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Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
Victims of Crime
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Victims of Crime


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  • 1. Victims of Crime
    • What do we mean by “victim”
    • Which people are most likely tobe vicitms?
    • Effects of crime on victims
    • Repeat Victimisation
  • 2. What do we mean by “Victim”?
    • Official definition is very narrow:
    • “ individual who is directly affected by crime”
    • Does not consider the impact on families or communities, and usually omits “victims” who are not directly involved (eg fraud, pollution etc)
  • 3. What does “victim” mean? Victim
  • 4.
    • Victims are often self-defined……….what does this mean?
    • Can you only be a “victim” if you recognise that a crime has been committed against you?
  • 5. Studying Victims
    • Quote on p184 by Von Hentig
    • How far do you agree that there are some people who are more victim prone?
  • 6. Victim Precipitation
    • Very controversial topic especially when relating to rape
    • Amir (1971) found that 20% of rapes were precipitated by the “victim”
    • What criticisms of this theory are there?
  • 7. Victimisation Surveys
    • BCS shows that YOUNG SINGLE MALES are most likely to be victims of assault and robbery
    • Strong link to age and gender
    • Link with social class, but not as strong
    • Surveys also show that FEAR of crime in increasing
  • 8. Impact of Crime on Victims
    • Various studies have looked into the impact of crime on victims
    • Maguire (1994) – worst aspect of being burgled; 32% said loss of possessions, 42% said concern/worry/intrusion
    • Shapland (1984) found that 75% of people who had been attacked were still worried 2 and ½ years after attack
    • Morris (1987) found that vast majority of those who were victims of child abuse suffered from low self esteem and other problems into later life
  • 9. Impact continued…..
    • Macleod (1996) found 2/3 of ALL victims were emotionally affected by crime
    • Chambers and Millar (1986) found that the impact was made more traumatic by the reaction of and dealings with the Criminal Justice System
    • This was because of he worry and stress involved with the case and the outcome, or feeling let down by the CJS
  • 10. The Islington Crime Survey
    • Read p189
    • What were the main findings from the Islington survey?
    • What were the main differences between this survey and the BCS?
    • What does it tell you about the impact of crime, especially in relation to women?
  • 11. Multiple Victimisation
    • BCS found 1/3 of respondents had been victims, but 50% of these had been victims more than once
    • Therefore, 70% of crimes were against repeat victims
    • High crime rate = high rate of multiple victimisation
  • 12. Why are some people more likely to be multiple victims?
    • 1. Vulnerability of property/ premises
    • 2. Specific characteristic
    • 3. Offenders repeat successful crimes
    • Look at table 9.1 on p190 and discuss the questions listed on p190-191
  • 13. Gender
    • Majority of crimes against women take place in the home
    • However, women fear crime outside the home and alter their behaviour as a result
    • How can we explain this?
  • 14. Myth and Reality
    • Women fear crime, but are actually unlikely to be victims – often risk is exaggerated by the press
    • Look at the diagram on p192 – what process does this remind you of?
  • 15.
    • However, others argue that certain women in certain areas ARE much more likely to be victims of crime
    • Also, these women are unlikely to report domestic violence or sexual assault
    • Can you explain this?
  • 16. The American Situation…..
    • Poor Black women are 6x more likely to be raped than rich white women
    • Girls aged 16-19 are more likely to be raped than 35+ women
    • Can you explain this?
  • 17. The Issues…..
    • Who is most affected by crime?
    • How does crime affect people?
    • How are victims of crime treated?
    • How do we find out about victims?
    • What help is available for victims?
    • What about victim precipitation and multiple victimisation???????