Victims of Crime

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  • 1. Victims of Crime
    • What do we mean by “victim”
    • Which people are most likely tobe vicitms?
    • Effects of crime on victims
    • Repeat Victimisation
  • 2. What do we mean by “Victim”?
    • Official definition is very narrow:
    • “ individual who is directly affected by crime”
    • Does not consider the impact on families or communities, and usually omits “victims” who are not directly involved (eg fraud, pollution etc)
  • 3. What does “victim” mean? Victim
  • 4.
    • Victims are often self-defined……….what does this mean?
    • Can you only be a “victim” if you recognise that a crime has been committed against you?
  • 5. Studying Victims
    • Quote on p184 by Von Hentig
    • How far do you agree that there are some people who are more victim prone?
  • 6. Victim Precipitation
    • Very controversial topic especially when relating to rape
    • Amir (1971) found that 20% of rapes were precipitated by the “victim”
    • What criticisms of this theory are there?
  • 7. Victimisation Surveys
    • BCS shows that YOUNG SINGLE MALES are most likely to be victims of assault and robbery
    • Strong link to age and gender
    • Link with social class, but not as strong
    • Surveys also show that FEAR of crime in increasing
  • 8. Impact of Crime on Victims
    • Various studies have looked into the impact of crime on victims
    • Maguire (1994) – worst aspect of being burgled; 32% said loss of possessions, 42% said concern/worry/intrusion
    • Shapland (1984) found that 75% of people who had been attacked were still worried 2 and ½ years after attack
    • Morris (1987) found that vast majority of those who were victims of child abuse suffered from low self esteem and other problems into later life
  • 9. Impact continued…..
    • Macleod (1996) found 2/3 of ALL victims were emotionally affected by crime
    • Chambers and Millar (1986) found that the impact was made more traumatic by the reaction of and dealings with the Criminal Justice System
    • This was because of he worry and stress involved with the case and the outcome, or feeling let down by the CJS
  • 10. The Islington Crime Survey
    • Read p189
    • What were the main findings from the Islington survey?
    • What were the main differences between this survey and the BCS?
    • What does it tell you about the impact of crime, especially in relation to women?
  • 11. Multiple Victimisation
    • BCS found 1/3 of respondents had been victims, but 50% of these had been victims more than once
    • Therefore, 70% of crimes were against repeat victims
    • High crime rate = high rate of multiple victimisation
  • 12. Why are some people more likely to be multiple victims?
    • 1. Vulnerability of property/ premises
    • 2. Specific characteristic
    • 3. Offenders repeat successful crimes
    • Look at table 9.1 on p190 and discuss the questions listed on p190-191
  • 13. Gender
    • Majority of crimes against women take place in the home
    • However, women fear crime outside the home and alter their behaviour as a result
    • How can we explain this?
  • 14. Myth and Reality
    • Women fear crime, but are actually unlikely to be victims – often risk is exaggerated by the press
    • Look at the diagram on p192 – what process does this remind you of?
  • 15.
    • However, others argue that certain women in certain areas ARE much more likely to be victims of crime
    • Also, these women are unlikely to report domestic violence or sexual assault
    • Can you explain this?
  • 16. The American Situation…..
    • Poor Black women are 6x more likely to be raped than rich white women
    • Girls aged 16-19 are more likely to be raped than 35+ women
    • Can you explain this?
  • 17. The Issues…..
    • Who is most affected by crime?
    • How does crime affect people?
    • How are victims of crime treated?
    • How do we find out about victims?
    • What help is available for victims?
    • What about victim precipitation and multiple victimisation???????