1.The Principles Of Training 2. Training Methods 3. Anatomy Of A Training Session4. Planning The Training Year: Periodisation
1. The Principles Of TrainingTo train effectively we must adopt the following :1. Specificity2. Progression3. Overload4. Reversibility5. Tedium
Specificity Our training must be specific to the requirements of our chosen sport or sporting activity. Eg. A sprinter would concentrate on speed rather than cardio-vascular endurance. Can you think of two other examples of specificity?
ProgressionAs we increase the amount of training wedo we must increase the stress on ourbody. In this way our training will becomeprogressively difficult. This progressionshould be gradual to prevent injury.We can ensure progression during aerobicsessions by checking our pulse rate andhaving knowledge of our trainingthresholds.
Training Thresholds: General Guidelines 1. Up To 60% MHR: The Recovery Zone. 2. 60% MHR: The Aerobic Threshold: below this, there is no training effect. 3. 60 – 80% MHR: The Aerobic Training Zone: improves aerobic fitness. 4. 80 – 90% MHR: Anaerobic Threshold Zone: training effect changes from aerobic to anaerobic. 5. 90 – 95% MHR: Anaerobic Training Zone: improves anaerobic fitness. 6. Over 95% MHR: Speed Training Zone: training nearly flat out.
OverloadTo improve our fitness we must overload, orstress, our body systems. This meansmaking them work harder than normal.Our bodies will then adapt to this extrawork and so we will become fitter.Overload can be implemented the FITTprinciples.
The FITT PrinciplesWe can implement overload by adjusting thefollowing elements of our training programs:Frequency: how often we train.Intensity: how hard our sessions are.Time: how long our sessions are.Type: what we include in our sessions.
Reversibility As training increases fitness, so not training decreases fitness. This will happen in only three or four weeks. This is why fitness levels are lower following injury. Muscles will also atrophy (waste away) if they are not used.
TediumTedium, or boredom, should be avoided in alltraining programs by using a range of trainingmethods to maintain enthusiasm and interest.By varying training methods, we can alsoreduce the risk of overuse injuries.Choose a sporting activity and think of as manytraining methods that could be used as part ofa training program for that activity.
2. Training Methods
Training MethodsThere are many different training methodsthat are based on an understanding of how ourbody adapts to training. Each training methodis designed to improve a specific area offitness.You should be familiar with the followingtraining methods: 1. Continuous Training 2. Interval Training 3. Weight Training 4. Fartlek Training 5. Circuit Training
Continuous Training This involves training without rest periods. Activities may include long distance running or jogging, swimming, cycling or rowing. Work should be done at 60 to 80% of MHR.
Fartlek Training This involves training over distances far greater than competition distances. The pace of running is varied between jogging, walking, striding and sprinting. The way that these activities are put together will produce an aerobic or anaerobic effect. This training method is excellent for games players as it recreates the changing intensity levels of a match.
Interval Training This involves alternating periods of work and rest. This training method can be used to develop aerobic or anaerobic fitness, depending on the demands of the session. We can vary: The distance of runs. The intensity of each run. The number of runs The length of recovery.
Circuit Training This involves a series of exercises in a given sequence. The circuit may be sport specific, position specific, component specific or general. We can vary: The number of stations. The work period. The number of reps. The rest period. The number of circuits.
Weight Training This involves using body weight, free weights or machine weights to carry out a range of exercises to improve muscular strength, muscular endurance or power. (speed x strength) This is done by applying resistance to individual muscles or muscle groups.
3. Anatomy Of A Training Session
The Training SessionAll training sessions should have four mainsections. These are: 1. Warm Up 2. Fitness Session 3. Skill Session 4. Warm Down (Cool Down)
1. Warm UpThe warm up should consist of:1. A period of gentle cardio-vascular exerciseto raise body temperature and heart rate.2. Dynamic stretching to prepare muscles andjoints for the demands of the activity.Prior to a match or competition, the warm upmay also include skill drills to practice themovement patterns and techniques of theactivity.The warm up should prepare the body bothmentally and physically.
2. Fitness SessionThe fitness carried out during this section willdepend on the sporting activity, the stage ofthe season and the stage of the training week.A hard fitness session may well follow theskills session rather than precede it,depending on the coach’s overall aims for thetraining session.
3. Skill SessionThis session may include individual, group, unitor whole team skill drills.New skills may be learned and developed inunopposed or semi-opposed drills.However, once skills have been learned,coaches will try and make these drills ascompetitive as possible so that they closelyrelate to the actual sporting activity.
4. Warm Down (Cool Down)This should involve a period of gentle cardio-vascular activity and static stretching aimedat reducing the recovery time from thesession by removing Carbon Dioxide, LacticAcid and other waste products from theworking muscles.This session also allows heart rate to return tonormal gradually and so prevent blood poolingin the working muscles which can again lead tomuscle stiffness and soreness.
Closed Season Out Of Season 4. Planning The Training Year: Periodisation Pre-Season Early Season Peak Season
PeriodisationSportsmen and sports teams should plan theirtraining programs so that they ‘peak’ at thetimes of major competitions or particularlyimportant matches. This process is calledPeriodisation.The training year should be divided into thefollowing phases: 1. Closed Season. 2. Out Of Season. 3. Pre-Season. 4. Early Season. 5. Peak Season.
1. Closed SeasonThis phase of the training year ischaracterised by:1. A complete break from the sporting activity.2. Recovery from or treatment for any injuriesfrom the previous season.3. Recreation and relaxation throughparticipation in other sports or activities.
2. Out Of SeasonThis phase of the training year ischaracterised by:1. Heavy weight training to develop strength.2. Low intensity continuous training to developan aerobic base.3. Light skills training with non-competitivegame related activities.
3. Pre-SeasonThis phase of the training year ischaracterised by:1. Higher intensity training with the emphasison speed, agility and power.2. Higher intensity skills training incompetitive situations.3. Full scale practice matches.
4. Early SeasonThis phase of the training year ischaracterised by:1. High intensity power and speed trainingduring early part of week.2. Game related drills and unit skills.3. Game preparation towards end of week.4. Competitive match at weekend.
5. Peak SeasonThis phase of the training year ischaracterised by:1. High quality speed work.2. Light weight training to maintain fitnesslevels.3. Quality rest periods.4. Game preparation towards end of week.5. Competitive matches once or twice a week.