Prototipação

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Trabalho apresentado na disciplina de Engenharia de Software I na Universidade do Vale do Sapucaí.

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  • Primeira Revolução Industrial the mechanization of manufacturing changed an agrarian into an urban industrial society The cotton textile industry was the first to be fully mechanized. The crucial inventions were John KAY's flying shuttle (invented in 1733 but not widely used until the 1760s), James HARGREAVES's spinning jenny (1765), Richard ARKWRIGHT's water frame (1769), Samuel CROMPTON's mule (1779), and Edmund CARTWRIGHT's machine LOOM (1785, but delayed in its general use). n 1709 the ironmaster Abraham DARBY I succeeded in producing sound cast iron in a blast furnace charged with iron ore and coal (and soon afterward with coke, derived from coal). In 1712 another Englishman engaged in the iron trade, Thomas NEWCOMEN, invented the STEAM ENGINE The first factories were driven by water, but James WATT's improved Newcomen STEAM ENGINE (1769; especially his "sun and planet" adaptation converting linear into circular motion) made steam-driven machinery and modern factories possible from the 1780s. This use of steam power led, in turn, to increased demand for coal and iron. Each development spawned new technological breakthroughs, as, for example, Sir Henry BESSEMER's process for making steel (1856). Other industries such as chemicals and mining and the engineering professions also developed rapidly Segunda Revolução Industrial From 1830 on, the development of steam-driven LOCOMOTIVES brought the advent of RAILROADS, extending the transportation network In the 20th century the United States also dominated the new automobile industry, which Henry Ford (see FORD family) revolutionized by introducing a system of coordinated ASSEMBLY-LINE operations. Ford's success led to the widespread adoption of MASS PRODUCTION techniques in industry If the engineer was instrumental in making the Industrial Revolution, it can equally be said that the Industrial Revolution gave rise to the ENGINEERING profession as it is recognized today. Where previously engineers had risen through the ranks of craftsmen, in the 18th century it was becoming apparent that the act of design could be codified in the form of technical training, and the military services began to seek such training for their officer corps. In the 1740s the British government established a military academy at Woolwich at which cadets were instructed in the application of elementary mathematics and statics to gunnery and the design of fortifications. Later in the century John SMEATON coined the term "civil engineer" to distinguish civilian engineers from the increasing number of military engineers being graduated from Woolwich. A short-lived fraternity that called itself the Society of Civil Engineers (the "Smeatonians") formed around Smeaton; the first true professional organization in the field of engineering, however, was the Institution of Civil Engineers, founded in London in 1818 Experiments with the INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE began early in the century but without success until Jean Joseph Etienne LENOIR built an operational if inefficient two-cycle engine (1860) and the first AUTOMOBILE with this type of engine in 1862. The critical breakthrough in designing an efficient internal-combustion engine came in 1876, when Nikolaus August OTTO marketed the "Silent Otto" gas engine, having four cycles: intake, compression, stroke, and exhaust. In the 1880s the engine was adopted by Karl BENZ and Gottlieb DAIMLER to power motor vehicles. Rudolf DIESEL's engine, in which combustion is produced by high pressure in the cylinder, was exhibited in 1897. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, which began in Great Britain in the 18th century, spread to the rest of western Europe and North America during the 19th century. The pattern of diffusion was quite uniform, beginning with textiles, coal, and iron. In textiles such improvements as the Jacquard LOOM (France, 1801) were developed, which allowed fabrics with woven patterns to be produced cheaply. The SEWING MACHINE was invented (1846) in the United States by Elias HOWE and mass-marketed (1851) by Isaac Merrit SINGER. Iron was the basic metal of industry until after the discovery by Henry BESSEMER (British patent, 1856) and William Kelly (U.S. patent, 1847) of a process for making large amounts of steel cheaply (see IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY). The superior Siemens-Martin open-hearth process for making high-quality steel was first demonstrated in France in 1863
  • Primeira Revolução Industrial the mechanization of manufacturing changed an agrarian into an urban industrial society The cotton textile industry was the first to be fully mechanized. The crucial inventions were John KAY's flying shuttle (invented in 1733 but not widely used until the 1760s), James HARGREAVES's spinning jenny (1765), Richard ARKWRIGHT's water frame (1769), Samuel CROMPTON's mule (1779), and Edmund CARTWRIGHT's machine LOOM (1785, but delayed in its general use). n 1709 the ironmaster Abraham DARBY I succeeded in producing sound cast iron in a blast furnace charged with iron ore and coal (and soon afterward with coke, derived from coal). In 1712 another Englishman engaged in the iron trade, Thomas NEWCOMEN, invented the STEAM ENGINE The first factories were driven by water, but James WATT's improved Newcomen STEAM ENGINE (1769; especially his "sun and planet" adaptation converting linear into circular motion) made steam-driven machinery and modern factories possible from the 1780s. This use of steam power led, in turn, to increased demand for coal and iron. Each development spawned new technological breakthroughs, as, for example, Sir Henry BESSEMER's process for making steel (1856). Other industries such as chemicals and mining and the engineering professions also developed rapidly Segunda Revolução Industrial From 1830 on, the development of steam-driven LOCOMOTIVES brought the advent of RAILROADS, extending the transportation network In the 20th century the United States also dominated the new automobile industry, which Henry Ford (see FORD family) revolutionized by introducing a system of coordinated ASSEMBLY-LINE operations. Ford's success led to the widespread adoption of MASS PRODUCTION techniques in industry If the engineer was instrumental in making the Industrial Revolution, it can equally be said that the Industrial Revolution gave rise to the ENGINEERING profession as it is recognized today. Where previously engineers had risen through the ranks of craftsmen, in the 18th century it was becoming apparent that the act of design could be codified in the form of technical training, and the military services began to seek such training for their officer corps. In the 1740s the British government established a military academy at Woolwich at which cadets were instructed in the application of elementary mathematics and statics to gunnery and the design of fortifications. Later in the century John SMEATON coined the term "civil engineer" to distinguish civilian engineers from the increasing number of military engineers being graduated from Woolwich. A short-lived fraternity that called itself the Society of Civil Engineers (the "Smeatonians") formed around Smeaton; the first true professional organization in the field of engineering, however, was the Institution of Civil Engineers, founded in London in 1818 Experiments with the INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE began early in the century but without success until Jean Joseph Etienne LENOIR built an operational if inefficient two-cycle engine (1860) and the first AUTOMOBILE with this type of engine in 1862. The critical breakthrough in designing an efficient internal-combustion engine came in 1876, when Nikolaus August OTTO marketed the "Silent Otto" gas engine, having four cycles: intake, compression, stroke, and exhaust. In the 1880s the engine was adopted by Karl BENZ and Gottlieb DAIMLER to power motor vehicles. Rudolf DIESEL's engine, in which combustion is produced by high pressure in the cylinder, was exhibited in 1897. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, which began in Great Britain in the 18th century, spread to the rest of western Europe and North America during the 19th century. The pattern of diffusion was quite uniform, beginning with textiles, coal, and iron. In textiles such improvements as the Jacquard LOOM (France, 1801) were developed, which allowed fabrics with woven patterns to be produced cheaply. The SEWING MACHINE was invented (1846) in the United States by Elias HOWE and mass-marketed (1851) by Isaac Merrit SINGER. Iron was the basic metal of industry until after the discovery by Henry BESSEMER (British patent, 1856) and William Kelly (U.S. patent, 1847) of a process for making large amounts of steel cheaply (see IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY). The superior Siemens-Martin open-hearth process for making high-quality steel was first demonstrated in France in 1863
  • Primeira Revolução Industrial the mechanization of manufacturing changed an agrarian into an urban industrial society The cotton textile industry was the first to be fully mechanized. The crucial inventions were John KAY's flying shuttle (invented in 1733 but not widely used until the 1760s), James HARGREAVES's spinning jenny (1765), Richard ARKWRIGHT's water frame (1769), Samuel CROMPTON's mule (1779), and Edmund CARTWRIGHT's machine LOOM (1785, but delayed in its general use). n 1709 the ironmaster Abraham DARBY I succeeded in producing sound cast iron in a blast furnace charged with iron ore and coal (and soon afterward with coke, derived from coal). In 1712 another Englishman engaged in the iron trade, Thomas NEWCOMEN, invented the STEAM ENGINE The first factories were driven by water, but James WATT's improved Newcomen STEAM ENGINE (1769; especially his "sun and planet" adaptation converting linear into circular motion) made steam-driven machinery and modern factories possible from the 1780s. This use of steam power led, in turn, to increased demand for coal and iron. Each development spawned new technological breakthroughs, as, for example, Sir Henry BESSEMER's process for making steel (1856). Other industries such as chemicals and mining and the engineering professions also developed rapidly Segunda Revolução Industrial From 1830 on, the development of steam-driven LOCOMOTIVES brought the advent of RAILROADS, extending the transportation network In the 20th century the United States also dominated the new automobile industry, which Henry Ford (see FORD family) revolutionized by introducing a system of coordinated ASSEMBLY-LINE operations. Ford's success led to the widespread adoption of MASS PRODUCTION techniques in industry If the engineer was instrumental in making the Industrial Revolution, it can equally be said that the Industrial Revolution gave rise to the ENGINEERING profession as it is recognized today. Where previously engineers had risen through the ranks of craftsmen, in the 18th century it was becoming apparent that the act of design could be codified in the form of technical training, and the military services began to seek such training for their officer corps. In the 1740s the British government established a military academy at Woolwich at which cadets were instructed in the application of elementary mathematics and statics to gunnery and the design of fortifications. Later in the century John SMEATON coined the term "civil engineer" to distinguish civilian engineers from the increasing number of military engineers being graduated from Woolwich. A short-lived fraternity that called itself the Society of Civil Engineers (the "Smeatonians") formed around Smeaton; the first true professional organization in the field of engineering, however, was the Institution of Civil Engineers, founded in London in 1818 Experiments with the INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE began early in the century but without success until Jean Joseph Etienne LENOIR built an operational if inefficient two-cycle engine (1860) and the first AUTOMOBILE with this type of engine in 1862. The critical breakthrough in designing an efficient internal-combustion engine came in 1876, when Nikolaus August OTTO marketed the "Silent Otto" gas engine, having four cycles: intake, compression, stroke, and exhaust. In the 1880s the engine was adopted by Karl BENZ and Gottlieb DAIMLER to power motor vehicles. Rudolf DIESEL's engine, in which combustion is produced by high pressure in the cylinder, was exhibited in 1897. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, which began in Great Britain in the 18th century, spread to the rest of western Europe and North America during the 19th century. The pattern of diffusion was quite uniform, beginning with textiles, coal, and iron. In textiles such improvements as the Jacquard LOOM (France, 1801) were developed, which allowed fabrics with woven patterns to be produced cheaply. The SEWING MACHINE was invented (1846) in the United States by Elias HOWE and mass-marketed (1851) by Isaac Merrit SINGER. Iron was the basic metal of industry until after the discovery by Henry BESSEMER (British patent, 1856) and William Kelly (U.S. patent, 1847) of a process for making large amounts of steel cheaply (see IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY). The superior Siemens-Martin open-hearth process for making high-quality steel was first demonstrated in France in 1863
  • Significant mechanical and software problems have plagued the automated baggage handling system. In tests of the system, bags were misloaded, were misrouted, or fell out of telecarts, causing the system to jam. Video cameras were installed at several known trouble spots to document problems, such as the following: The baggage system continued to unload bags even though they were jammed on the conveyor belt. This problem occurred because the photo eye at this location could not detect the pile of bags on the belt and hence could not signal the system to stop. The baggage system loaded bags into telecarts that were already full. Hence, some bags fell onto the tracks, again causing the telecarts to jam. This problem occurred because the system had lost track of which telecarts were loaded or unloaded during a previous jam. When the system came back on-line, it failed to show that the telecarts were loaded. The timing between the conveyor belts and the moving telecarts was not properly synchronized, causing bags to fall between the conveyor belt and the telecarts. The bags became wedged under the telecarts. This occurred because telecarts were bumping into each other near the load point.
  • Significant mechanical and software problems have plagued the automated baggage handling system. In tests of the system, bags were misloaded, were misrouted, or fell out of telecarts, causing the system to jam. Video cameras were installed at several known trouble spots to document problems, such as the following: The baggage system continued to unload bags even though they were jammed on the conveyor belt. This problem occurred because the photo eye at this location could not detect the pile of bags on the belt and hence could not signal the system to stop. The baggage system loaded bags into telecarts that were already full. Hence, some bags fell onto the tracks, again causing the telecarts to jam. This problem occurred because the system had lost track of which telecarts were loaded or unloaded during a previous jam. When the system came back on-line, it failed to show that the telecarts were loaded. The timing between the conveyor belts and the moving telecarts was not properly synchronized, causing bags to fall between the conveyor belt and the telecarts. The bags became wedged under the telecarts. This occurred because telecarts were bumping into each other near the load point.
  • Prototipação

    1. 1. Engenharia de Software PROTOTIPAÇÃO Altieres de Magalhães Silva Cesar Augusto Couto Santos Daniel Pedro dos Santos Fernandes Ednilson Martines de Araujo Fabio Augusto Azevedo Hellen de Souza Castro Luana Paula de Lima Lucas Antonio Braz de Morais
    2. 2. Prototipação
    3. 3. Modelo de Prototipação <ul><li>Objetivos: </li></ul><ul><li>Entender os requisitos do usuário e, assim, obter uma melhor definição dos requisitos do sistema; </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilita que o desenvolvedor crie um modelo (protótipo) do software que deve ser construído; </li></ul><ul><li>Apropriado quando o cliente não definiu detalhadamente os requisitos. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Modelo de Prototipação <ul><li>Utilizada como uma maneira de se obter informações e apresentar essas informações aos usuários.O protótipo vai sendo melhorado até atingir o objetivo final, ou seja,até que o mesmo atinja o sistema. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos
    6. 6. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos 1- OBTENÇÃO DOS REQUISITOS: Desenvolvedor e cliente definem os objetivos gerais do software, identificam quais requisitos são conhecidos e as áreas que necessitam de definições adicionais .
    7. 7. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos 2- PROJETO RÁPIDO: Representação dos aspectos do software que são visíveis ao usuário (abordagens de entrada e formatos de saída)
    8. 8. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos 3- CONSTRUÇÃO PROTÓTIPO: Implementação rápida do projeto
    9. 9. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos 4- AVALIAÇÃO DO PROTÓTIPO: Cliente e desenvolvedor avaliam o protótipo
    10. 10. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos 5- REFINAMENTO DO PROTÓTIPO: Cliente e desenvolvedor refinam os requisitos do software a ser desenvolvido.
    11. 11. Modelo de Prototipação Elaborar Projeto Rápido Construir Protótipo Avaliar Protótipo Refinamento do Protótipo Obter Requisitos CONSTRUÇÃO DO PRODUTO
    12. 12. Benefícios da Prototipação <ul><li>Equívocos entre os usuários de software e desenvolvedores são expostos. </li></ul><ul><li>Serviços esquecidos podem ser detectados e serviços confusos podem ser identificados. </li></ul><ul><li>Um sistema funcionando está disponível nos primeiros estágios no processo de desenvolvimento. </li></ul><ul><li>O protótipo pode servir como uma base para derivar uma especificação do sistema com qualidade de produção. </li></ul><ul><li>O protótipo pode ser usado para treinamento do usuário e teste de sistema. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Benefícios da Prototipação <ul><li>Melhoria na facilidade de uso do sistema; </li></ul><ul><li>Maior aproximação do sistema com as necessidades dos usuários; </li></ul><ul><li>Melhoria da qualidade do projeto; </li></ul><ul><li>Melhoria na facilidade de manutenção; </li></ul><ul><li>Redução no esforço de desenvolvimento. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Prototipação no Processo de Software <ul><li>Prototipação evolucionária </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uma abordagem para o desenvolvimento do sistema onde um protótipo inicial é produzido e refinado através de vários estágios até atingir o sistema final. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototipação descartável </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Um protótipo o qual é usualmente uma implementação prática do sistema é produzida para ajudar a levantar os problemas com os requisitos e depois descartado. O sistema é então desenvolvido usando algum outro processo de desenvolvimento. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Objetivos da Prototipação Evolucionária e Descartável <ul><li>O objetivo da prototipação evolucionária é fornecer aos usuários finais um sistema funcionando. O desenvolvimento começa com aqueles requisitos que são melhores compreendidos. </li></ul><ul><li>O objetivo da prototipação descartável é validar ou derivar os requisitos do sistema. O processo de prototipação começa com aqueles requisitos que não são bem compreendidos. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Prototipação Evolucionária <ul><li>Baseada em técnicas que permitem interações rápidas para o desenvolvimento de aplicações. </li></ul><ul><li>Verificação é impossível uma vez que não existe especificação. A validação significa demonstrar a adequação do sistema. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Vantagens da Prototipação Evolucionária <ul><li>Rápido fornecimento do sistema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Em alguns casos, o rápido fornecimento e a facilidade de uso são mais importantes do que os detalhes de funcionalidade ou a facilidade de manutenção de software a longo prazo. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromisso do usuário com o sistema </li></ul><ul><li>O envolvimento do usuário com o sistema significa maior possibilidade de atender aos seus requisitos e um maior empenho para que o sistema funcione de acordo. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Problemas Prototipação Evolucionária <ul><li>Problemas de gerenciamento </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habilidades especialistas são necessárias e podem não estar disponível na equipe de desenvolvimento </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problemas de manutenção </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A continuidade de mudanças tende a corromper a estrutura do protótipo do sistema, assim a manutenção a longo prazo pode ser cara. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problemas contratuais </li></ul><ul><li>Os contratos são, geralmente, estabelecidos baseados em uma especificação completa do software. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Prototipação Descartável <ul><li>Usada para reduzir os riscos com os requisitos. </li></ul><ul><li>O protótipo é desenvolvido de uma especificação inicial, entregue para avaliação e então descartado. </li></ul><ul><li>O protótipo descartável NÃO deve ser considerado como um sistema final. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Características importantes podem ter sido excluídas do protótipo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Não existe especificação para manutenção futura </li></ul></ul><ul><li>O sistema será mal estruturado e difícil de manter. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Protótipos Descartáveis Liberáveis <ul><li>Desenvolvedores podem ser pressionados a entregar um protótipo descartável como um produto final </li></ul><ul><li>Isso não é recomendado </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pode ser impossível ajustar o protótipo para atender os requisitos não funcionais. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O protótipo é inevitavelmente não documentado e isso é ruim para a manutenção a longo prazo. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A s mudanças feitas durante o desenvolvimento do protótipo provavelmente terão degradado a estrutura do sistema. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Os padrões de qualidade organizacional são, normalmente, deixados de lado no desenvolvimento do protótipo. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Protótipos Classificação <ul><li>Protótipos de Baixa Fidelidade: são aqueles que não se assemelham com o produto final (Rogers, Sharp, Preece 2002). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>São úteis para a exploração e testes na fase inicial de desenvolvimento do sistema. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>São simples, baratos e de fácil produção e alteração facilitando deste modo a exploração e teste de idéias. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estes tipos de protótipos nunca são desenvolvidos com o objetivo de serem incorporados no produto final. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Protótipos de Baixa Fidelidade <ul><li>Aspectos positivos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custos Reduzidos; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menor tempo de desenvolvimento; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eficiente para recolha de requisitos de interface; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eficiente e facilita múltiplos testes de opções de design. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspectos negativos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduzida utilidade após a definição do documento de requisitos (ex: na fase de testes do sistema final); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definição incompleta (ou limitada) do esquema de navegação; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verificação limitada de erros; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especificação pobre para codificação; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilidade limitada para testes de usabilidade. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Protótipos Classificação <ul><li>Protótipos de Alta Fidelidade: Os protótipos de alta fidelidade são aqueles que mais se assemelham com o produto final (Rogers, Sharp, Preece 2002). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizam as mesmas técnicas e materiais que o sistema final (Rogers, Sharp, Preece 2002). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>São os protótipos indicados quando os objetos são a venda do sistema ou o teste de problemas técnicos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O protótipo ainda deve ter funcionalidades limitadas e os requisitos não funcionais, normalmente, não estão implementados. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Protótipos de Alta Fidelidade <ul><li>Aspectos positivos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possuir funcionalidades semelhantes às do sistema final; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitir a definição completa do esquema de navegação; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitir elevado grau de interatividade com os utilizadores; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permitir a exploração e testes diversos com um elevado grau de realismo; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O Protótipo é um documento de requisitos; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilita a venda da idéia do sistema final; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspectos negativos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Custos maiores de desenvolvimento; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevado tempo de desenvolvimento; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pode aumentar demais as expectativas dos usuários; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Não serve para coleta de requisitos, pois os mesmos já estão incluídos no protótipo. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Comparando os Protótipos Tipo Vantagens Desvantagens Baixa-Fidelidade <ul><li>Custos mais Baixos </li></ul><ul><li>Vários conceitos de design </li></ul><ul><li>Problemas de layout de tela </li></ul><ul><li>Identificar requisitos de mercado </li></ul><ul><li>Prova de conceito </li></ul><ul><li>Verificação de erros limitada </li></ul><ul><li>Especificação de código fraca </li></ul><ul><li>Conduzido pelo facilitador </li></ul><ul><li>Utilidade limitada depois da fase de requisitos </li></ul><ul><li>Pouco útil para testes de usabilidade </li></ul><ul><li>Limitações de fluxo e navegacionais </li></ul>Alta-fidelidade <ul><li>Funcionalidade Completa </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivo Completamente </li></ul><ul><li>Conduzido pelo usuário </li></ul><ul><li>Esquema navegacional </li></ul><ul><li>Exploração e Teste </li></ul><ul><li>Look “Produto acabado” </li></ul><ul><li>Especificação “viva” </li></ul><ul><li>Ferramenta de vendas e marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mais caro para desenvolver </li></ul><ul><li>Consome muito tempo na criação </li></ul><ul><li>Ineficiente para provas de conceito </li></ul><ul><li>Ineficaz para aquisição de requisitos </li></ul>
    26. 26. Vantagens da Prototipação <ul><li>Melhora a qualidade da especificação do software a ser desenvolvido, contribuindo para uma queda nos custos de desenvolvimento e manutenção. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecipa o treinamento dos usuários. </li></ul><ul><li>Partes do protótipo podem ser aproveitadas no desenvolvimento do sistema. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Desvantagens Prototipação <ul><li>O custo na maioria dos casos é considerado muito alto. </li></ul><ul><li>O cliente tende a confundir o protótipo com uma versão do sistema. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Prototipação Acessem!

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