THE EFFECTS OF SEXUAL CRIME By Dani Cathro and Caragh Jenkins
WHAT ARE SEXUAL CRIMES? <ul><li>Child pornography </li></ul><ul><li>Incest </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Prostitution </li></ul...
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE <ul><li>Definition  = a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexu...
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: STATS <ul><li>In USA, 15-25% of women and 5-15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. <...
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: EFFECTS <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>depression,  </li></ul><ul><li>post-traumatic stress d...
CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE <ul><li>Video – Rough Aunties  </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtu.be/_rdsQ1hn0e8   </li></ul>
RAPE <ul><li>In criminal law, rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse, which is initiated by...
RAPE: EFFECTS   <ul><li>Can result in the victim being seriously traumatised.  </li></ul><ul><li>Depersonalization or diss...
RAPE: ‘VICTIM BLAMING’   <ul><li>When victims behaviour such as flirting, or wearing sexually-provocative clothing may be ...
RAPE: CASE STUDY: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO.   <ul><li>Since 1996, sexual violence has been used to intimidate, humilia...
RAPE <ul><li>Video  http://www.channel4.com/news/congo-rape-soldiers-we-abused-our-power   </li></ul>
INCEST <ul><li>Incest   is sexual intercourse between close relatives that is illegal in the jurisdiction where it takes p...
INCEST: EFFECTS <ul><li>It can result in serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental in...
INCEST: EFFECTS STATS <ul><li>One study concluded that among the survivors of incest who were victimized by their mothers,...
INCEST <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>http://current.com/shows/monday/92399026_incest-the-last-taboo-premieres-monday-26t...
GROPING: CASE STUDY: JAPAN <ul><li>A 2001 survey conducted in two Tokyo high schools revealed that more than 70% of studen...
HUMAN SEX TRAFFICKING <ul><li>Human trafficking  is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of commercial sexua...
HUMAN SEX TRAFFICKING <ul><li>Videos  </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metacafe.com/watch/3433425/one_womans_story_of_the_horr...
Effects  <ul><li>Human trafficking has been devastating for many poorer communities throughout the world.  </li></ul><ul><...
ARTICLES <ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/30/arm-rapist-dublin-bay-nolan?INTCMP=SRCH </li></ul><ul><li>htt...
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The Effects of Sexual Crime

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The Effects of Sexual Crime

  1. 1. THE EFFECTS OF SEXUAL CRIME By Dani Cathro and Caragh Jenkins
  2. 2. WHAT ARE SEXUAL CRIMES? <ul><li>Child pornography </li></ul><ul><li>Incest </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravated Sexual Assualt, </li></ul><ul><li>Buggery </li></ul><ul><li>Child Sexual Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Obscene Phone Call </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive Relational Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Violence by Intimate Partners </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Spousal Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Human Sex Trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>Stalking </li></ul><ul><li>Deviant Sexual Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Slave Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Groping </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibitionism </li></ul><ul><li>Indecent Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Pedophilia </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE <ul><li>Definition = a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms = pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact against a child, physical contact with the child's genitals (except in certain non-sexual contexts such as a medical exam), viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact (except in nonsexual contexts such as a medical exam), or using a child to produce child pornography. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: STATS <ul><li>In USA, 15-25% of women and 5-15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. </li></ul><ul><li>Women who experienced non-genital sexual abuse in childhood were 2.93 times more likely to suffer drug dependence as adults than were women who were not abused. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually abused children suffer from more psychological symptoms than children who have not been abused; studies have found symptoms in 51% to 79% of sexually abused children. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE: EFFECTS <ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>depression, </li></ul><ul><li>post-traumatic stress disorder </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety, </li></ul><ul><li>eating disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>poor self esteem,  </li></ul><ul><li>dissociative disorders,  </li></ul><ul><li>neurosis, </li></ul><ul><li>sexualized behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>school/learning problems, </li></ul><ul><li>substance abuse, </li></ul><ul><li>self-destructive behaviour, </li></ul><ul><li>animal cruelty, </li></ul><ul><li>crime in adulthood, </li></ul><ul><li>suicide, </li></ul><ul><li>antisocial behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>amnesia for abuse memories, </li></ul><ul><li>deleterious effect on brain development, </li></ul><ul><li>increased likelihood epilepsy-like symptoms, </li></ul><ul><li>short term memory impairments. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>chronic pain </li></ul><ul><li>internal laceration </li></ul><ul><li>Internal bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>damage to internal organs, </li></ul><ul><li>death, </li></ul><ul><li>infections and  </li></ul><ul><li>sexually transmitted diseases, </li></ul><ul><li>vaginitus </li></ul>
  6. 6. CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE <ul><li>Video – Rough Aunties </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtu.be/_rdsQ1hn0e8 </li></ul>
  7. 7. RAPE <ul><li>In criminal law, rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse, which is initiated by one or more persons against another person without that person's consent. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the American Medical Association sexual violence and rape in particular is considered the most under-reported violent crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Rape is also recognized as an element of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted ethnic group. </li></ul>
  8. 8. RAPE: EFFECTS <ul><li>Can result in the victim being seriously traumatised. </li></ul><ul><li>Depersonalization or dissociation (feeling numb and detached, like being in a daze or a dream, or feeling that the world is strange and unreal) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of eating disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Intense, unpredicted emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, rape and sexual assault are among the most common causes of PTSD in women </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty remembering important parts of the assault </li></ul><ul><li>Reliving the assault through repeated thoughts, memories, or nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of things, places, thoughts, and/or feelings that remind the victim of the assault </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety or increased alertness (difficulty sleeping, concentrating, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of social life or place of rape </li></ul>
  9. 9. RAPE: ‘VICTIM BLAMING’ <ul><li>When victims behaviour such as flirting, or wearing sexually-provocative clothing may be seen to encourage rape.  </li></ul><ul><li>In extreme cases, victims are said to have &quot;asked for it&quot;, simply by not behaving demurely. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, rape victims are blamed more when they are raped by an acquaintance or a date rather than by a stranger. </li></ul>
  10. 10. RAPE: CASE STUDY: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. <ul><li>Since 1996, sexual violence has been used to intimidate, humiliate, and torture hundreds of thousands of women and girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Rape here has frequently been described as a &quot;weapon of war,&quot; and the United Nations officially declared rape a weapon of war in 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Noel Rwabirinba, a sixteen year old who had been a militiaman for two years said, “If we see girls, it’s our right…we can violate them”  </li></ul><ul><li>Effects : Rape makes a particularly effective weapon in genocide because not only does it destroy its physical victims, but entire communities as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The medical repercussions of the sexual assault in the DRC vary from severed and broken limbs, burned flesh, fistulas, STIs, pregnancy, and urinary incontinence to death. </li></ul><ul><li>The most extreme versions of this stigmatization can lead to &quot;honor killings&quot; in which the victim of sexual violence is murdered by her family or community due to the belief that she has brought them shame and dishonor. </li></ul>
  11. 11. RAPE <ul><li>Video http://www.channel4.com/news/congo-rape-soldiers-we-abused-our-power </li></ul>
  12. 12. INCEST <ul><li>Incest is sexual intercourse between close relatives that is illegal in the jurisdiction where it takes place and/or is socially taboo. </li></ul>
  13. 13. INCEST: EFFECTS <ul><li>It can result in serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest. </li></ul><ul><li>It is seen in some countries victimless crime if it is consensual, and thus it is rarely reported. </li></ul><ul><li>The increased mortality of babies from heterosexual incestuous couples is enough to criminalize the act. </li></ul>
  14. 14. INCEST: EFFECTS STATS <ul><li>One study concluded that among the survivors of incest who were victimized by their mothers, 60 percent (60%) of the women had eating disorders as did one-fourth (25%) of the men. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 93 women and nine men included in this study, 80 percent (80%) of the women and all of the men reported sexual problems in their adult life. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, almost two-thirds of the women stated that they never or rarely went to the doctor or the dentist as the examination was too terrifying for them. </li></ul>
  15. 15. INCEST <ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><li>http://current.com/shows/monday/92399026_incest-the-last-taboo-premieres-monday-26th-april-10pm.htm </li></ul>
  16. 16. GROPING: CASE STUDY: JAPAN <ul><li>A 2001 survey conducted in two Tokyo high schools revealed that more than 70% of students had been groped while travelling on trains.  </li></ul><ul><li>As part of the effort to combat the problem, some railway companies designate women-only passenger cars during rush hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Although crowded trains are the most frequent targets, another common setting are bicycle parking areas, where people bent over unlocking locks are targets. </li></ul><ul><li>It is often featured in Japanese pornography. </li></ul><ul><li>The criminal courts have traditionally been lenient in cases of groping and have only recently made efforts to combat the social problem with tougher sentences. </li></ul>
  17. 17. HUMAN SEX TRAFFICKING <ul><li>Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labour, a modern-day form of slavery. </li></ul>
  18. 18. HUMAN SEX TRAFFICKING <ul><li>Videos </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.metacafe.com/watch/3433425/one_womans_story_of_the_horrors_of_human_trafficking/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://youtu.be/sq4edt4v2d4 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Effects <ul><li>Human trafficking has been devastating for many poorer communities throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Thai and hill tribe women and girls are trafficked to Japan, Malaysia, South Africa, Bahrain, Australia, Singapore, Europe, Canada and the United States for sexual exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Often the girls are taken or sold by families because they are in high debts. </li></ul><ul><li>This has a detrimental impact of fear, psychological pain and distrust of people. </li></ul><ul><li>This industry feeds industries in Bangkok giving the country an economic boom. </li></ul>
  20. 20. ARTICLES <ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/30/arm-rapist-dublin-bay-nolan?INTCMP=SRCH </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2011/mar/25/ken-clarke-saturday-interview?INTCMP=SRCH </li></ul><ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/3623091.stm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_sexual_abuse </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No72/No72_12VE_Marshall.pdf </li></ul>
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