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Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data
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Status Quo and (current) Limitations of Library Linked Data

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Talk at the Semantic Web in Libraries Conference 2012 (SWIB2012). Cologne 28/12/2012 during the session "TOWARDS AN INTERNATIONAL LOD LIBRARY ECOLOGY". …

Talk at the Semantic Web in Libraries Conference 2012 (SWIB2012). Cologne 28/12/2012 during the session "TOWARDS AN INTERNATIONAL LOD LIBRARY ECOLOGY".
(http://swib.org/swib12/programme.php)

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  • 1. Status Quo and (current) limitations of Library Linked Data Asunción Gómez-Pérez1, Philipp Cimiano2 and Daniel Vila-Suero1 1Facultad de Informática, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Campus de Montegancedo sn, 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid http://www.oeg-upm.net asun,dvila@fi.upm.es 2AG Semantic Computing, CITEC, University of Bielefeld cimianog@cit-ec.uni-bielefeld.deAcknowledgments: BNE team, DNB team, Uldis Bojars(NLL), Jodi Schneider (NUIG) and others SWIB12 – Cologne, 28-11-2012
  • 2. Outline•  The Library Linked Data Cloud•  A (library) Linked Data Life-cycle•  A collection of current limitations•  Conclusions 2
  • 3. Library Linked Data cloud 3
  • 4. Library Linked Data Cloud 4
  • 5. Library Linked Data CloudBritish Library Data Model - Book Publication Events Key@prefix blt:@prefix rdf: <http://www.bl.uk/schemas/bibliographic/blterms#> . <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . Series foaf:Agent dcterms:Agent event:Event bibo:Series blt:PublicationEvent External@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . An Instance Link@prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> . skos:notation skos:prefLabel geo:SpatialThing@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . a rdfs:subClassOf@prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . a MARC country code@prefix isbd: <http://iflastandards.info/ns/isbd/elements/> . bibo:issn URI A Class A Literal All properties with a range of@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> . Series a Agent blt:PublicationEvent can be used@prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> . BL URI foaf:focus BL URI with blt:PublicationStartEvent@prefix rda: <http://rdvocab.info/ElementsGr2/> .@prefix bio: <http://purl.org/vocab/bio/0.1/> . Place and blt:PublicationEndEvent.@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . GeoNames URI BL URI rdfs:subClassOf Arrows omitted for clarity. Author@prefix event: <http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#> .@prefix org: <http://www.w3.org/ns/org#> . bio:Birth@prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . event:agent blt:PublicationStartEvent event:place CalendarYear a a dct:isPartOf event:place bio:Death a a LCSH URI if http://r.d.g/id/year/ PublicationStartEvent rdfs:subClassOf available xxxx BL URI bio:date bio:date a id.loc.gov URI for owl:sameAs blt:PublicationEndEvent Birth BL URI dct:hasPart event:time scheme skos:inScheme PublicationEvent Death BL URI Topic LCSH BL URI blt:publicationStart a foaf:familyName BL URI a blt:publication PublicationEndEvent blt:TopicLCSH BL URI foaf:givenName bio:event dct:BibliographicResource bio:event foaf:name blt:publicationEnd bibo:Book Person-as-Concept or Person-as-Agent rdfs:subClassOf a bibo:MultiVolumeBook BL URI BL URI dct:subject a a foaf:Agent dct:Agent blt:PersonConcept dct:creator foaf:Person skos:inScheme foaf:focus blt:hasCreated owl:sameAs a rdfs:subClassOf id.loc.gov URI for scheme rda:periodOfActivityOfThePerson dct:contributor dct:subject blt:hasContributedTo Skos:Concept VIAF URI if available Family-as-Concept BL URI dct:subject dct:creator rdfs:subClassOf Resource a BL URI blt:hasCreated Organization-as-Agent BL skos:inScheme foaf:focus dct:subject URI blt:FamilyConcept dct:contributor rdfs:label blt:hasContributedTo a Family-as-Agent rdfs:label id.loc.gov URI for BL URI [foaf:name] scheme foaf:Agent dct:Agent rdfs:subClassOf foaf:Organization dct:language org:Organization foaf:focus blt:bnb Organization-as-Concept Lexvo URI bibo:isbn10 bibo:isbn13 blt:OrganizationConcept a BL URI dct:subject dct:subject skos:inScheme foaf:focus dct:abstract Identifiers dct:tableOfContents dct:title rdfs:subClassOf MARC language dct:alternative id.loc.gov URI for isbd:P1008 scheme code URI (edition statement) dct:spatial blt:TopicDDC isbd:P1073 a Dewey (note on language) skos:notation skos:prefLabel BL URI skos:inScheme isbd:P1042 Title dct:description (content note) Dewey Info URI for skos:broader skos:notation isbd:P1053 scheme (extent) New version of datos.bne.es by bibo:numVolumes Dewey Info URI Place-as-Concept BL URI Place-as-Thing foaf:focus BL URI a owl:sameAs a Miscellaneous literals beginning of 2013 including: rdfs:subClassOf Subject blt:PlaceConcept LCSH URI if geo:SpatialThing Assume that most instance data will have an rdfs:label. These properties have been Tim Hodson - tim.hodson@talis.com Corine Deliot - Corine.Deliot@bl.uk available dct:Location omitted for clarity. Alan Danskin - Alan.Danskin@bl.uk Heather Rosie - Heather.Rosie@bl.uk V.1.4 August 2012 Jan Ashton - Jan.Ashton@bl.uk - Links to digital objects - More links to external datasets - APIs and improved documentation 5
  • 6. Library Linked Data CloudAnd many others (see http://thedatahub.org/group/lld) 6
  • 7. Library Linked Data Cloud•  Availability of Library Linked Data is already a reality•  Many serious efforts: id.loc.gov, VIAF, DNB, data.bnf.fr, Bibliographic Framework Initiative etc.•  Still several challenges and limitations preventing LLD full potential 7
  • 8. A (library) Linked Data life-cycle 8
  • 9. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION •  A series of steps or phases MODELLING •  Based on Villazón-Terrazas et al.* RDFGENERATION •  Others: LOD2, Datalift, etc. (see http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/wiki/ GLD_Life_cycle) LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATION *Methodological Guidelines forLuis. M. Vilches-Blázquez, Data, Boris Villazón-Terrazas, Publishing Government LinkedEXPLOITATION Oscar Corcho and Asunción Gómez-Pérez Linking Goverment Data Book 9
  • 10. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION Definition and analysis of MODELLING source data and their format, structure, etc. RDFGENERATION LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 10
  • 11. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION - Selection and reuse of vocabularies to represent MODELLING LD. - Creation of new local RDF terms and mapping toGENERATION existing vocabularies LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 11
  • 12. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION Taking source data, and vocabularies: MODELLING Mapping (cross-walk) source data to produce RDF RDFGENERATION LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 12
  • 13. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION - Discover related resources (ideally in RDF MODELLING form). - Enrich RDF data with RDF data from other sources (e.g.GENERATION substitute literals by URIs in other datasets) LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 13
  • 14. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION - Setup the infrastructure to expose your data to the Web MODELLING (SPARQL, APIs, dumps). - Enable discovery of your RDF data (sitemap, voID)GENERATION - Include data provenance, license, etc. LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 14
  • 15. A (Library) Linked Data Life-cycleSPECIFICATION - Produce user interfaces that integrate your data (and MODELLING other sources) - Provide innovative RDF services on top of the dataGENERATION - Integrate with existing services (e.g. patron LINKING services), etc.ENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 15
  • 16. A collection of current limitations 16
  • 17. SpecificationSPECIFICATION •  MANY source formats, encodings and schemas: MODELLING <XML> RDFGENERATION CSV LINKING PICA+ENRICHMENT MABPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 17
  • 18. SpecificationSPECIFICATION LIMITATIONS: MODELLING 1.  Lack of principled methods, techniques and tools to deal with heterogeneous source formats, schemas and encodings RDFGENERATION metastream, metamorph APIs from culturegraph 2.  Need for analysis of the semantics of metadata LINKING schemas and the variation of their usage accrossENRICHMENT libraries: MARC 21: "Marc21 as Data: A start".PUBLICATION Karen Coyles code4libs article*EXPLOITATION * http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/5468 18
  • 19. ModellingSPECIFICATION •  Many different models and approaches British Library Data Model - Book Publication Events Key @prefix blt: @prefix rdf: <http://www.bl.uk/schemas/bibliographic/blterms#> . <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . Series foaf:Agent dcterms:Agent event:Event bibo:Series blt:PublicationEvent External @prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> . An Instance Link @prefix owl: <http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#> . skos:prefLabel geo:SpatialThing skos:notation @prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> . a rdfs:subClassOf @prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . a MARC country code @prefix isbd: <http://iflastandards.info/ns/isbd/elements/> . bibo:issn URI A Class A Literal All properties with a range of @prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> . Series a Agent blt:PublicationEvent can be used @prefix bibo: <http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/> . BL URI foaf:focus BL URI with blt:PublicationStartEvent @prefix rda: <http://rdvocab.info/ElementsGr2/> . @prefix bio: <http://purl.org/vocab/bio/0.1/> . Place and blt:PublicationEndEvent. @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . GeoNames URI BL URI rdfs:subClassOf Arrows omitted for clarity. Author @prefix event: <http://purl.org/NET/c4dm/event.owl#> . @prefix org: <http://www.w3.org/ns/org#> . bio:Birth @prefix geo: <http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#> . event:agent blt:PublicationStartEvent event:place CalendarYear a a dct:isPartOf event:place bio:Death a a LCSH URI if http://r.d.g/id/year/ PublicationStartEvent rdfs:subClassOf available xxxx BL URI bio:date MODELLING bio:date a id.loc.gov URI for owl:sameAs blt:PublicationEndEvent Birth BL URI dct:hasPart event:time scheme skos:inScheme PublicationEvent Death BL URI Topic LCSH BL URI blt:publicationStart a foaf:familyName BL URI a blt:publication PublicationEndEvent blt:TopicLCSH BL URI foaf:givenName bio:event dct:BibliographicResource bio:event foaf:name blt:publicationEnd bibo:Book Person-as-Concept or Person-as-Agent rdfs:subClassOf a bibo:MultiVolumeBook BL URI BL URI dct:subject a a foaf:Agent dct:Agent blt:PersonConcept dct:creator foaf:Person skos:inScheme foaf:focus blt:hasCreated owl:sameAs a rdfs:subClassOf id.loc.gov URI for scheme rda:periodOfActivityOfThePerson dct:contributor dct:subject blt:hasContributedTo Skos:Concept VIAF URI if available Family-as-Concept BL URI dct:subject dct:creator rdfs:subClassOf Resource a BL URI blt:hasCreated Organization-as-Agent BL skos:inScheme foaf:focus dct:subject URI blt:FamilyConcept dct:contributor rdfs:label blt:hasContributedTo a Family-as-Agent rdfs:label id.loc.gov URI for BL URI [foaf:name] scheme foaf:Agent dct:Agent rdfs:subClassOf foaf:Organization dct:language RDF foaf:focus org:Organization blt:bnb Organization-as-Concept Lexvo URI bibo:isbn10 bibo:isbn13 blt:OrganizationConcept a BL URI dct:subject dct:subject skos:inScheme foaf:focus dct:abstract IdentifiersGENERATION dct:tableOfContents dct:title rdfs:subClassOf MARC language dct:alternative id.loc.gov URI for isbd:P1008 scheme code URI (edition statement) dct:spatial blt:TopicDDC isbd:P1073 a Dewey (note on language) skos:notation skos:prefLabel BL URI skos:inScheme isbd:P1042 Title dct:description (content note) Dewey Info URI for skos:broader skos:notation isbd:P1053 scheme (extent) bibo:numVolumes Dewey Info URI Place-as-Concept BL URI Place-as-Thing foaf:focus BL URI a owl:sameAs a Miscellaneous literals rdfs:subClassOf Subject blt:PlaceConcept LCSH URI if geo:SpatialThing Assume that most instance data will have an rdfs:label. These properties have been Tim Hodson - tim.hodson@talis.com Corine Deliot - Corine.Deliot@bl.uk available dct:Location omitted for clarity. Alan Danskin - Alan.Danskin@bl.uk Heather Rosie - Heather.Rosie@bl.uk V.1.4 August 2012 Jan Ashton - Jan.Ashton@bl.uk LINKINGENRICHMENTPUBLICATIONEXPLOITATION 19
  • 20. ModellingSPECIFICATION LIMITATIONS: 1.  Difficulties in using vocabularies that adapt to MODELLING •  Past and current cataloguing practices •  Past and current library formats and schemas RDFGENERATION 2.  Mapping and managing vocabularies IFLA Namespaces Multilingual effort 1.  Lack of mapping accross vocabularies LINKING 2.  High manual effort and costly processENRICHMENT GND ontology, Dunsire et al "Linked Data vocabulary management"*PUBLICATION 3.  Lack of multilingual vocabulary elements descriptionEXPLOITATION IFLA Namespace Multilingual efforts * http://www.niso.org/publications/isq/2012/v24no2-3/ 20
  • 21. RDF GenerationSPECIFICATION •  Several tools, APIs and systems MODELLING •  Almost each new project follows its own approach  it is still a costly process RDFGENERATION •  Participation of library experts is crucial (those who know the formats, e.g. MARC 21) LINKINGENRICHMENT •  There is not a generic mapping from source metadata schemas (due to the differences in usePUBLICATION accross libraries, different cataloguing practices)EXPLOITATION 21
  • 22. RDF GenerationSPECIFICATION LIMITATIONS: MODELLING 1.  Lack of tools and services that are easy to use by non-technical users (experts in library formats) RDF 2.  Lack of integrating tools and services that provide aGENERATION full view of the mapping and RDF generation process •  Analytics of the source data (e.g. how often is an LINKING specific MARC subfield used, how many recordsENRICHMENT will an specific transformation rule affect.. ) •  Dashboard-like generation that helps to understand how the RDF data has been producedPUBLICATION and allows to refine the mappings, find errors, etc.EXPLOITATION http://marimba4lib.com 22
  • 23. Linking and enrichmentSPECIFICATION •  Already a high number of links at the authority level (mostly Persons and Corporate Bodies) MODELLING •  VIAF •  Culturegraph Authorities RDFGENERATION •  DNB, BNF, BNE, BL LINKING •  Very positive efforts:ENRICHMENT •  National library cataloguers adding links during the cataloguing process (e.g. DNB,PUBLICATION BNE) •  Cross-library collaboration for linking (BritishEXPLOITATION Library and DNB*) * http://www.culturegraph.org/Subsites/culturegraph/DE/Home/news4.html 23
  • 24. Linking and enrichmentSPECIFICATION LIMITATIONS: MODELLING 1.  Very limited linking at the bibliographic level 2.  Lack of cross-lingual mechanisms to link resources RDF accross librariesGENERATION 3.  Lack of the a solid infrastructure to enable links LINKING sharing and exchange accross librariesENRICHMENT 4.  No semantic enrichment of the content (textual,PUBLICATION sound and visual) and linkage of this content to the URIs that represent the real-world entitiesEXPLOITATION 24
  • 25. PublicationSPECIFICATION LIMITATIONS: MODELLING 1.  No extensive use of mechanisms to indicate provenance, license, last-update, etc. in a per- resource basis RDFGENERATION 2.  Low usage of mechanisms to enable efficient discovery and usage like voID descriptions LINKINGENRICHMENT 3.  Need for scalable and generic infrastructure to facilitate consumption of linked data:PUBLICATION 1.  Most of the APIs are not extensively documented 2.  Not every dataset provides search over the data 3.  W3C Linked Data plattform WG proposition isEXPLOITATION promising (REST access to resources and containers: paging, etc.) 25
  • 26. ExploitationSPECIFICATION LIMITATIONS: MODELLING 1.  Lack of integration of library linked data in •  Library curation and cataloguing workflows •  Existing library systems (e.g. digital library RDF systems, patron services)GENERATION 2.  Need of end-user interfaces providing enriched LINKING information spacesENRICHMENT •  that integrate several LD sources, •  allowing for serindipitious discovery and enhancedPUBLICATION navigationEXPLOITATION CultureSampo, http://uilld2013.linkeddata.es Call for participation! 26
  • 27. Conclusions 27
  • 28. Conclusions•  There still exist some barriers: •  Organizational: Infrastructure costs, integration of linked data into library processes, cross-library collaboration •  Language: Multilingual services, cross-lingual linking and data integration •  Data formats and modalities: Different digital objects and representations are rarely interlinked, cope with heterogeneity of formats and vocabularies•  But we are on the right path! 28
  • 29. Vielen Dank!Thank you very much! Questions? 29

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