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  1. 1. Norman M. Wade The Lightning Press SMARTbook Doctrine 2015 Guide to Unified Land Operations & the Six Warfighting Functions 5th Revised Edition Army “Doctrine 2015” Updates and Changes Unified Land Operations (ADP/ADRP 3-0) Mission Command Warfighting Function Movement & Maneuver Warfighting Function Intelligence Warfighting Function Sustainment Warfighting Function Fires Warfighting Function Protection Warfighting Function THE ArmyOperations&Doctrine ADP 2-0 ADP3-0 ADP 4-0 ADP6-0 & more! Doctrine 2015 Guide! Sam ple
  2. 2. www.TheLightningPress.comwww.TheLightningPress.com With just one file across your multiple devices, our digital companion series offers many ways to STAY SMART! SMARTbooks are now offered in your choice of hard copy, digital, or both for- mats! Digital SMARTbooks are designed to be side-by-side digital compan- ions to our hard copy SMARTbooks. Access your entire SMARTbook digital library on your portable device when you’re traveling, or use the hard copy edition in secure facilities (SCIF), combat or field environments. Digital SMARTbooks Use one file across your multiple devices! Digital SMARTbooks are available in two versions, PDF and ePub. The PDF- based version is best for PC/MAC and tablet devices (like the iPad and Galaxy Tab). This version keeps the graphic layout and design of our SMARTbooks intact (for this reason, we recommend the PDF-based versions of our Digital SMARTbooks as they most closely replicate our hard copy editions). The ePub versions are composed of reflowable content and are best for e-ink devices like the Sony Reader or on devices with smaller screens such as mobile phones. Features of our Digital SMARTbooks (Some features may be limited by the capabilities of the particular device and/or software.) • Use your digital SMARTbook across your multiple devices. With one file, you can read and transfer our digital SMARTbooks (eBooks) across 85+ devices and applications that support Adobe eBook DRM. Our digital SMARTbooks are authorized to a user’s Adobe ID and can be transferred to up to six devices and six computers via Adobe Digital Editions. • Fully Interactive and Hyperlinked. Find your information quickly and intuitively! In addition to the Table of Contents, our A-B-C and 1-2-3 charts are fully linked and interactive, as well as page jumps (e.g., See pp. ____ for further discussion) and the index. • Search and Jump-to Page Numbers. Get to a subject or specific page number quickly by entering it in the “Search” field. • Side-by-Side (Portrait/Landscape) Views. Switch between portrait or land- scape orientation (based on your device or app), or select “Side-by-Side”. This features displays our multi-page layouts and side charts as intended. • Print and Copy features. At a course or on TDY and need a copy of a particular chart or diagram? Our digital SMARTbooks allow you to print and copy up to 20 pages for personal use. • Bookmarking and Reader Notes. You can add bookmarks to quickly navigate around a document, plus you can add your own reader notes. Visit www.TheLightningPress.com for complete details! Sam ple
  3. 3. Doctrine 2015 Guide to Unified Land Operations & the Six Warfighting Functions SMARTbook The Lightning Press Norman M. Wade THE ArmyOperations&Doctrine 5th Revised Edition Sam ple
  4. 4. The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook (5th Rev. Ed.) The Lightning Press 2227 Arrowhead Blvd. Lakeland, FL 33813 24-hour Voicemail/Fax/Order: 1-800-997-8827 E-mail: SMARTbooks@TheLightningPress.com www.TheLightningPress.com Doctrine 2015 Guide to Unified Land Operations & the Six Warfighting Functions This is the fifth revised edition of The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, fully incorporating the new material from Change 1 (ADP 3-0 & Doctrine 2015) SMARTupdate to AODS4, along with the full scope of complete and comprehensive additional “Doctrine 2015” reference citation, terminology and material changes throughout! Copyright © 2013 Norman M. Wade ISBN: 978-1-935886-29-7 All Rights Reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or other means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval systems, without permission in writing by the publisher. Inquiries should be ad- dressed to The Lightning Press. Notice of Liability The information in this SMARTbook and quick reference guide is distributed on an “As Is” basis, without warranty. While every precaution has been taken to ensure the reliability and accuracy of all data and contents, neither the author nor The Lightning Press shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to liability, loss, or damage caused di- rectly or indirectly by the contents of this book. If there is a discrepancy, refer to the source document. This SMARTbook does not contain classified or sensitive information restricted from public release. “The views presented in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Defense or its components.” SMARTbook is a trademark of The Lightning Press. About our cover photo: Pulling security. Pfc. Dustin Dean, an infantryman with the 82nd Airborne Division’s 1st Brigade Combat Team, pulls security behind a machine gun while the rest of his platoon searches a farmhouse for intelligence during a platoon training and evaluation exercise April 27, 2011, at Fort Bragg, N.C. Dean’s battalion, the 1st Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, has been tasked to augment a brigade of paratroop- ers currently on the short-notice global response force. U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Michael J. MacLeod Printed and bound in the United States of America. Sam ple
  5. 5. Editor’s Notes The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook Doctrine 2015 Guide to Unified Land Operations & the Six Warfighting Functions This is the fifth revised edition of The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, fully incorporating the new material from Change 1 (ADP 3-0 & Doctrine 2015) SMARTup- date to AODS4, along with the full scope of complete and comprehensive addition- al “Doctrine 2015” reference citation, terminology and material changes throughout! Comprehensive Doctrine 2015 changes and material include ADP/ADRP 3-0 Unified Land Operations, ADP/ADRP 2-0 Intelligence, ADP/ADRP 3-09 Fires, ADP/ADRP 4-0 Sustainment, ADP/ADRP 6-0 Mission Command and ADP/ADRP 3-37 Protec- tion. Also includes new material from ADP 3-90, ADP 3-07 Stability, ADP 3-28 DSCA and ADP 3-05 Special Operations, plus more (see the references page)! Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favor- able conflict resolution (ADP 3-0). Unified land operations is the Army’s operational concept and the Army’s contribution to unified action. Combined arms maneuver and wide area security, executed through simultaneous offensive, defensive, stability, or defense support of civil authorities tasks, require continuously generating and applying combat power, often for extended periods. Combat power is the total means of destructive, constructive, and information capabilities that a military unit or formation can apply at a given time. Army forces generate combat power by converting potential into effective action. To execute combined arms operations, commanders conceptualize capabilities in terms of combat power. Combat power has eight elements: leadership, information, mission command, movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, and protection. The Army collectively describes the last six elements as the warfighting functions. Commanders apply combat power through the warfighting functions using leadership and information. SMARTbooks - The Essentials of Warfighting! Recognized as a doctrinal reference standard by military professionals around the world, SMARTbooks are designed with all levels of Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines and Civilians in mind. SMARTbooks can be used as quick reference guides during actual tactical combat operations, as study guides at military education and professional development courses, and as lesson plans and checklists in support of training. Serving a generation of warfighters, military reference SMARTbooks have become “mission-essential” around the world.Read more: www.TheLightningPress.com Keep your SMARTbooks Up-to-Date! To help readers keep abreast of revisions and changes, we have two dedicated tools: SMARTnews Mailing List! Sign-up for e-mail notification of updates, revisions and doctrinal changes to our SMARTbooks, as well as notification of future titles: www.thelightningpress.com/reader-support/join-the-mailing-list/ Check the status of your SMARTbook! Readers can check for changes and updates for our titles at any time on our dedicated SMARTupdate page: www.thelightningpress.com/smartupdates/ Introduction-1 Sam ple
  6. 6. 2-Introduction Under the previous doctrine management program, the Army maintained 625 publica- tions on the Army Publishing Directorate website and the Reimer Digital Library. Many of these manuals remained unchanged for years. In 2009, the Commander, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), directed a reengineering of doctrine. The primary goals of the reengineering project were to reduce the number of field manuals (FM), standardize the content of manuals to less than 200 pages, and establish a more efficient doctrine management program. In the past, the average life cycle of a doctrine publication was about three to five years. Once proponent authors begin revising it, the revision process takes from three to 24 months to complete, depending on the needs of the field. The current cycle has come a long way in adjusting to the needs in theater; however, when a rapid change is required, the system requires significant time to update a manual. The current method is viewed by many as cumbersome, slow, and unable to keep up with rapidly changing unified land operations. The primary focus of Doctrine 2015 is to produce a body of knowledge related to the conduct of operations that uses technology to leverage and incorporate leader input, especially on mission essential tasks. Doctrine development will become faster and the system will create fewer publications which will be shorter, clearer, and more digitally accessible than the current system. Doctrine 2015 will have four categories of operational knowledge: Army doctrine publica- tions (ADPs), Army doctrine reference publications (ADRPs), field manuals (FMs), Army techniques publications (ATPs) and digital applications (APPs). Army “Doctrine 2015” Overview TechniquesTechniques Techniques Techniques Techniques Techniques Army Doctrine Publications (ADP) Army Doctrine Reference Publications (ADRP) [1 per ADP] Field Manuals (FM) Army Techniques Pubs (ATP) Fundamental principles Detailedinformationon fundamentals Tactics and Procedures Authenticated version on APD Input through wiki version (Interactive Media, Podcasts, Mobile APPs) Applications [~15ADPs] [50 FMs] ADP 1-02 Operational Termsand Graphics ADP 7-0 Training and Leader Development ADP 3-90 Offensive and Defensive Operations ADP 3-07 Stability Operations ADP 3-28 Defense Support of Civil Authorities ADP 6-22 Army Leadership ADP 3-0 Unified Land Operations ADP 5-0 The Operations Process ADP 3-09 Fires ADP 3-05 Special Operations ADP 2-0 Intelligence ADP 4-0 Sustainment ADP 3-37 Protection ADP 6-0 Mission Command ADRP 3-90 Offensive and Defensive Operations ADRP 6-22 Army Leadership ADRP 3-0 Unified Land Operations ADRP 6-0 Mission Command ADRP 5-0 The Operations Process Field Manual Field Manual Field Manual Field Manual Field Manual Field Manual Profession As the window on real-world operations and actual combat knowledge starts to close, the drive to capture the lessons from over a decade of persistent conflict is strong. Doctrine 2015 will be the vehicle for gaining and capturing that knowledge and transmitting it to the Army of the future. By breaking up doctrine into its basic components, the Army will be able to make revisions faster, retain enduring concepts, and gain lessons from battle- field experienced warriors. Doctrine 2015 is a significant departure from the way doctrine has been developed in the past. Changing times, technical advances, demands from the field and the ever changing battlefield environment prompted these significant and necessary changes. The Army’s need to teach both enduring lessons and new concepts remains constant. It will be how the Army obtains and delivers information that must change. The Doctrine 2015 system will allow this change to happen. Sam ple
  7. 7. Introduction-3 Doctrine 2015 Guide to Unified Land Operations & the Six Warfighting Functions This is the fifth revised edition of The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, fully incorporating the new material from Change 1 (ADP 3-0 & Doctrine 2015) SMARTupdate to AODS4, along with the full scope of complete and comprehensive additional “Doc- trine 2015” reference citation, terminology and material changes throughout! Comprehensive Doctrine 2015 changes and material include ADP/ADRP 3-0 Unified Land Operations, ADP/ADRP 2-0 Intelligence, ADP/ADRP 3-09 Fires, ADP/ADRP 4-0 Sustainment, ADP/ADRP 6-0 Mission Command and ADP/ADRP 3-37 Protection. Also includes new material from ADP 3-90, ADP 3-07 Stability, ADP 3-28 DSCA and ADP 3-05 Special Operations, plus more (see the references page)! The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook Foundations of Doctrine Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter con- flict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution. Unified land operations is the Army’s operational concept and the Army’s contribution to unified action. Decisive Action Editor’s note: For the purposes of The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, an over- view of the following elements of decisive action are represented as they relate to the move- ment and maneuver warfighting function (including Special Operations): The Six Warfighting Functions A warfighting function is a group of tasks and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. All warfighting functions possess scalable capabilities to mass lethal and nonlethal effects. The Army’s warfighting functions link directly to the joint functions. ADP 3-0 Unified Land Operations ADP 1 The Army ADP 6-22 Army Leadership ADP 7-0 Training Unitsand Developing Leavers ADP 6 ArmyLeadership ADP 6-0 Mission Command 90- Movement and Maneuver Covered by ADP3 Movement and Maneuver Covered by ADP3-90 ADP2-0 Intelligence ADP 3-09 Fires ADP4-0 Sustainment ADP4-0 Sustainment ADP3-37 Protection Chapter 1 “The Leader’s SMARTbook” Chapter 3 - (Movement & Maneuver) Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 ADP 3-90 Offense And Defense ADP 3-07 Stability -ADP3-28 Defense Support of Civil Authorities ADP3-05 Special Operations ADP5-0 The Operations Process ADP1-02 Operational Terms and Military Symbols “The Battle Staff SMARTbook” Sam ple
  8. 8. References The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook The following references were used to compile The Army Operations & Doctrine SMART- book. All references are available to the general public and designated as “approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.” The Army Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook does not contain classified or sensitive material restricted from public release. Army Doctrinal Publications (ADPs) and Army Doctrinal Reference Publications (ADRPs) ADP/ADRP 1-02 Aug 2012 Operational Terms and Military Symbols (with Chg 1, Sept 2012) ADP/ADRP 2-0 Aug 2012 Intelligence ADP 3-0 Oct 2011 Unified Land Operations ADRP 3-0 May 2012 Unified Land Operations ADP 3-05 Aug 2012 Special Operations ADP 3-07 Aug 2012 Stability ADP/ADRP 3-09 Aug 2012 Fires ADP 3-28 Jul 2012 Defense Support of Civil Authorities ADP/ADRP 3-37 Aug 2012 Protection ADP/ARDRP 3-90 Aug 2012 Offense and Defense ADP/ADRP 4-0 Jul 2012 Sustainment ADP/ADRP 5-0 May 2012 The Operations Process ADP/ADRP 6-0 May 2012 Mission Command (with Chg 1, Sept 2012) Army Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (ATTPs) ATTP 5-0.1 Sept 2011 Commander and Staff Officer’s Guide Field Manuals (FMs) FM 3-34 Aug 2011 Engineer Operations FM 3-35 Apr 2010 Army Deployment and Redeployment FM 3-52 Aug 2002 Army Airspace Cmd & Control in a Combat Zone FM 5-102 Mar 1985 Countermobility Joint Publications (JPs) JP 1 May 2007 Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States JP 3-0 Aug 2011 Joint Operations 4-References Sam ple
  9. 9. Table of Contents - 1 Table of Contents I. Unified Land Operations...............................................................1-1 I. Unified Land Operations (Defined)...................................................................1-1 - ADRP 3-0: Major Changes (from FM 3-0)....................................................1-3 - Unified Land Operations (Underlying Logic)................................................1-5 II. An Operational Environment............................................................................1-1 A. Operational and Mission Variables............................................................1-4 1. Operational Variables (PMESII-PT)......................................................1-4 2. Mission Variables (METT-TC)...............................................................1-4 B. Strategic Context for Unified Land Operations..........................................1-6 - The Operational Environment.................................................................1-6 - Threats....................................................................................................1-9 III. Unified Action..................................................................................................1-8 A. Cooperation With Civilian Organizations.................................................1-10 B. Multinational Operations..........................................................................1-11 - Alliance.................................................................................................1-11 - Coalition................................................................................................1-11 IV. Joint Operations...........................................................................................1-12 - The Range of Military Operations (ROMO)................................................1-12 - Joint Ops, Unified Action & the Range of Military Operations (ROMO).....1-14 A. Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence............1-15 B. Crisis Response & Limited Contingency Operations..........................1-15 C. Major Operations and Campaigns.....................................................1-15 V. Land Operations............................................................................................1-13 A. Expeditionary Capability and Campaign Quality......................................1-13 B. Close Combat..........................................................................................1-16 VI. Operations Structure....................................................................................1-16 A. Operations Process.................................................................................1-16 - Activities of the Operations Process.....................................................1-17 - Army Planning Methodologies..............................................................1-19 B. The Warfighting Functions.......................................................................1-18 - The Six Warfighting Functions..............................................................1-23 C. Operational Framework...........................................................................1-18 - The Operational Framework.................................................................1-19 - Area of Operations................................................................................1-20 - Area of Influence...................................................................................1-20 - Area of Interest.....................................................................................1-20 - Deep–Close–Security...........................................................................1-21 - Decisive–Shaping–Sustaining..............................................................1-21 - Main and Supporting Efforts.................................................................1-21 VII. The Law of War & Rules of Engagement....................................................1-18 A. The Law of War........................................................................................1-18 B. Rules of Engagement..............................................................................1-22 VIII. Combined Arms..........................................................................................1-22 Chap1Chap1 Unified Land Operations (ADP/ADRP 3-0)Sam ple
  10. 10. 2 - Table of Contents II. The Army’s Operational Concept..............................................1-25 I. Goal of Unified Land Operations....................................................................1-25 II. Foundations of Unified Land Operations.......................................................1-25 A. Initiative....................................................................................................1-25 B. Decisive Action........................................................................................1-27 - Tasks of Decisive Action.......................................................................1-28 1. Offensive Tasks.................................................................................1-28 2. Defensive Tasks................................................................................1-28 3. Stability Tasks...................................................................................1-29 4. Defense Support of Civil Authority Tasks..........................................1-29 - Transitioning in Decisive Action............................................................1-30 C. Army Core Competencies........................................................................1-33 1. Combined Arms Maneuver.................................................................1-34 2. Wide Area Security.............................................................................1-35 D. Mission Command...................................................................................1-33 1. Art of Command..................................................................................1-38 2. Science of Control..............................................................................1-38 III. Tenets of Unified Land Operations...............................................................1-36 A. Flexibility..................................................................................................1-36 B. Integration................................................................................................1-36 C. Lethality...................................................................................................1-37 D. Adaptability..............................................................................................1-37 E. Depth.......................................................................................................1-37 F. Synchronization........................................................................................1-37 III. Combat Power (& the Warfighting Functions)........................1-39 I. The Elements of Combat Power.....................................................................1-39 II. The Six Warfighting Functions.......................................................................1-40 1. Mission Command...................................................................................1-41 2. Movement and Maneuver........................................................................1-41 3. Intelligence...............................................................................................1-41 4. Fires.........................................................................................................1-41 5. Sustainment.............................................................................................1-41 6. Protection.................................................................................................1-41 III. Organizing Combat Power...........................................................................1-42 A. Force Tailoring.........................................................................................1-42 B. Task-Organizing.......................................................................................1-42 C. Mutual Support........................................................................................1-42 IV. Operational Art..........................................................................1-43 I. The Application of Operational Art..................................................................1-43 - Developing an Operational Approach........................................................1-44 - Operational Art and Planning.....................................................................1-47 - Elements of Operational Design...........................................................1-47 - Elements of Operational Art..................................................................1-47 - Principles of Joint Operations....................................................................1-49 II. The Elements of Operational Art....................................................................1-46 A. End State and Conditions........................................................................1-46 B. Centers of Gravity....................................................................................1-46 C. Decisive Points........................................................................................1-48 D. Lines of Operations and Lines of Effort...................................................1-48 E. Operational Reach...................................................................................1-50 F. Basing......................................................................................................1-51 G. Tempo......................................................................................................1-52 H. Phasing and Transitions..........................................................................1-53 I. Culmination...............................................................................................1-54 J. Risk...........................................................................................................1-54 Sam ple
  11. 11. Table of Contents - 3 Chap2Chap2 Mission Command Warfighting Function Mission Command Warfighting Function......................................2-1 I. The Exercise of Mission Command..................................................................2-2 - ADRP 6-0: Changes (from FM 6-0)..............................................................2-4 II. Mission Command Warfighting Tasks..............................................................2-6 A. Commander Tasks.....................................................................................2-8 B. Staff Tasks...............................................................................................2-10 C. Additional Tasks.......................................................................................2-12 III. Mission Command System.............................................................................2-7 I. Mission Command Philosophy of Command...........................2-13 I. Principles of Mission Command.....................................................................2-13 II. Art of Command.............................................................................................2-16 A. Authority...................................................................................................2-16 B. Decisionmaking.......................................................................................2-17 - Understanding......................................................................................2-18 - Judgment..............................................................................................2-19 C. Leadership...............................................................................................2-17 III. Science of Control........................................................................................2-20 A. Information...............................................................................................2-21 B. Communication........................................................................................2-22 C. Structure..................................................................................................2-23 D. Degrees of Control..................................................................................2-23 IV. Application of the Mission Command Philosophy.........................................2-23 - Command Presence..................................................................................2-24 II. Command and Support Relationships.....................................2-27 I. Chain of Command.........................................................................................2-27 A. Combatant Commands............................................................................2-28 B. Joint Task Forces and Service Components............................................2-28 II. Task Organization..........................................................................................2-29 III. Joint Command & Support Relationships.....................................................2-30 Command Relationships Overview..............................................................2-30 A. Combatant Command (COCOM) - Command Authority....................2-31 B. Operational Control (OPCON)............................................................2-31 C. Tactical Control (TACON)...................................................................2-31 Support Relationships..................................................................................2-31 A. General Support.................................................................................2-31 B. Mutual Support...................................................................................2-31 C. Direct Support....................................................................................2-31 D. Close Support....................................................................................2-31 IV. Army Command & Support Relationships....................................................2-32 A. Command Relationships..........................................................................2-32 B. Support Relationships..............................................................................2-33 V. Command Posts............................................................................................2-34 III. Army Airspace Command and Control (A2C2).......................2-35 I. Key Documents..............................................................................................2-35 II. Airspace Control Measures...........................................................................2-36 III. Key Positions and Responsibilities...............................................................2-37 Sam ple
  12. 12. 4 - Table of Contents Movement & Maneuver Warfighting Function Movement & Maneuver Warfighting Function...............................3-1 I. Offense and Defense (Decisive Operations)....................................................3-2 The Tactical Level of War...............................................................................3-2 The Offense....................................................................................................3-2 The Defense...................................................................................................3-2 Tactical Enabling Tasks..................................................................................3-2 II. Stability Operations (Decisive Operations)......................................................3-4 - Primary Army Stability Tasks........................................................................3-4 III. Defense Support of Civil Authorities (Decisive Operations)...........................3-6 - Army Support of Civil Authorities..................................................................3-6 - Primary Purposes of Army Support..............................................................3-6 - Primary Characteristics of Army Support.....................................................3-6 IV. Special Operations.........................................................................................3-8 - Army Special Operations Forces Critical Capabilities..................................3-8 - Special Warfare............................................................................................3-8 - Surgical Strike..............................................................................................3-8 V. Deployment & Redeployment Operations.....................................................3-10 - Force Projection.........................................................................................3-10 - Deployment................................................................................................3-10 - Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)......................................................3-10 I. Tactical Echelons........................................................................3-11 - Military Units and Echelons.............................................................................3-13 II. Tactical Mission Tasks (ADRP 3-90).........................................3-17 I. The Tactical Level of War................................................................................3-17 II. The Science and Art of Tactics......................................................................3-18 III. Tactical Mission Tasks..................................................................................3-18 - Tactical Doctrinal Taxonomy.......................................................................3-19 A. Effects on Enemy Forces.........................................................................3-20 B. Actions by Friendly Forces.......................................................................3-21 C. Mission Symbols......................................................................................3-22 III. Mobility and Countermobility...................................................3-23 I. Mobility............................................................................................................3-23 - Mobility Operations Primary Tasks.............................................................3-23 - Offensive Considerations...........................................................................3-23 - Assured Mobility.........................................................................................3-24 - Defensive Considerations..........................................................................3-26 II. Countermobility..............................................................................................3-26 - Offensive Considerations...........................................................................3-26 - Defensive Considerations..........................................................................3-27 - Obstacle Planning......................................................................................3-28 III. Engineer Support..........................................................................................3-30 - Engineer Framework..................................................................................3-31 A. Engineer Activities Across the Levels of War...........................................3-32 B. Engineer Disciplines................................................................................3-32 C. Lines of Engineer Support.......................................................................3-36 Chap3Chap3 Sam ple
  13. 13. Table of Contents - 5 Intelligence Warfighting Function Intelligence Warfighting Function...................................................4-1 I. Intelligence Overview.......................................................................................4-2 - Intelligence in Unified Land Operations.......................................................4-2 - Logic Map....................................................................................................4-3 II. ADRP 2-0: Changes (from FM 2-0).................................................................4-4 III. The Purpose of Intelligence............................................................................4-6 - Facilitating Understanding...........................................................................4-6 A. Threats and Hazards.................................................................................4-6 B. Terrain and Weather..................................................................................4-6 C. Civil Considerations and Social Understanding.......................................4-10 IV. Intelligence Support to Commanders and Decisionmakers............................4-7 V. Reconnaissance and Surveillance..................................................................4-8 A. Route Reconnaissance..............................................................................4-8 B. Zone Reconnaissance...............................................................................4-9 C. Area Reconnaissance................................................................................4-9 D. Reconnaissance in Force..........................................................................4-9 - Every Soldier is a Sensor (ES2) Program....................................................4-9 - Reconnaissance Objective..........................................................................4-9 VI. Intelligence Warfighting Function Tasks.......................................................4-11 VII. Characteristics of Effective Intelligence.......................................................4-12 I. The Intelligence Process............................................................4-13 - The Joint Intelligence Process.........................................................................4-13 - The Army Intelligence Process........................................................................4-13 - Commander’s Guidance..................................................................................4-14 I. Intelligence Process Steps.............................................................................4-14 A. Plan and Direct........................................................................................4-16 - Intelligence Planning Considerations...................................................4-15 - Requirements Management.................................................................4-17 B. Collect......................................................................................................4-18 - Intelligence Reach................................................................................4-19 C. Produce...................................................................................................4-18 D. Disseminate.............................................................................................4-20 - Dissemination Methods and Techniques..............................................4-21 II. Intelligence Process Continuing Activities.....................................................4-22 E. Analyze....................................................................................................4-22 F. Assess......................................................................................................4-22 II. Army Intelligence Capabilities..................................................4-23 I. All-Source Intelligence....................................................................................4-23 II. Single-Source Intelligence.............................................................................4-24 A. The Intelligence Disciplines.....................................................................4-24 B. Complementary Intelligence Capabilities.................................................4-24 C. Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (PED)................................4-24 - PED Activities within Intelligence Operations.......................................4-25 - PED Enablers within the Intelligence Architecture................................4-30 Chap4Chap4 Sam ple
  14. 14. 6 - Table of Contents Fires Warfighting Function Fires Warfighting Function..............................................................5-1 I. Fires Warfighting Function................................................................................5-1 A. Deliver Fires...............................................................................................5-1 B. Integrate All Forms of Army, Joint and Multinational Fires.........................5-1 C. Conduct Targeting......................................................................................5-4 II. Fires Overview.................................................................................................5-2 - ADRP 3-09: Overview/Changes (from FM 3-09 and FM 3-01)....................5-2 - Fires Logic Diagram.....................................................................................5-3 I. Fires in Support of Unified Land Operations..............................5-5 I. Roles................................................................................................................5-5 II. Core Competencies.........................................................................................5-5 A. Air Defense Artillery...................................................................................5-5 B. Field Artillery..............................................................................................5-5 III. Fires and Joint Principles...............................................................................5-6 IV. Fires - Principles and Characteristics.............................................................5-7 V. Fires in Support of Unified Land Operations...................................................5-9 VI. Fires in Support Decisive Operations...........................................................5-10 VII. Employment of Fires...................................................................................5-12 A. Air and Missile Defense Employment......................................................5-12 B. Field Artillery Employment.......................................................................5-13 VIII. Fires and Operational Framework..............................................................5-14 A. Decisive-Shaping-Sustaining Framework................................................5-14 B. Deep-Close-Security Framework.............................................................5-14 II. Fires Organizations and Key Personnel..................................5-15 I. Strategic Level (Fires Organizations and Personnel).....................................5-16 II. Operational Level (Fires Organizations and Personnel)................................5-17 III. Tactical Level (Fires Organizations and Personnel).....................................5-20 IV. Fires Brigade (FIB) (Fires Organizations and Personnel)............................5-22 V. ADA Brigade..................................................................................................5-24 III. Fires in the Operations Process..............................................5-25 I. The Operations Process.................................................................................5-25 - Operations Process & Targeting Relationship............................................5-27 II. Fires and Targeting (D3A)..............................................................................5-25 - Dynamic Targeting.....................................................................................5-26 - Find, Fix, Finish, Exploit, Analyze and Disseminate (F3EAD)...................5-26 A. Decide......................................................................................................5-26 B. Detect......................................................................................................5-26 C. Deliver......................................................................................................5-26 D. Assess.....................................................................................................5-26 III. Fires Planning...............................................................................................5-28 IV. Air Defense Planning....................................................................................5-30 - Defended Asset Development (CAL and DAL)..........................................5-30 Chap5Chap5 Sam ple
  15. 15. Table of Contents - 7 Sustainment Warfighting Function Sustainment Warfighting Function.................................................6-1 I. Sustainment Warfighting Function....................................................................6-1 A. Logistics.....................................................................................................6-1 B. Personnel Services....................................................................................6-1 C. Health Service Support..............................................................................6-4 II. Sustainment Overview.....................................................................................6-2 - Sustainment Underlying Logic.....................................................................6-3 I. Sustainment of Unified Land Operations....................................6-5 I. Strategic Context..............................................................................................6-5 II. Joint Interdependence.....................................................................................6-5 III. Army Sustainment Responsibilities................................................................6-7 A. Army Title 10 Sustainment Requirements..................................................6-7 B. Executive Agent (EA).................................................................................6-7 C. Lead Service..............................................................................................6-7 D. Joint Command for Logistics.....................................................................6-8 E. Directive Authority for Logistics (DAFL).....................................................6-8 IV. Generating Forces..........................................................................................6-8 V. Operating Forces...........................................................................................6-12 VI. Intergovernmental and Interagency Coordination........................................6-16 VII. Sustainment in Multinational Operations.....................................................6-17 VIII. Joint Logistics.............................................................................................6-20 II. Sustainment of Decisive Action................................................6-21 I. Operational Reach..........................................................................................6-26 - Army Prepositioned Stocks........................................................................6-27 A. Theater Opening......................................................................................6-28 B. Theater Closing........................................................................................6-28 II. Freedom of Action.........................................................................................6-34 A. Sustainment Preparation.........................................................................6-34 B. Sustainment Execution............................................................................6-34 III. Endurance....................................................................................................6-34 - Distribution.................................................................................................6-35 IIIA. Logistics..................................................................................6-37 A. Maintenance..................................................................................................6-37 B. Transportation Operations.............................................................................6-37 C. Supply...........................................................................................................6-40 D. Field Services...............................................................................................6-42 E. Operational Contract Support.......................................................................6-42 F. General Engineering Support........................................................................6-44 IIIB. Personnel Services.................................................................6-45 A. Human Resources Support...........................................................................6-45 B. Financial Management..................................................................................6-46 C. Legal Support................................................................................................6-48 D. Religious Support..........................................................................................6-48 E. Band Support................................................................................................6-50 IIIC. Health Service Support..........................................................6-51 A. Casualty Care...............................................................................................6-51 B. Medical Evacuation.......................................................................................6-54 C. Medical Logistics...........................................................................................6-54 Chap6Chap6 Sam ple
  16. 16. 8 - Table of Contents Chap7Chap7 Protection Warfighting Function Protection Warfighting Function.....................................................7-1 I. Protection Warfighting Function........................................................................7-1 II. The Role of Protection.....................................................................................7-2 III. ADRP 3-37: Overview (What’s New!).............................................................7-4 IV. Protection Integration in the Operations Process...........................................7-6 V. Protection in Support of Unified Land Operations (Principles)......................7-10 I. Protection Supporting Tasks......................................................7-11 I. Supporting Tasks............................................................................................7-11 A. Conduct Operational Area Security.........................................................7-12 B. Employ Safety Techniques (Including Fratricide Avoidance)...................7-12 C. Implement OPSEC..................................................................................7-16 D. Provide Intelligence Support to Protection..............................................7-16 E. Apply Antiterrorism (AT) Measures..........................................................7-16 F. Implement Physical Security Procedures.................................................7-17 G. Conduct Law and Order Operations........................................................7-18 H. Conduct Survivability Operations............................................................7-19 I. Provide Force Health Protection...............................................................7-19 J. Provide Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Protection Support....7-20 K. Conduct Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Ops.....7-21 L. Coordinate Air and Missile Defense.........................................................7-22 M. Conduct Personnel Recovery.................................................................7-23 N. Conduct Internment and Resettlement....................................................7-24 II. Tasks and Systems Integration......................................................................7-24 II. Protection Planning....................................................................7-25 - Risk Management Process.............................................................................7-25 I. Initial Assessments.........................................................................................7-25 II. Integrating Processes....................................................................................7-25 III. Protection Priorities......................................................................................7-31 IV. Critical and Defended Assets Lists (CAL and DAL)......................................7-32 V. Scheme of Protection Development..............................................................7-33 VI. Protection Cell and Working Group..............................................................7-34 III. Protection in Preparation..........................................................7-39 I. Protection Cell and Working Group................................................................7-39 II. Protection Considerations (Preparation).......................................................7-40 IV. Protection in Execution............................................................7-43 I. Protection in Unified Land Operations............................................................7-43 II. Protection Considerations (Execution)..........................................................7-44 V. Protection Assessment..............................................................7-45 I. Continuous Assessment.................................................................................7-45 II. Lessons-Learned Integration.........................................................................7-45 III. Protection Considerations (Assessment).....................................................7-46 Operations) Glossary Doctrine 2015 (Army Chap8Chap8 Doctrine 2015 (Army Operations) Glossary...................................8-1 Sam ple
  17. 17. (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations 1-1 UnifiedLand Operations I. Unified Land Operations (Defined) Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution (ADP 3-0). Unified land operations is the Army’s operational concept and the Army’s contribution to unified action. II. An Operational Environment An operational environment is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the deci- sions of the commander (JP 3-0). Commanders at all levels have their own operational environments for their particular operations. An operational envi- ronment for any specific operation is not just isolated conditions of interacting variables that exist within a specific area of operations. It also involves inter- connected influences from the global or regional perspective (for example, politics and economics) that impact on conditions and operations there. Thus, each commander’s operational environment is part of a higher commander’s operational environment. Likewise, operational environments of commanders at all levels are part of the overall strategic environment, which encompasses general conditions, circumstances, and influences throughout the world that can affect all operations. Important trends such as globalization, urbanization, and failed or failing states can affect land operations. These trends can drive instability in an operational environment as well as a continuing state of persistent conflict. Persistent conflict is the protracted confrontation among state, non-state, and individual actors who are increasingly willing to use violence to achieve their political and ideological ends. In such an operational environment, command- ers must seek opportunities for exploiting success. Opportunities may include greater cooperation among the local populace of a town, or perhaps the ability to advance forces along a previously unsecured route. To successfully exploit opportunities, commanders must thoroughly understand and appreciate the changing nature of an operational environment. Modern information technology makes cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum indispensable for human interaction, including military operations and political competition. These two mediums inherently impact the influence of an operational environment and will be simultaneously congested and con- tested during operations. All actors—enemy, friendly, or neutral—remain po- tentially vulnerable to attack by physical means, cyberspace means, electronic means, or a combination thereof. Actions in and through cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum can affect the others. An operational environment consists of many interrelated variables and sub- variables, as well as the relationships and interactions among those variables and subvariables. How the many entities and conditions behave and interact with each other within an operational environment is difficult to discern and Chap1Chap1 Operations I. Unified Land Ref: ADP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (Oct ‘11) and ADRP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (May ‘12), chap. 1. Sam ple
  18. 18. 1-2 (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations UnifiedLand Operations ADRP 3-0: Major Changes (from FM 3-0) Ref: ADP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (Oct ‘11), introduction. Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP) 3-0, Unified Land Operations, is the first ADRP released under Doctrine 2015. ADRP 3-0 expands on the foundations and tenets found in Army Doctrine Publication (ADP) 3-0. This ADRP expands on the doctrine of unified land operations found in ADP 3-0. The publication of ADP 3-0 shifted the Army’s operational concept from full spectrum operations to unified land operations. ADRP 3-0 makes numerous changes from the now obsolete 2011 Field Manual (FM) 3-0, Change 1. The most significant change is the introduction of unified land operations as the Army’s operational concept. The doctrine of unified land operations describes how the Army demonstrates its core competencies of combined arm maneuver and wide area security through decisive action. The term decisive action replaces the term full spectrum operations as the concept of continuous, simultaneous offense, defense, stability, or de- fense support of civil authorities. Defense support of civil authorities replaces civil support as a task under decisive action. ADRP 3-0 expands the discussion of the foundations and tenets of unified land operations, as well as the operational framework found in ADP 3-0. Additional changes in ADRP 3-0 from the now obsolete 2011 FM 3-0, Change 1, includes a discussion of the range of military operations replacing the spectrum of conflict as well as a discussion of information collection replacing intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance (known as ISR). These changes in ADRP 3-0 now better align Army doctrine with the joint discussion of the principles of joint operations. ADRP 3-0 remains generally consistent with the now obsolete 2011 FM 3-0, Change 1, on key topics while adopting updated terminology and concepts as necessary. These topics include the discussion of an operational environment and the operational and mission variables, as well as the discussions of unified action, law of land warfare, and combat power. As in the now obsolete 2011, FM 3-0, Change 1, mission command remains both a philosophy of command and a war fighting function. Finally, ADRP 3-0 maintains combined arms as the application of arms that multiplies Army forces’ effectiveness in all operations. ADRP 3-0 contains four chapters: Chapter 1 Chapter 1 shortens the discussion of the operational environment found on the now obso- lete 2011 FM 3-0, Change 1, and emphasizes military operations. This chapter provides a framework of variables of an operational environment that shape their nature and affect outcomes. The chapter then discusses unified action and joint operations as well as land operations. Finally, this chapter discusses law of land warfare and combined arms. Chapter 2 Chapter 2 introduces the Army’s new operational concept of unified land operations. It discusses how commanders apply land power as part of unified action to defeat the en- emy on land and establish conditions that achieve the joint force commander’s end state. Chapter 2 discusses how commanders demonstrate the Army’s new core competencies of combined arms maneuver and wide area security conducted through decisive action. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 discusses combat power and the war fighting functions used to generate combat power in support of unified land operations. As in the now obsolete 2011 FM 3-0, Change 1, chapter 3 discusses the eight elements of combat power that include the six war fighting functions with leadership and information. Lastly, it discusses how Army forc- es achieve combined arms through force tailoring, task organization, and mutual support. Chapter 4 Chapter 4 discusses the elements of operational art and the meaning of operational art to Army forces. It elaborates on commanders and staffs applying the elements of operational art to understand, visualize, and describe how to establish conditions to achieve a desired end state. It discusses how operational art represents a creative approach to dealing with the direction of military forces and expresses an informed vision across the levels of war. Sam ple
  19. 19. (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations 1-3 UnifiedLand Operations New and Rescinded Terms Based on current doctrinal changes, certain terms for which ADRP 3-0 is proponent have been added, rescinded, or modified for purposes of this manual. The glossary contains defined terms. Introductory Table-1. New Army terms Term Remarks .noitinifeddnamretweNaeraesolc cyber electromagnetic activities New term and definition. decisive action New term and definition. .noitinifeddnamretweNaerapeed defensive task Replaces defensive operations. offensive task Replaces offensive operations. supporting effort New term and definition. .noitinifeddnamretweNtaerht unified action partners New term and definition. Introductory Table-2. Rescinded Army terms Term Remarks full spectrum operations Rescinded. intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance Replaced by information collection. intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance integration Rescinded. intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance synchronization Rescinded. operational adaptability Rescinded. operational theme Rescinded. peacetime military engagement Rescinded. Modified Terms The following terms were either modified, retained based on common English usage but no longer formally defined, or adopted the joint definition. Refer to the glossary defined terms. Modified the definition close combat combat power combined arms decisive operation exterior lines fires warfighting function hybrid threat inform and influence activities ntelligence warfighting function interior lines line of effort line of operations main effort mission command warfight- ing function movement and maneuver warfighting function phase shaping operation support area task-organizing Adopts the joint definition assessment commander’s intent support Retained based on com- mon English usage. No longer formally defined. approach compel defensive operations depth direct approach disintegrate dislocate forward operating base indirect approach irregular warfare offensive operations operational pause persistent conflict rear area situational awareness supporter unassigned area urban operation Sam ple
  20. 20. 1-4 (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations UnifiedLand Operations always results in differing circumstances. Different actor or audience types do not interpret a single message in the same way. Therefore, no two operational environ- ments are the same. In addition, an operational environment continually evolves. This evolution results from humans interacting within an operational environment as well as from their ability to learn and adapt. As people take action in an operational environment, they change that environment. Other variables may also change an operational environ- ment. Some changes are anticipated while others are not. Some changes are im- mediate and apparent while other changes evolve over time or are extremely difficult to detect. The complex and dynamic nature of an operational environment may make deter- mining the relationship between cause and effect difficult and may contribute to the uncertainty of military operations. Commanders must continually assess and reas- sess their operational environments. They seek a greater understanding of how the changing nature of threats and other variables affect not only their forces but other actors as well. Commanders with their staffs use the Army design methodology, operational variables, and mission variables to analyze an operational environment in support of the operations process. A. Operational and Mission Variables An operational environment for each operation differs and evolves as each operation progresses. Army leaders use operational variables to analyze and understand a specific operational environment in which they are conducting operations. They use mission variables to focus on specific elements of an operational environment during mission analysis. 1. Operational Variables (PMESII-PT) Army planners describe conditions of an operational environment in terms of operational variables. Operational variables are those aspects of an operational environment, both military and nonmilitary, that may differ from one operational area to another and affect operations. Operational variables describe not only the military aspects of an operational environment but also the population’s influence on it. Army planners analyze an operational environment in terms of eight interrelated opera- tional variables: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time (PMESII-PT). As soon as a commander and staff have an indication of where their unit will probably deploy, they begin analyzing the operational variables associated with that location. They continue to refine and up- date that analysis even after receiving a specific mission and throughout the course of the ensuing operation. 2. Mission Variables (METT-TC) Upon receipt of a warning order or mission, Army leaders filter relevant information categorized by the operational variables into the categories of the mission vari- ables used during mission analysis. They use the mission variables to refine their understanding of the situation. The mission variables consist of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations (METT-TC). Incorporating the analysis of the operational variables with METT-TC ensures Army leaders consider the best available relevant information about conditions that pertain to the mission. Refer to The Battle Staff SMARTbook (Guide to Designing, Planning & Conducting Military Operations) for discussion of operational and mission variables (PMESII-PT and METT-TC), as well as the operations process. The operations process (p. 1-17) is used to drive the conceptual and detailed planning necessary to understand, visualize, and describe the operational environment; make and articulate decisions; and direct, lead, and assess military operations. Sam ple
  21. 21. (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations 1-5 UnifiedLand Operations Ref: ADP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (Oct ‘11). Unified Land Operations Unified land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initia- tive to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolu- tion. ADP 3-0, Unified Land Operations, is the Army’s basic warfighting doctrine and is the Army’s contribution to unified action. Unified Land Operations (Underlying Logic) Ref: ADP 3-0, Unified Land Operations, fig. 1, pp. iii to iv. See pp. 1-26 to 1-31 for discussion of decisive action; 1-34 to 1-35 for Army core competencies; chap. 6 for mission command; 1-36 to 1-37 for tenets; 1-43 to 1-54 for operational art; 1-16 to 1-17 for the operations process; 1-20 to 1-21 for the operational framework; and 1-40 to 1-41 for the six warfighting functions. Sam ple
  22. 22. 1-8 (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations UnifiedLand Operations III. Unified Action Unified action is the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort (JP 1). As military forces synchronize actions, they achieve unity of effort. Unified action includes actions of military forces synchronized with activities of other government agencies, nongovernmental and intergovernmental organiza- tions, and the private sector. Military forces play a key role in unified action before, during, and after operations through engagement. The Army’s contribution to unified action is unified land operations. Army forces coordinate operations with unified action partners. Unified action partners are those military forces, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and elements of the private sector with whom Army forces plan, coordinate, synchronize, and integrate during the conduct of operations. Unified action partners include joint forces and components, multinational forces, and U.S. government agencies and departments. Interagency coordination is inherent in unified action. Within the context of Depart- ment of Defense involvement, interagency coordination is the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and engaged US Government agencies and departments for the purpose of achieving an objective (JP 3-0). Army forces conduct and participate in interagency coordination using strategic com- munication and defense support to public diplomacy. Combatant commanders play a pivotal role in unified action. However, subordinate commanders also integrate and synchronize their operations directly with the activities and operations of other military forces and nonmilitary organizations in their areas of operations. Additionally, activities of the host nation and local populace should be considered. For the Army, this is unified land operations. Unified action may require interorganizational coordination to build the capacity of our partners. Interorganizational coordination is the interaction that occurs among elements of the Department of Defense; engaged United States Government agen- cies; state, territorial, local, and tribal agencies; foreign military forces and govern- ment agencies; intergovernmental organizations; nongovernmental organizations; and the private sector (JP 3-08). Building partner capacity secures populations, protects infrastructure, and strengthens institutions as a means of protecting com- mon security interests. Building partner capacity is the outcome of comprehensive interorganizational activities, programs, and military-to-military engagements that enhance the ability of partners to establish security, governance, economic devel- opment, essential services, rule of law, and other critical government functions. The Army integrates capabilities of the operating and generating forces to support interorganizational capacity-building efforts, primarily through security cooperation interactions. Security cooperation is all Department of Defense interactions with foreign defense establishments to build defense relationships that promote specific US security interests, develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multi- national operations, and provide US forces with peacetime and contingency access to a host nation (JP 3-22). Security cooperation provides the means to build partner capacity. The interactions of security cooperation encourage and enable interna- tional partners to work with the United States to achieve strategic objectives. These objectives include: • Building defensive and security relationships that promote specific U.S. security interests, including all international armaments cooperation activities and secu- rity assistance activities • Developing allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multina- tional operations • Providing U.S. forces with peacetime and contingency access to host nations Sam ple
  23. 23. (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations 1-9 UnifiedLand Operations Ref: ADRP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (May ‘12), pp. 1-2 to 1-3. Threats Threats are a fundamental part of an overall operational environment for any opera- tion but are discussed separately here simply for emphasis. A threat is any combina- tion of actors, entities, or forces that have the capability and intent to harm United States forces, United States national interests, or the homeland. Threats may include individuals, groups of individuals (organized or not organized), paramilitary or military forces, nation-states, or national alliances. When threats execute their capability to do harm to the United States, they become enemies. In general, the various actors in any operational area can qualify as a threat, an en- emy, an adversary, a neutral, or a friend. Enemy An enemy is a party identified as hostile against which the use of force is authorized. An enemy is also called a combatant and is treated as such under the law of war. Adversary An adversary is a party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against which the use of force may be envisaged (JP 3-0). Neutral A neutral is a party identified as neither supporting nor opposing friendly or enemy forc- es. Land operations often prove complex because a threat, an enemy, an adversary, a neutral, or a friend intermix, often with no easy means to distinguish one from another. * Hybrid Threat The term hybrid threat has evolved to capture the seemingly increased complexity of operations, the multiplicity of actors involved, and the blurring between traditional elements of conflict. A hybrid threat is the diverse and dynamic combination of regular forces, irregular forces, terrorist forces, and/or criminal elements unified to achieve mutually benefiting effects. Hybrid threats combine regular forces governed by interna- tional law, military tradition, and custom with unregulated forces that act with no restric- tions on violence or their targets. These may involve nation-state actors that employ protracted forms of warfare, possibly using proxy forces to coerce and intimidate, or non-state actors using operational concepts and high-end capabilities traditionally associated with states. Such varied forces and capabilities enable hybrid threats to capitalize on perceived vulnerabilities, making them particularly effective. Enemies may employ sophisticated weapons in specific niches to attack perceived U.S. weaknesses. They may threaten to employ chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons, targeting concentrations of U.S. forces and urban centers. When projecting power into a region, Army leaders may find themselves without one or more of the advantages they normally have. U.S. forces encountering new and unantici- pated enemy capabilities have to rapidly adapt while engaging in operations. Enemies may organize themselves for highly decentralized operations over a protracted period. They will work to secure the active support of other regional powers and supporters. Enemies seek to create disruptive effects oriented toward U.S. activities within the homeland through cyber attacks and terrorism. Enemies often choose to fight among the people. Enemies have increasingly at- tempted to use people and urban settings to their advantage. They seek populations for refuge from, to draw support from, and to shield against attack and detection by U.S. forces. This affects the manner in which Soldiers apply force to achieve success in a conflict. For Army forces, the dynamic relationships among friendly forces, enemy forces, and the variables of an operational environment make land operations dynamic and complicated. Regardless of the location or threat, Army forces must synchronize actions to achieve unity of effort that ensures mission accomplishment. They do this as a vital partner in unified action. Sam ple
  24. 24. 1-14 (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations UnifiedLand Operations Joint Operations, Unified Action, & Ref: JP 3-0, Joint Operations (Aug ‘11), chap. 1. the Range of Military Operations (ROMO) Range of Military Operations Ref: JP 3-0, Joint Operations, fig. V-1, p V-1. Major Operations and Campaigns Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence Crisis Response and Limited Contingency Operations Range of Military Operations Our national leaders can use the military instrument of national power across the conflict continuum in a wide variety of operations that are commonly characterized in three groups. Peace Conflict Continuum War Services may accomplish tasks and missions in support of Department of Defense (DOD) objectives. However, the DOD primarily employs two or more services in a single operation, particularly in combat, through joint operations. The general term, joint opera- tions, describes military actions conducted by joint forces or by Service forces employed under command relationships. A joint force is one composed of significant elements, assigned or attached, of two or more military departments operating under a single joint force commander. Joint operations exploit the advantages of interdependent Service capabilities through unified action, and joint planning integrates military power with other instruments of national power to achieve a desired military end state. Unified Action Whereas the term joint operations focuses on the integrated actions of the Armed Forces of the United States in a unified effort, the term unified action has a broader connotation. JFCs are challenged to achieve and maintain operational coherence given the require- ment to operate in conjunction with interorganizational partners. CCDRs play a pivotal role in unifying joint force actions, since all of the elements and actions that comprise unified action normally are present at the CCDR’s level. However, subordinate JFCs also integrate and synchronize their operations directly with the operations of other military forces and the activities of nonmilitary organizations in the operational area to promote unified action. Unified action is a comprehensive approach that synchronizes, coordinates, and when appropriate, integrates military operations with the activities of other governmental and nongovernmental organizations to achieve unity of effort. When conducting operations for a joint force commander, Army forces achieve unified action by synchronizing actions with the activities of components of the joint force and unified action partners. The Range of Military Operations (ROMO) The range of military operations is a fundamental construct that provides context. Military operations vary in scope, purpose, and conflict intensity across a range that extends from military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence activities to crisis response and limited contingency operations and, if necessary, to major operations and campaigns. Use of joint capabilities in military engagement, security cooperation, and deterrence activities helps shape the operational environment and keep the day-to-day tensions between na- tions or groups below the threshold of armed conflict while maintaining US global influence. Sam ple
  25. 25. (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations 1-15 UnifiedLand Operations A. Military Engagement, Security Cooperation, and Deterrence These ongoing activities establish, shape, maintain, and refine relations with other na- tions and domestic civil authorities (e.g., state governors or local law enforcement). The general strategic and operational objective is to protect US interests at home and abroad. B. Crisis Response & Limited Contingency Operations A crisis response or limited contingency operation can be a single small-scale, limited-du- ration operation or a significant part of a major operation of extended duration involving combat. The associated general strategic and operational objectives are to protect US interests and/or prevent surprise attack or further conflict. C. Major Operations and Campaigns When required to achieve national strategic objectives or protect national interests, the US national leadership may decide to conduct a major operation or campaign normally involving large-scale combat. During major operations, joint force actions are conducted simultaneously or sequentially in accordance with a common plan and are controlled by a single commander. A campaign is a series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space. Notional Operation Plan Phases Ref: JP 3-0, Joint Operations, fig. V-3, p V-6. LevelofMilitaryEffort Stabilizing Activities Seizing the Initiative Activities Deterring Activities Dominating Activities Enabling Civil Authority Activity Shaping Activities Theater Shaping OPLAN Approval OPORD Termination OPORD Activation OPORD Execution Global Shaping Phase 0 Shape Phase I Deter Phase II Seize Initiative Phase III Dominate Phase IV Stabilize Phase V Enable Civil Authority Phase 0 Shape Plan Phases OPLAN xxxx Shaping OPLAN xxxx Shaping Refer to The Joint Forces Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook (Guide to Joint, Multinational & Interagency Operations) for complete discussion of joint operations and unified action, the range of military operations and operation plan phases. Additional topics include joint doctrine fundamentals, joint operation planning, joint logistics, joint task forces, information operations, multinational operations, and IGO/NGO coordination. Sam ple
  26. 26. (Unified Land Operations) I. Military Operations 1-19 UnifiedLand Operations Army Planning Methodologies Ref: ADRP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (Mar ‘12), pp. 1-8 to 1-9. Planning is the art and science of under- standing a situation, envisioning desired future conditions, and laying out effec- tive ways of bringing that future about. Planning consists of two separate but interrelated components: a conceptual component and a detailed component. Successful planning requires the integra- tion of both these components. Com- manders determine how much of each methodology to use based on the scope of the problem, their familiarity with it, and the time available. Army leaders employ three methodologies for planning: A. The Army Design Methodology (ADM) The Army design methodology is a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe unfamiliar problems and approaches to solving them. The Army design methodology is particularly useful as an aid to conceptual thinking about un- familiar problems. To produce executable plans, commanders integrate it with the detailed planning typically associated with the military decision making process. Com- manders who use the Army design meth- odology may gain a greater understanding of their operational environments and the problems and visualize an appropriate operational approach. With this greater understanding, commanders can provide a clear commander’s intent and concept of operations—both required by mission com- mand. Such clarity enables subordinate units and commanders to take initiative. The Army design methodology is itera- tive and collaborative. As the operations process unfolds, the commander, staff, subordinates, and other partners continue to learn and collaborate to improve their shared understanding. An improved under- standing may lead to modifications to their operational approach or an entirely new approach altogether. Refer to The Battle Staff SMARTbook (Guide to Designing, Planning & Conducting Military Operations) for complete discussion of the three Army planning methodologies. Additional related topics include the operations process, integrating processes and continuing activities, plans and orders, mission command, rehearsals and after action reviews, and operational terms and military symbols. B. The Military Decision- making Process (MDMP) The military decisionmaking process is also an iterative planning methodology. It integrates activities of the commander, staff, subordinate headquarters, and other partners. This integration enables them to understand the situation and mission; develop, analyze, and compare courses of action; decide on a course of action that best accomplishes the mission; and produce an operation order for execution. The military decision making process applies both conceptual and detailed ap- proaches to thinking but is most closely associated with detailed planning. For unfamiliar problems, executable solu- tions typically require integrating the Army design methodology with the military deci- sion making process. The military decision making process helps leaders apply thoroughness, clarity, sound judgment, logic, and professional knowledge so they understand situations, develop options to solve problems, and reach decisions. This process helps commanders, staffs, and others think critically and creatively while planning. C. Troop Leading Procedures (TLP) Troop leading procedures are a dynamic process used by small-unit leaders to an- alyze a mission, develop a plan, and pre- pare for an operation. Heavily weighted in favor of familiar problems and short time frames, organizations with staffs typically do not employ troop leading procedures. More often, leaders use troop leading pro- cedures to solve tactical problems when working alone or with a small group. For example, a company commander may use the executive officer, first sergeant, fire support officer, supply sergeant, and communications sergeant to assist during troop leading procedures. Sam ple
  27. 27. (Unified Land Operations) II. The Army’s Operational Concept 1-25 UnifiedLand Operations I. Goal of Unified Land Operations The goal of unified land operations is to apply land power as part of unified action to defeat the enemy on land and establish conditions that achieve the joint force commander’s end state. Today’s operational environments require commanders to demonstrate the core competencies of combined arms maneuver and wide area security conducted through offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks to reach this goal. Unified land operations is the Army’s operational concept and the Army’s contribu- tion to unified action. The central idea of unified land operations is how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks to prevent or deter conflict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution. Where possible, military forces working with unified action partners seek to prevent or deter threats. However, if necessary, military forces possess the capability in unified land operations to prevail over aggression. II. Foundations of Unified Land Operations By integrating the four foundations of unified land operations—initiative, decisive action, Army core competencies, and mission command—Army commanders can achieve strategic success. Strategic success requires full integration of U.S. military operations with the efforts of unified action partners. The foundations of unified land operations begin and end with the exercise of individual and operational initiative. Initiative is used to gain a position of advantage that degrades and defeats the enemy throughout the depth of an organization. The Army demonstrates its core competencies through decisive action. The Army’s two core competencies—com- bined arms maneuver and wide area security—provide the means for balancing the application of Army war fighting functions within the tactical actions and tasks inherent in the offense, defense, and stability overseas, or defense support of civil authorities in the United States. By demonstrating the two core competencies, Army forces defeat or destroy an enemy, seize or occupy key terrain, protect or secure critical assets and populations, and prevent the enemy from gaining a position of advantage. The philosophy of mission command—the exercise of authority and di- rection by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent—guides leaders in the execution of unified land operations. See pp. 1-34 to 1-35 for discussion of the Army’s two core competencies. A. Initiative All Army operations aim to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative and achieve decisive results. Operational initiative is setting or dictating the terms of action throughout an operation. Individual initiative is the willingness to act in the absence of orders, when existing orders no longer fit the situation, or when unforeseen op- portunities or threats arise. Initiative gives all operations the spirit, if not the form, of the offense. It originates in the principle of war of the offensive. This principle goes beyond simply attacking. It requires action to change the situation on the ground. Risk and opportunity are intrinsic in seizing the initiative. To seize the initiative, Chap1Chap1 Operational Concept II. The Army’s Ref: ADRP 3-0, Unified Land Operations (May ‘12), chap. 2. Sam ple
  28. 28. 1-28 (Unified Land Operations) II. The Army’s Operational Concept UnifiedLand Operations Decisive action requires simultaneous combinations of offense, defense, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks. 1. Offensive Tasks An offensive task is a task conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize ter- rain, resources, and population centers. Offensive tasks impose the commander’s will on the enemy. In combined arms maneuver, the offense is a task of decisive action. Against a capable, adaptive enemy, the offense is the most direct and a sure means of seizing, retaining, and exploiting the initiative to gain physical and psychological advantages and achieve definitive results. In the offense, the decisive operation is a sudden, shatter- ing action against an enemy weakness that capitalizes on speed, surprise, and shock. If that operation does not destroy the enemy, operations continue until enemy forces disintegrate or retreat to where they no longer pose a threat. Executing offensive tasks compels the enemy to react, creating or revealing additional weaknesses that the attack- ing force can exploit. Refer to pp. 3-2 to 3-3 and The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook for further discussion. (ADRP 3-90) 2. Defensive Tasks A defensive task is a task conducted to defeat an enemy attack, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks. Normally the defense alone cannot achieve a decision. However, it can set condi- tions for a counteroffensive or counterattack that enables Army forces to regain the initiative. Defensive tasks can also establish a shield behind which wide area security can progress. Defensive tasks are a counter to the enemy offense. They defeat attacks, destroying as much of the attacking enemy as possible. They also preserve and maintain control over land, resources, and populations. The purpose of defensive tasks is to retain terrain, guard populations, and protect critical capabilities against enemy attacks. Commanders can conduct defensive tasks to gain time and economize forces so offensive tasks can be executed elsewhere. Refer to pp. 3-2 to 3-3 and The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook for further discussion. (ADRP 3-90) Defensive Tasks Primary Tasks • Mobile defense • Area defense • Retrograde Purposes • Deter or defeat enemy offensive operations • Gain time • Achieve economy of force • Retain key terrain • Protect the populace, critical assets and infrastructure • Develop intelligence Tasks of Decisive Action Ref: ADRP 3-0, Operations (Mar ‘12), pp. 2-4 to 2-8 (and table 2-1, p. 2-5). Offensive Tasks Primary Tasks • Movement to contact • Attack • Exploitation • Pursuit Purposes • Dislocate, isolate, disrupt and destroy enemy forces • Seize key terrain • Deprive the enemy of resources • Develop intelligence • Deceive and divert the enemy • Create a secure environment for stability operations Sam ple
  29. 29. (Unified Land Operations) II. The Army’s Operational Concept 1-29 UnifiedLand Operations 3. Stability Tasks Stability is an overarching term encompassing various military missions, tasks, and activi- ties conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of na- tional power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief. (See JP 3-0.) Army forces conduct stability tasks during both combined arms maneuver and wide area security. These tasks support a host-nation or an interim government or part of a transitional military authority when no government exists. Stability tasks involve both coercive and constructive actions. They help to establish or maintain a safe and secure environment and fa- cilitate reconciliation among local or regional adversar- ies. Stability tasks can also help establish political, legal, social, and economic institutions while supporting the transition to legitimate host-nation governance. Stability tasks cannot suc- ceed if they only react to enemy initiatives. Stabil- ity tasks must maintain the initiative by pursuing objectives that resolve the causes of instability. Refer to pp. 3-4 to 3-5 and The Stability, Peace, & Counter-insurgency SMARTbook for further discussion. (ADRP 3-07) 4. Defense Support of Civil Authority Tasks DSCA is support provided by U.S. Federal military forces, Department of De- fense civilians, Department of Defense contract person- nel, Department of Defense component assets, and National Guard forces (when the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Gover- nors of the affected States, elects and requests to use those forces in Title 32, U.S. Code, status). This support is in response to requests for assistance from civil authorities for domestic emergencies, law enforcement support, and other domestic activities, or from qualifying entities for special events. Defense support of civil authorities is a task that takes place only in the home- land, although some of its tasks are similar to stability tasks. Defense support of civil authorities is always conducted in support of another primary or lead federal agency. Refer to pp. 3-6 to 3-7 and JP 2-28 for further discussion. Defense Support of Civil Authorities Tasks Primary Tasks • Provide support for domestic disasters • Provide support for domestic CBRN incidents • Provide support for domestic civilian law enforce- ment agencies • Provide other designated support Purposes • Save lives • Restore essential services • Maintain or restore law and order • Protect infrastructure and property • Maintain or restore local government • Shape the environment for interagency success Stability Tasks Primary Tasks • Establish civil security (including security force asst) • Establish civil control • Restore essential services • Support to governance • Support to economic and infrastructure development Purposes • Provide a secure environment • Secure land areas • Meet the critical needs of the populace • Gain support for host-nation government • Shape the environment for interagency and host-nation success Sam ple

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