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Ubiquitous Computing

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Introduction into Ubiquitous & Context-aware Computing

Introduction into Ubiquitous & Context-aware Computing

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  • 1988 –Mark Weiser, Chief Technologist, Xerox PARC3 challenges for Computer Science:Systems design & engineeringSystems modelingUI design1999 – Manuel Castells, book “The Rise of the Network Society”Ongoing shift from already decentralized, stand-alone microcomputers and mainframes towards entirely pervasive computingInternet as exampleNetworked logic plays its role in every user’s activity, in every location & contextPervasive – всеобъемлющий, проникающий, распространяющийся
  • Clay – глина
  • Sentient – ощущающий/чувствующий или интеллект/разумное существоCalm – тихий/спокойный
  • A significant aspect of emerging mode of computing is the frequently changing execution environment to which users and long-running applications are exposed. As users move about, the sets of mobile and stationary object they interact with may change, producing a highly dynamic execution environment in which location is important. Location information is necessary for users and applications that want to query and interact with nearby devices and services. Such information also allows stationary clients to track moving objects. In general, location information enables software to adapt according to its location of use, the collection of nearby people and objects, as well as changes to those objects over time. We use the term context-aware computing to describe software exhibiting these general capabilities.

Transcript

  • 1. Daniel Kornev Program Manager Microsoft Russia
  • 2. Agenda • Ubiquitous Computing • Great Moments in Ubiquitous Computing • Devices • Concepts & Research Areas • Context-aware Computing Systems • History • Real-world scenarios • Industry & Academia interest • Q&A
  • 3. Ubiquitous Computing • Ubiquitous Computing • Computers everywhere • Interconnected • Human doesn’t “see” computer but focus on solving his problem
  • 4. Great Moments in UbiComp 1991 – Mark Weiser (1952-1999) (Xerox PARC) introduces “ubiquitous computing” in Scientific American article 1993 – Xerox PARC introduces PARCTAB 1999 – First International Symposium on Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing (HUC) Mark Weiser 1999 – DARPA Invisible Computing Initiative funds five university projects in ubiquitous computing 2001 – HUC changed to Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp) 2001 – Intel opens four “lablets” with primary emphasis on pervasive computing 2002 – First issue of IEEE Pervasive Computing 2003 – Fifth UbiComp conference (Seattle) PARCTAB
  • 5. Ubiquitous Computing: New Form Factors Smart Devices Entirely New Tabs (wearable cm-sized devices) Dust – miniaturized devices without visual output displays, e.g., MEMS (Micro Pads (handheld decimetre-sized devices) Electro-Mechanical Systems) – from Boards (meter sized interactive display nanometers through micrometers to devices) millimetres Skin – non-planar display surfaces like OLED – for clothes – networked surfaces of MEMS Clay – 3 dimensional shapes – networked surfaces of MEMS
  • 6. What Is It? Ubiquitous Computing ≈ Pervasive Computing ≈ Invisible Computing ≈ Sentient Computing System is applicable in every real of daily activity, in every location and every context System is aware of all activities user is participating in UbiComp Technology Taxonomy Privacy Context Sensing (location, activity, goals) Modeling UI Data Availability (Web, personal server, OceanStore) Automatic Behaviors Mobile Devices Device Association Ethnographic Studies Applications
  • 7. Ubiquitous Computing: Concepts • System is applicable in every real of daily activity, in every location and every context • System is aware of all activities user is participating in Research Areas • Sensor Networks • Mobile Computing • Context-aware Pervasive Systems • Ambient Intelligence • Distributed Computing • Etc.
  • 8. Research Area: History & Definitions
  • 9. History
  • 10. First definition - 1994 Context-aware computing system is a software that adapts according to its location of use, the collection of nearby people and objects, as well as changes to those objects over time. in Disseminating Active Map Information to Mobile Hosts Bill N. Schilit, Marvin M. Theimer, 1994.
  • 11. Dey & Abowd’s definition - 2001 Context is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and application themselves. (Dey, Abowd, 2001, in Providing architectural support for building context- aware applications)
  • 12. ISO Standard - 2006 Context: Users, their goals and tasks, infrastructure (hardware, software, materials), physical and social environment in which the product is used.* * As defined by ISO 9421-11
  • 13. Windows / PC3 Definition - 2007 context –noun the set of circumstances or facts that surround a particular event, or situation. (Greg Parks; Brownbag on Windows Context Platform; July 2007; Microsoft Corporation)
  • 14. Intel’s Definition - 2008 Context-aware system can be aware of: Platform Context • Location Environmental Contexts • Motion • Physical environment • Network • Devices • Batter Status • Services • Platform Features • Running Apps User context • Memory usage • Identity • Physical state • Physiological state • Activities • Contacts • Preferences © Intel 2008, “Context Aware User Interface”, Intel Developer Forum
  • 15. Sensors – Industry & Academia Interest
  • 16. Sensors Sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer Sensors make possible for computer devices to detect elements of contexts that are hard to impossible to discover by using traditional methods.
  • 17. Sensors and context-aware solutions are on the market already Research organizations Industry Sensors Vendors + + Universities Partners Research Institutes Software Developers
  • 18. Real-World Scenarios
  • 19. Real-World Scenarios • Location • Navigation, Location-aware Printing • Augmented Reality • Navigation (ARDemo), Games (AR Counter Strike) • Home Automation • Security & Privacy • Location Privacy, Login, etc. • Social Context • Natural User Interfaces • UI orientation changes (Apple iPhone, ZuneHD, ARDemo), Object Recognition (Surface), Multi touch (Surface/iPhone/Zune HD/Windows 7), Speech Recognition • Presence • Digital Assistant • Outlook, Sound Profiles in HTC Touch Pro • Search • Collaboration • Productivity • Context-aware Tabs in Office 2007 • Context-aware Computations
  • 20. GPS and location-based applications Context-Aware User Experiences: Detection of user’s location Contextual information – POIs near user Directions Traffic and auto-correction of trip Show user’s friends location on map in real mode
  • 21. Apple iPhone Natural User Interface: Context-Aware Interfaces: Gestures UI Orientation (changes when physical orientation changes) Zoom in/out Light-aware UI Physical inertia applied to digital objects Screen uses presence sensor to automatically turn off while on call Automatic switching between tasks with applying priorities (media player pauses while on call and after call resumes playing)
  • 22. Contextual tabs in Office 2007 Natural User Experience: Ribbons for editing special objects like images, charts, tables etc appear only when these objects are selected by user
  • 23. Sound profiles in HTC Touch Pro Sound Profiles: Alarm can wake you even if you turned off system sound off Sound profiles – normal/vibration/without sound Special profile “Automatic” – switches app behavior to “Vibration” while on meetings (data is populated from Calendar)
  • 24. Location-aware Printing in Windows 7 Location-aware Printing: Default printer is chosen automatically based on current mobile computer’s network location
  • 25. Security & Privacy Device Association (HP) – use laser instead of RF broadcast to target intended device User Login (U. Aarhus, Denmark) – augment password and smart card with proximity for login/logout Location Privacy (IT U. of Copenhagen & Intel) – cell phone users are surprisingly willing to be tracked in return for useful location-based services
  • 26. Other existing examples Ambient Light Sensors in cars GPS and location-aware applications IM Presence (Skype/Messenger/ICQ) Changing screen layout depending on device’s physical orientation (iPhone) Contextual Tabs in Microsoft Office 2007 Sound Profiles in HTC Touch Pro Contextual Conversations in Office Communicator Location-aware Printing …
  • 27. Russian Context-aware Computing Incubation Team: Scenarios • Location & AR • Campus Navigation System - ARDemo • Natural User Interfaces • Context-aware User Interface – “Project Universe” • Interruption Management System (in progress) • Presence • Changing presence based on max/normal window (busy/available)
  • 28. AR Demo By Russian Context-aware Computing Incubation Team
  • 29. Scenario 4. viewing 3. taking pictures pictures 1. trip 2. walking planning
  • 30. Map follows your view direction • Magnetic declination obtained from compass is used to align map rotation N N
  • 31. Device orientation changes UI • Pitch angle calculated from accelerometer data is used to define change between two UI modes • Map mode if UMPC is • AR mode if UMPC is parallel to the ground orthogonal to the ground
  • 32. Augmented reality mode
  • 33. Augmented reality mode
  • 34. Custom hardware board Logitech Fusion Web camera Freescale JM Badge Board • 3-axis accelerometer • ambient light sensor • capacitive touch sensor Honeywell HMR3300 digital compass Pharos iGPS-500 GPS receiver
  • 35. Video
  • 36. Project Universe – Demo/Motivation
  • 37. What Do Users Want? Sensed Less Control Loved More automated behavior