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Victims of Crime

Victims of Crime






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    Victims of Crime Victims of Crime Presentation Transcript

    • Victims of Crime
      • What do we mean by “victim”
      • Which people are most likely tobe vicitms?
      • Effects of crime on victims
      • Repeat Victimisation
    • What do we mean by “Victim”?
      • Official definition is very narrow:
      • “ individual who is directly affected by crime”
      • Does not consider the impact on families or communities, and usually omits “victims” who are not directly involved (eg fraud, pollution etc)
    • What does “victim” mean? Victim
      • Victims are often self-defined……….what does this mean?
      • Can you only be a “victim” if you recognise that a crime has been committed against you?
    • Studying Victims
      • Quote on p184 by Von Hentig
      • How far do you agree that there are some people who are more victim prone?
    • Victim Precipitation
      • Very controversial topic especially when relating to rape
      • Amir (1971) found that 20% of rapes were precipitated by the “victim”
      • What criticisms of this theory are there?
    • Victimisation Surveys
      • BCS shows that YOUNG SINGLE MALES are most likely to be victims of assault and robbery
      • Strong link to age and gender
      • Link with social class, but not as strong
      • Surveys also show that FEAR of crime in increasing
    • Impact of Crime on Victims
      • Various studies have looked into the impact of crime on victims
      • Maguire (1994) – worst aspect of being burgled; 32% said loss of possessions, 42% said concern/worry/intrusion
      • Shapland (1984) found that 75% of people who had been attacked were still worried 2 and ½ years after attack
      • Morris (1987) found that vast majority of those who were victims of child abuse suffered from low self esteem and other problems into later life
    • Impact continued…..
      • Macleod (1996) found 2/3 of ALL victims were emotionally affected by crime
      • Chambers and Millar (1986) found that the impact was made more traumatic by the reaction of and dealings with the Criminal Justice System
      • This was because of he worry and stress involved with the case and the outcome, or feeling let down by the CJS
    • The Islington Crime Survey
      • Read p189
      • What were the main findings from the Islington survey?
      • What were the main differences between this survey and the BCS?
      • What does it tell you about the impact of crime, especially in relation to women?
    • Multiple Victimisation
      • BCS found 1/3 of respondents had been victims, but 50% of these had been victims more than once
      • Therefore, 70% of crimes were against repeat victims
      • High crime rate = high rate of multiple victimisation
    • Why are some people more likely to be multiple victims?
      • 1. Vulnerability of property/ premises
      • 2. Specific characteristic
      • 3. Offenders repeat successful crimes
      • Look at table 9.1 on p190 and discuss the questions listed on p190-191
    • Gender
      • Majority of crimes against women take place in the home
      • However, women fear crime outside the home and alter their behaviour as a result
      • How can we explain this?
    • Myth and Reality
      • Women fear crime, but are actually unlikely to be victims – often risk is exaggerated by the press
      • Look at the diagram on p192 – what process does this remind you of?
      • However, others argue that certain women in certain areas ARE much more likely to be victims of crime
      • Also, these women are unlikely to report domestic violence or sexual assault
      • Can you explain this?
    • The American Situation…..
      • Poor Black women are 6x more likely to be raped than rich white women
      • Girls aged 16-19 are more likely to be raped than 35+ women
      • Can you explain this?
    • The Issues…..
      • Who is most affected by crime?
      • How does crime affect people?
      • How are victims of crime treated?
      • How do we find out about victims?
      • What help is available for victims?
      • What about victim precipitation and multiple victimisation???????