Index1.-Art Nouveau:• Definition• Characteristics• Changes in graphic arts and crafts• Important centres of the style• Example of an Art Nouveau Work2.-Antoni Gaudí:• Biography• Examples of Gaudí’s work
Art NouveauThis style appeared in Europeat the end of the 19th Century.This new style broke up withthe predominant historicistcurrents. It drew inspirationfrom nature: curved lines,organic motifs (flowers, plants),exuberant decoration. Thework of art was understood asa whole, including all arts andcrafts (architecture, sculpture,painting, furniture, ceramics,wrought ironwork, stainedglasses…). Art Nouveau door by Jules Lavirotte, Paris
CharacteristicsThe main characteristics of the Nouveau Art are:• Inspiration on nature and its elements.• Use of curved lines, organic motifs…• Use of female image mainly in a sensual position.• Use of exotic motifs of different cultures.• Contrast between the decoration and the decorated item. Summer, Alphonse Mucha
Graphic arts and crafts - Art Nouveau spread very quickly in graphic arts: in the illustration of books and magazines and posters Art Nouveau - The arts of jewellery, glassware, jewellery ceramics, furniture and forge were revitalized by Art Nouveau, having nature as the main source of inspiration.F. Champenois Printer and Tiffany´s Dragonfly lamp Art Nouveau furnitureEditor Poster, Alphonse Mucha
Art Nouveau Painting In contrast to both academicism and impressionism, these painters changed the daily themes for symbolic and conceptual contents, between which the woman stands out, with an erotic treatment that comes up to the perversion. Princess Hiacinth, Alphonse Mucha Gismonda, Sarah Bernhardt ´s poster of Alphonse Mucha
Art Nouveau sculpture It took the female figure as a central topic in different attitudes.Some examples of sculptors:• Spain: José de Rivera, José Llimona, Enrique Clarasó, Venancio Vallmitjana and José Clará.• Belgium: Fernand Dubois and Egide Rombaux• Austria: Gustav Gurschner• Poland: Xavery Dunikowski Exterminating Angel, Josep Llimona The Goddess, by Clarà
Architecture- Art Nouveau Architecture is a bourgeois and very expensive art, which tries to integrate all the arts and crafts in architecture. It is an essentially decorative current. This movement used iron and crystal in architecture, but also forge and mostly curved elements. Grand Place of Brussels The most important centres of this style were Brussels, Paris and Barcelona
Important centres of the style: France The most important architect was Hector Guimard designed several metro station entrances in Paris, some hotels and Synagogues Synagogue, Hector GuimardAbbesses Metro Station entrancedesigned by Hector Guimard
Important centres of the style: Belgium In Belgium, Victor Horta worked in Brussels, where he built the Hôtel Tassel, many public buildings in Brussels such as, the Palais des Beaux Arts, Solvay Library and his house and workshop. The Palais des Beaux Arts, Victor Horta Hôtel Tassel by Victor Horta
Important centres of the style: Spain The most important architects in Barcelona were Lluís Domènech I Montaner (Music Palace) and Antonio Gaudí: The Holy Family, Batlló House, Güell Park... Palau de la Música (Barcelona) Lleó Morera House, by Lluís by Lluís Domènech Domènech i Montaner, Barcelona
Example of an Art Nouveau Work • Title: The night • Author: Alphonse Mucha • Chronology: 1899 • Location : Alphonse Mucha’s Museum, Prague • Material used: Colour lithograph • Description: Alphonse Mucha painted the four Times of the day: The Morning, The Day, The Afternoon and The Night. Mucha tried to create a compelling harmony of vision, whose intention was to inspire and elevate the viewer.Mucha also painted several series of paintings similar to this one, for example one the four seasons of the year. The Art Nouveau’s characteristics are the use of nature elements, organic forms, geometric structure… He used the female image mainly in a sensual position. He also painted movement in the dress of the woman and bright colours.
Antoni Gaudí Gaudí was the most important representative of Art Nouveau in Spain. He was influenced by Gothic art and oriental styles. He used: hyperboloid vaults and helicoidal columns. Gaudí also used the trencadís, a mosaic made of ceramic fragments. One example of trencadís is the Dragonfly of Güell Park.Many of his workswere commissionedby the Güell family.
Gaudí was an architect with an innate sense of geometry andvolume and great ingenuity. He studied the most minimal details ofhis creations. After a short time of Neogothic influence, Gaudíended in Art Nouveau in his period of major effervescence.There are innumerable studiesdedicated to his way ofunderstanding architecture.The Holy Family is one ofGaudí’s most visitedmonuments in Spain nowadays.Between 1984 and 2005 sevenGaudí´s works were beenconsidered to be Heritage ofthe Humanity by the UNESCO. Mila’s House, Barcelona
Examples of Gaudi’s buildings Güell Park, Barcelona
Entrance gate to theGüell Pavilions. Holy Family, Barcelona The Whim
La Casa Botines, Astorga Interior of Batlló HouseDragonfly of the Güell Park
• Title: Batlló House• Author: Antonio Gaudí• Chronology: The first house was built in 1875 by Emili Sala Cortés, but later it was restored by Gaudí in 1904- 1906.• Location : Barcelona, Catalunya• Material used: Iron, wood, concrete, tiles, glass...
• Description: Facade: Gaudí used the trencadís to build it and it has a wavy surface. He also used masks, bones, confetti and the dragonfly scales as decorative elements. Interior: It has 8 floors. The hall is rectangular and it has curved ceilings, marble floors and a blue ceramic decoration in the bottom of the stucco wall at the top. Roof: It is built with tiles that simulates dragonfly scales. It has a tower that ends with a Latin cross. Main Hall
The Art Nouveau’s characteristicsare organic forms, geometricarchitecture, nature elements, theuse of exotic elements… It startswith some refinements ofBaroque, but it acquired greatrich structure of forms and curvedlines.