Lancaster 11

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Talk at the Lancaster Literacy Research Center, from Lancaster University, 5-13-2001. Title: 'Catalan Research on Adolescent and Adult Literacy'

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Lancaster 11

  1. 1. Catalan Research on Adolescent and Adult Literacy Lancaster Literacy Research Centre [email_address] www.upf.edu/pdi/daniel_cassany/ www.upf.edu/dtf/recerca/grups/grael/LC/index.html Catalan Research - Cassany La Balanguera , traditional Catalan song: la soca més s’enfila com més endins clava les arrels [the tree grows higher if its roots go deeper]
  2. 2. Index <ul><li>The Literacitat Crítica group [2] </li></ul><ul><li>Reading about drugs on the web [6] </li></ul><ul><li>Reading political editorials [8] </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: 1; School: 0? [10] </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography [3] </li></ul>2 nd Project (2008-2011): New Literacies 1 st Project (2005-2008): Critical Literacy Catalan Research - Cassany
  3. 3. The Literacitat Crítica group from UPF Barcelona Catalan Research - Cassany
  4. 4. Group <ul><li>Department of Translation and Language Sciences (UPF). </li></ul><ul><li>Spain: R+D projects & AGAUR competitive research team. 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>People: Coordinator : D. Cassany. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 researchers : Encarna Atienza; Josep M. Castellà (Dep. Humanities); S. Cortiñas (Dep. Journalism); Carmen López Ferrero; Ernesto Martín Peris; Sònia Oliver (UAB); Òscar Morales (ULA Venezuela): Glòria Sanz (U. Girona/IES). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Ph D Students : Cristina Aliagas (UPF/MEC), Gilmar Ayala (ITAM, México), Pau Bori (U. Belgrad), Liana Egiazarián (UPF), Denise Hernández (U. Veracruz), Elena Merino (GenCat), Carmen Pastor (IC Munich), Alfonso Vargas (U. Valle Central, Cali), Adolfo Zárate (Puno), Yu-Chin Li (Taiwan). </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Webs <ul><li>Literacitat crítica: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.upf.edu/dtf/recerca/grups/grael/LC/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lekenlin . Blog about online literacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://lekenlin.blogspot.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leer.es . Ministerio de Eduación website about literacy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://docentes.leer.es/category/articulos/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cuadernos Comillas . Special issue about NLS in Spanish: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ideaworks.es/cuadernos.html </li></ul></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  6. 6. Reading about  drugs on the web Francina Martí (2008) Articles de didàctica de la llengua i la literatura , 44: 59-74. Catalan Research - Cassany
  7. 7. Research design <ul><li>Purpose: explore how teens understand ideology online. </li></ul><ul><li>Informants : three 13-14 year old teens, outside school. </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus and method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 websites about marijuana (Google): www.ideasrapidas.org ; www.tododrogas.net ; www.gencat.net/salut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task : choose one web to recommend to a friend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus : teens’ conversation (1.500w), interviews (2.459w), researcher observation notes and screenshots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method : Critical Discourse Analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perspective : Fogg (2003), Muspratt, Luke & Freebody (1997), Williams & Rowlands (2007). </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  8. 8. Catalan Research - Cassany
  9. 9. Catalan Research - Cassany
  10. 10. Catalan Research - Cassany
  11. 11. Data <ul><li>Conversation: </li></ul><ul><li>Gerard : Fixa’t! [ religious site ] Aquí hi ha molta informació i no només de droga. </li></ul><ul><li>Bea : Aborto, castidad, divorcio, familia ... [ religious site ] </li></ul><ul><li>Eva : Aquesta és una d’aquestes pàgines que són com una xarxa. </li></ul><ul><li>Bea : Eh! Eh! [ surprised ] Dios... Creador ... [no answer from Gerard & Eva] Un moment! Un moment! El creador ... Eh! Aquí et parla molt de Déu... [Bea discovers the word creador ] </li></ul><ul><li>Eva : Jo penso que la primera explica més... Està més ben explicada, però és més difícil llegir-la perquè és poc esquemàtica. [...] Si vols informar-te d’alguna cosa jo penso que la primera està bé. [30’ later] Si mires l’índex veus que no tracta solament de la marihuana, sinó que la marihuana la tracta com una cosa lligada a Déu. [...] Comences a desconfiar al no saber qui ho pot haver fet. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  12. 12. Results and conclusions <ul><li>Informants are not aware of ideology > no ideas about political/scientific/religious bias or perspectives. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One informant pays attention to one linguistic cue that relates to ideology in one web > Bea with El creador. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bea rejects the religious web because she relates creador with a preacher who sometimes spoke to them after school, using this word. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informants are aware of their needs > they reject the scientific web because it was very technical. </li></ul><ul><li>Informants use other superficial criteria to assess the webs: design, visual aids, readability, etc. (= Fogg 2003, Williams & Rowlands 2007) </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  13. 13. Reading political editorials D. Cassany, Sergi Cortiñas, Carme Hernández & Joan Sala (2008) Temps d’Educació , 34: 11-28. http://www.raco.cat/index.php/TempsEducacio/article/view/126497 Catalan Research - Cassany
  14. 14. Madrid, 11-3-2004 Catalan Research - Cassany
  15. 15. Two discursive conceptions Catalan Research - Cassany ¿?
  16. 16. Political editorials 11-3-2006 <ul><li>Dos años después El País </li></ul><ul><li>Un aniversario de una carnicería tan salvaje como la del 11-M debería ser objeto sobre todo para el recuerdo de las víctimas y el respeto a sus familiares antes que para la exhibición de la división partidista y de la desconfianza en la investigación sobre la barbarie. Hoy se cumplen dos años del atentado, que causó 191 muertos y más de 1.500 heridos, el mayor en la historia de nuestro país. Por expreso deseo de los familiares […] </li></ul><ul><li>11-M: No se sabe nada, por eso seguimos investigando El MUNDO </li></ul><ul><li>La vicepresidenta del Gobierno afirmó ayer que sobre el 11-M «se sabe prácticamente todo». Su opinión no coincide con la del 66% de los ciudadanos, que, según una encuesta de Sigma Dos que publica El Rotativo , considera que «no se sabe lo que pasó en realidad» en aquella infausta jornada, de la que hoy se cumplen dos años […] </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  17. 17. Research design <ul><li>Purpose: analyse if/how reading different sources (with opposite ideology) helps readers to be more critical. </li></ul><ul><li>Informants : 9 university students (18yo) and 62 high school students (16yo). </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus and method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 political editorials: El País (489w) & El Mundo (503w). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task : Read editorials and answer: 1) ideology?; 2) agree?; 3) why? 4) want to change answers (after reading 2 nd editorial)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus : answers of task, interviews with the informants (30’). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method : CDA, conversational Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives : CDA, Van Dijk (1999), Borrat (2005). </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  18. 18. Data <ul><li>Reading different sources . Reader 5: No de la misma, porque al leer el segundo te das cuenta de que el primero también estaba criticando al otro bastante. Si sólo es uno, no te das cuenta tanto como si hubiera el opuesto. </li></ul><ul><li>Expert reading. Reader 4: El primer paràgraf, quan fa aquesta pregunta final “¿cómo hace compatible el PP su insinuación de que ETA pudo estar detrás del 11-M si decía que Aznar había acabado con ETA y que ETA había resucitado con Zapatero?”. Això és clarament com dient que el PP mateix s’havia contradit. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  19. 19. Results (university readers) and conclusions <ul><li>Most readers (6) recognize the ideologies; 2 make one mistake and 1 shows many inconsistencies. </li></ul><ul><li>4 readers agree with one editorial. They give solid, coherent and detailed answers, with personal data and plausible reasoning; they show having knowledge and practices of the Critical Discourse Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>5 readers modify their answer to the 1 st editorial after reading the second: none change opinion. They just add more data and arguments. > The use of several and different sources helps to develop a more critical comprehension. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  20. 20. Serendipity <ul><li>The task fails with the 62 high school students : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of them don’t answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some repeat fragments of the editorials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some write uncoherent answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was impossible to process the data. Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 readers agree with both editorials at the same time. Two of them even identify the ideologies of the two editorials, but they were unaware about the absurdity of this fact. In their responses, they repeat fragments of text and give erratic or obvious data. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany <ul><li>Learners never read political editorials at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading school practices are based on ‘content texts’, without real context, apparently ‘objective’ or ‘neutral’. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common task is ‘to look for the main idea’. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions: critical literacy <ul><li>Uncritical reader: </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for THE meaning (unique, stable). </li></ul><ul><li>Is satisfied with a PERSONAL meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Is satisfied with ONE source. </li></ul><ul><li>Always reads the SAME way. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasises CONTENT. Searchs main ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pays attention to EXPLICIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension = believe & agree </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reader: </li></ul><ul><li>Knows that there are SEVERAL meanings (situated, dynamic). </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for how others understand to add meaning (SOCIAL, plural) </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for SEVERAL sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Pays attention to GENRE diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasises IDEOLOGY. Searchs author's intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>Pays attention to IMPLICITS. </li></ul><ul><li>Has knowledge about SPECIFIC ELEMENTS: references, numeracy... </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension ≠ believe & agree </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  22. 22. Internet: 1 School: 0 ? D. Cassany & Denise Hernández (2011), Articles de didàctica de la llengua i la literatura , 53: 25-34. Catalan Research - Cassany
  23. 23. Na Vida Dez, Na Escola Zero Catalan Research - Cassany Terezinha Nunes Carraher
  24. 24. Research design <ul><li>Purpose: Explore if/how internet enable some young people developing literacy practices and being successful within their community, while they fail at school literacy practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Informants : A group of 3 teens (17-20 years old) </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus and method : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 interviews (2008-2009) in front of a screen . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 photo logs; 1 stories forum (Neolitera) ; academic materials . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method: interview + discourse analysis of written material . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perspective : Barton & Hamilton (1998), Barton & Tustin (2005); Lankshear & Knoble (2008), Sanz (2009) . </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  25. 25. Catalan Research - Cassany Ari_chan
  26. 26. Vernacular practices 1 <ul><li>She writes a personal diary in Catalan since she was 10, in paper (2-3 lines from time to time; now = 110p). </li></ul><ul><li>She runs 2 photologs: personal & from the group. She posts every day: pic + short text in Spanish; she feedbacks comments by friends. </li></ul><ul><li>She created a forum and is still the webmaster: Neolitera . She wrote the first story: Comienzo en la playa (60 p; 24 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>She has three nicks: ari_chan ; ari_gyaru ; ari_caroline. </li></ul><ul><li>She spends 2-3h daily on the net. </li></ul><ul><li>She participates in some forums: music ( Tokio Hotel ), urban Japanese tribe ( gyaru ), vampire stories. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  27. 27. Catalan Research - Cassany
  28. 28. Història realista Comienzo en la playa Catalan Research - Cassany Ideophonematic Catalan Standard Spanish Chapter Presentation post Author
  29. 29. http://neolitera.mundoforo.com/ Catalan Research - Cassany Omniscient narrator Many dialogues Chapter structure Theatre features Real characters Few comments
  30. 30. Vernacular practices 2 <ul><li>She translates (English-Spanish) Tokio Hotel songs and comments. </li></ul><ul><li>She uses spelling apps and online translator without sophistication, but no official sites (DRAE, DIEC) or corpora. </li></ul><ul><li>She distinguishes “Internet language&quot; (chat, SMS, posts) and standard writing (stories). </li></ul><ul><li>She daily chat and reads/writes emails using ‘Internet language’. </li></ul><ul><li>She usually write with Word and later posts some fragments. </li></ul><ul><li>She writes differently in the diary and on the net (language, topics, moments, situations). </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  31. 31. School practices <ul><li>She can’t pass Spanish, Catalan, Latin, Art exams. Latin exam includes a very short Cicerone’s translation. </li></ul><ul><li>She ignores online language resources. </li></ul><ul><li>She shows little interest in school literacy practices. </li></ul><ul><li>She says that her academic failure was related to poor relationship with classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Latin classroom materials and exam shows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contents include basic translation skills, notions of culture and some reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllabus and tasks seem to be very reasonable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom task are related to final exam. </li></ul></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  32. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>Teens use literacy as an instrument to interact through the net: to improve relationships, to create social identities and to develop stronger and deeper feelings with friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Teens learn digital literacy in communities of practice, making the most of the affordances. Ex.: use of several register and languages (“internet Language”, standard) </li></ul><ul><li>Teens use their plurilingual competence to develop personal practices and genre: fanfic, històries realistes . </li></ul><ul><li>Digital artefacts promote more autonomous learning and communities of practice in some contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>But Ari_chan case is not common (Sanz 2009). </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  33. 33. Catalan Research - Cassany [email_address] http://www.upf.edu/pdi/dtf/daniel_cassany/ http://www.upf.edu/dtf/recerca/grups/grael/LC/index.html
  34. 34. Cited bibliography 1 <ul><li>BORRAT, Héctor. (2005) ‘Periódicos de calidad: primeras propuestas para una lectura crítica’, Portal de la comunicació de l’Institut de la comunicació UAB . Barcelona. http://www.portalcomunicacion.com/esp/pdf/aab_lec/21.pdf ; <5/5/2007> </li></ul><ul><li>FOGG, B. J. (2003) Persuasive Technology. Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do . San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann. www.bjfogg.com/ <8-6-09> </li></ul><ul><li>LANKSHEAR, Colin & KNOBEL, Michele. (2008) New Literacies: Everyday Practices and Classroom Learning . New York: McGraw Hill. 2 nd edition. </li></ul><ul><li>MUSPRATT, S.; LUKE A. & P. FREEBODY eds. (1997) Constructing Critical Literacies. Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press. </li></ul><ul><li>SANZ, Glòria. (2009) Escriptura jove a la xarxa. Exploració de les pràctiques vernacles dels adolescents a Internet . Generalitat de Catalunya. phobos.xtec.es/sgfprp/entrada.php <16-5-2011> </li></ul><ul><li>VAN DIJK, Teun A. (1999) Ideología . Barcelona: Gedisa. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  35. 35. Cited bibliography 2 <ul><li>TORRES I VITATARSANA, Marta. (2003) ‘La llengua catalana en la comunicació a Internet: questió de codis’, Llengua i ús , 26: 77-82. </li></ul><ul><li>― (1999) ‘Els xats: entre l’oralitat i l’escriptura’, Els Marges , 65: 113-126. http://perso.wanadoo.es/mtorresv/articles/art-emot.html </li></ul><ul><li>TORRES I VILATARSANA, Marta & Lluís Payrató. (2000) ‘El català dels joves en els xats, correus electrònics i missatges a mòbils: una nova varietat col·loquial?”, I Congrés Internacional Llengua, societat, ensenyament , Alacant, 8/10-11-2000. http://www.softcatala.org/articles/article04.htm </li></ul><ul><li>WILLIAMS, Peter & Ian ROWLANDS. (2007) Information Behaviour of the Researcher of The Future . A British Library and JISC Study. www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/resourcediscovery/googlegen.aspx <19-7-2009> Spanish version: “Informe Ciber. Comportamiento informacional del investigador del futuro”, Anales de documentación , 11: 235-258. 2008. revistas.um.es/analesdoc/article/viewFile/24921/24221 <8-6-2009> </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany
  36. 36. Cited bibliography 3 <ul><li>BARTON, David & Karin TUSTING (2005) Beyond Communities of Practice: Language, Power and Social Context. London: CUP. </li></ul><ul><li>BARTON, David & Mary HAMILTON. (1998) Local Literacies. Reading and Writing in One Community . London: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>CARRAHER, T. N.; CARRAHER, D. W. & A. D. SCHLIEMANN. (1988): Na vida dez, na escola, zero . Sao Paolo. Cortez. Spanish translation: En la vida diez, en la escuela cero . México. Siglo XXI, 1991. </li></ul>Catalan Research - Cassany

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