducting developmentally appropriate programs that focus on the enhancement of strengths and personal resources.Developmental research also consistently highlights the impact of supportive relationships with adults and role models as essential in bringing about positive developmental outcomes
As such a common theme we have collated some key areas highlighted within our interviews.
School Ethos – (Int H I suppose it’s making sure they have the same kind of philosophy and ethos in terms of behaviour and that kind of thing if they’re working with children) Quality Assurance Int H “I think there has to be um mm, quality assurance you need to make sure that whatever is happening is some quality assurance there for the partnerships ” Int A “So there’s a real need for quality assurance and development of coaches” Ways to assure quality is through setting targets and evaluations considering strategic intent.
Main dissemination presentation, the schools and community football conference
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESThe Schools and CommunityFootball Conference
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESSchool Sport• School Sport PartnershipsUnprecedented funding and subsequentreorganisation in through the School Sports Partnerships.• OFSTED report“Physical Education NOT physical enough”.Beyond 2012 – outstanding physical education for all (Feb 2013)• Government funding“New funding for school sport and PE worth £150m ayear for the next two years.”
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCES• The coach can play a significant developmental role(Wylleman, Alfermann, and Lavallee, 2004)• In sport and physical activity the coach child relationship isdeemed to be particularly crucial and essentialfoundations to any coaching(Lyle, 1999; Jowett & Cockerill, 2003; Jowett, 2005, Dwyer, et al., 2006)• In football in the community, research suggests coachesrequire further professional development(Parnell, Stratton, Drust and Richardson, 2013)Role and Skill Base of CoachesResponsiball (2012)
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESPurpose of the researchThis research aims to explore the relationshipsbetween football clubs and schoolsIncluding:- Effective practice- Barriers and challenges to effective practice- Developing ways to improve practice
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESMethodsSemi-structured interviews(April-June 2013, lasting approx 1hr each)Football Clubs• Heads (Directors/CEOs) of Football Club Community Programmes(n=4) midlands Clubs• Club positions and context:A – top of the table EPL Club, B – mid-table League 1 Club, C - mid-tableChampionship Club, D - promotion contenders League 2 Club.Schools• 7 Primary school head teachers• 1 Consortium Operations Manager from a Co-operative Learning TrustStaffordshire (n=2) , Derbyshire (n=3), Leicestershire (n=2) Burton on Trent,Staffs (n=1)
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESSchedule for interviewFOOTBALL CLUB Interview Schedule EDUCATION Interview SchedulePhase 1- Introduction and familiarisationPhase 2- Exploring Personal CoachingPhilosophyPhase 3- PE and School SportPhase 4- Key Players in School SportPhase 5- Benefits of Schools and CommunitySports Partnerships.Phase 6- Clarification of the conversation andany additional commentsPhase 1- Introduction and FamiliarisationPhase 2- Effective Teaching and LearningPhase 3- PE and School SportPhase 4- Involvement with Sports OrganisationsPhase 5- Benefits and Barriers to Schools andCommunity Sports PartnershipsPhase 6- Clarification of the conversation andany additional comments
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESMethodsANALYSIS• Thematic analysis(Strauss and Corbin 1998).
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCES“I think the benefits for workingwith partnerships is that you’re getting goodquality coaching ” (School - H)“being able to develop a sustainableorganisation needs a lot of time and effort”(Football Club - B)ResultsPartnerships
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCES“If you’ve got skilled coaches who have got thatset of expertise they are better in my experience”(School - J)“they’ve got the basic skills. They’ve got whatthey need to coach” (Football Club - B)Results
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCES“communication is the key”(Football Club - C)“they’ve got to engage, they’ve got to bewith you” (School - E)“you need to be able toadapt to suit those needs”(Football Club - D)“having that malerole model andcoach as well it reallyhelps” (School - H)Results
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESThe Role of the CoachSkills AppliedMeeting different needs Learning EnvironmentEngaging, Passionate EnjoymentQualification DeliveryAssessment High-quality sessionsRole Model MotivatedMaking a difference in behaviour ConfidencePromoting a healthy lifestyle SignpostingCommunication SafeguardingEvidence-based practice Working with all ages
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESSkills Based ShortageCommunicationSafeguardingSchool Ethos, Principles, PoliciesQuality AssuranceThe Role of the Coach continued..
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESResults“suppose it’s making sure they have thesame kind of philosophy and ethos”(School - H) “I think you’ve got to very much workconsistently in the behaviour policy ofthat school” (School - E)“I would imagine that there are a dozen sports coaches insouth Derbyshire that haven’t got into our school becauseof that requirement for health and safety for well-being ofchildren for safeguarding issues” (School - G)
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESCoaches providing CPD for Schools“We get very little PE training” (School - E)“it’s good to get coaches into school to teachspecifics ...it is quite hard for teachers unlessthey’ve done the training” (School - H)“I think it’s almost continuing professionaldevelopment for teachers to see thecoaches working and to get the opportunityto have a look at that” (School - E)
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESKey Findings• Effective PartnershipTotal reports - 71• The Role of the CoachTotal reports - 81• Continuing Professional DevelopmentTotal reports - 31
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESSports PerspectiveTotal Quality ManagementSOFT Tendencies (or Social Dynamic Approach):Audit Skill Set, address shortages in skills, providing timeto develop, understanding partner philosophiesContinuousImprovementCustomerFocusedTotal Involvement(Commitment)HARD Tendencies (or System Technical Approach):Strategic intent/purpose and Quality Assurance
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESEducational Perspective• Beyond activity: physical activity and physical education;• Working together towards a community-based curriculum;• Professional development in partnership for teachers andcoaches should be coordinated towards common ends;• The new National Curriculum: what it is and whatever thegovernment, it will offer flexibilities to schools, but there willbe continuing focus on standards in literacy and numeracy;• What can community sports education partnershipscontribute to the standards agenda?
www.derby.ac.ukEDUCATION,HEALTHANDSCIENCESSearch for us – The Community Football HubConnect with us on FacebookFollow us on Twitter @ComFootballHubEmail us: TheCommunityFootballHub@gmail.comDan ParnellSchool of ScienceUniversity of Derbyt: 07538500348e: email@example.com: www.derby.ac.ukThank you