Prisons in the uk

  • 3,908 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,908
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
64
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Prisons in the UK The key issues
  • 2. Introduction
    • Many signs point to a current crisis in the UK criminal justice system.
    • Prison numbers and overcrowding are at an all-time high, courts are
    • over-subscribed, the police over-stretched, and the public unconfident in either the efficacy or justice of the penal system.
    • Re-offending rates remain high, with 2/3rds of prisoners re-offending within two years of release, a figure that goes up to 74.8% for men aged between 18–21. (England and Wales 2007)
    • Though the amount of crime reported to the British Crime Survey has declined by 42% since 1995, few academic commentators attribute much of this reduction to a greater use of imprisonment. In any case, most people still believe that crime is rising and fear of crime is relatively high, suggesting that we need to look beyond the facts to understand public opinion about crime and punishment.
    • Source: The Principles and Limits of the Penal System , Howard League for Penal Reform 2007 (England and Wales)
  • 3. Why prison?
    • Professor Ian Loader
    • Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford
    • “ There is a rich, diverse body of writing and debate about the principles that should underpin the penal system in a liberal democracy. This writing is focused on how to justify punishment, … understood as the organized infliction of pain by the state upon an individual following a conviction for criminal wrongdoing”.
    • The debate typically revolves around the competing claims of:
    • retribution/desert
    • individual general deterrence
    • incapacitation, rehabilitation and repair
  • 4. In other words
    • Punishment
    • Retribution – Justice or Revenge?
    • Deterrence
    • Rehabilitation/ Re-education
    • Public safety
    • Personal safety if criminal
    • But in which order?
  • 5. Key questions raised
    • Regarding the current use of imprisonment in Scotland and England and Wales
    • Why has the prison population gone up while crime has come down?
    • To what extent is the prison now being used increasingly as a method of dealing with the marginalised people in our society, fulfilling Charles Murray’s vision of “the custodial state”
    • What is the purpose of prison?
    • Do we need to take account of the views of people like Oklahoma State Representative Lucky Lamons, a former police officer and now member of the Oklahoma Sentencing Commission, that “We need to incarcerate the people we’re afraid of, not that we’re mad at.”
  • 6. Key questions
    • Regarding public perceptions of personal safety and the need to develop a new communications strategy:
    • Are there “too many people in prison”?
    • 1. England and Wales has the highest imprisonment
    • rate in Western Europe.
    • Faced with the information that the prison population in England and Wales is now over 80,000, the ordinary person in the street is likely to ask whether that is a high figure or a low figure and may well take the view that if that is what it takes to make society safer, then so be it.
    • 2. In 2008-09, the average daily prison population in Scotland was 7,835. This represents an increase of six per cent over the previous year, 31 per cent over the past ten years, and continues the upward trend observed since 2000-01.
  • 7. Key questions
    • Regarding public perceptions of personal safety and the need to develop a new communications strategy:
    • Is prison too costly?
    • The £2.3 billion spent on imprisonment in England and Wales each year is a small figure in comparison to money spent on the health service or on education and also on the police. The public may well take the view that this is money well spent.
    • Similarly, the public is liable to be unimpressed by the information that it costs in the region of £35,000 a year to keep a person in prison.
    • The response might be either to say that is a small price to pay for public safety or else that prisons should be made more austere and less costly.
  • 8. Key questions
    • Regarding public perceptions of personal safety and the need to develop a new communications strategy:
    • Lengths of sentences?
    • Overall the prison service does well in protecting the public from those who have been convicted of serious crimes, although there may be a need to consider the lengths of sentences that are now being imposed. This will include consideration of such matters as the recently introduced Indeterminate Public Protection sentences.
    • Links: IPP sentences
    • http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/adviceandsupport/prison_life/lifesentencedprisoners/
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4536358.stm
    • http://www.prisonersadvice.org.uk/documents/MicrosoftWord-IPP2008.pdf
  • 9. Key issues
    • Can the debate needs to be restructured along the following lines?
    • Most crime is local and its effects are experienced locally. It may, therefore, be that the solution to it will also be found locally.
    • Most of the spending at the “back end” of the penal system, principally on prisons and probation, is controlled and distributed nationally.
  • 10. Key Issues
    • The criminal justice system is not well equipped to deal with matters which should primarily be the responsibility of other agencies. These include:
      • mental illness,
      • personal drug and alcohol abuse
      • inappropriate individual behaviour, especially by young people.
  • 11. Key Issues
    • Can Restorative Justice or alternative methods provide solutions to the penal crisis?
    • Underused and over-researched!
    • How do other countries deal with the “prison problem” if indeed they have one?
  • 12. Summary of key issues
    • The role of penal systems in UK and beyond
    • The Purposes of incarceration
    • The Aims of the UK Prison Services
    • The policies of the main political parties with regards to prisons (Scotland and the UK)
    • The debate over private prisons
    • Young people in prison
    • Women in Prison
    • The challenge of drugs and alcohol abuse
    • The challenge of mental health issues for prisoners
    • Racial/ Ethnic Minorities in Prison
    • The socio-economic divide and prison in the UK
  • 13. Summary of Tasks
    • Week 1: Tutorial
    • Prisons in the UK are too soft on criminals
    • Discuss
    • The role of penal systems in UK and beyond
    • The Purposes of incarceration
    • The Aims of the UK Prison Services
    • Caragh and Danielle
    • Death penalty on trial: http://www.guardian.co.uk/law/video/2010/may/13/death-penalty-trial-law-video
  • 14.
    • Week 2: Tutorial
    • Is Prison working?
    • The policies of the main political parties with regards to prisons (Scotland and the UK)
    • The debate over private prisons
    • MARTA
    • http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/sep/17/restorative-justice-cuts-crime
  • 15.
    • Week 3: Tutorial
    • Is Incarceration the best option for young offenders (under 21s)?
    • Assess the effectiveness of current provision in the UK and contrast with other countries
    • LOUIS
    • Young Offender: http://www.bbc.co.uk/filmnetwork/films/p004pr1w
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-10948635
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10547220
  • 16.
    • Week 4: Tutorial
    • To what extent is incarceration meeting its aims with respect to women in Prison in the UK?
    • HANNAH
  • 17.
    • Week 5: Tutorial
    • To what extent are Prisons in the UK meeting:
    • The challenge of drugs and alcohol abuse
    • The challenge of mental health issues for prisoners
    • STEFAN/CARAGH
  • 18.
    • Week 6: Tutorial
    • To what extent is the prison now being used increasingly as a method of dealing with the marginalised people in our society, fulfilling Charles Murray’s vision of “the custodial state”
    • Racial/ Ethnic/ Religious Minorities in Prison
    • The socio-economically marginalised and prison
    • Kay/ Nicoletta/Farah
    • http:// www.indiana.edu/~intell/bellcurve.shtml
    • http://www.thefreemanonline.org/departments/book-review-the-bell-curve-intelligence-and-class-structure-in-american-life-by-richard-j-herrnstein-and-charles-murray/ #
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Tutorials
      • Research and reading – minimum 4 articles
      • PowerPoint Presentation
      • Lead tutorial discussion
  • 21. References
    • Crime Statistics:
    • http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/bcs1.html
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10645702?print=true
    • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/7835917/David-Green-extending-British-Crime-Survey-to-include-children-is-important-step-forward.html
    • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/7894467/Crime-in-England-and-Wales-an-infographic-of-the-key-figures.html
    • http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nscl.asp?id=5685
    • http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Crime-Justice
    • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/scotland/4631857/Scotlands-murder-rate-is-fastest-rising-in-Western-Europe-UN-finds.html
    • Prisons Scotland:
    • http://www.sps.gov.uk/default.aspx
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/8474848.stm
    • http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/230180/0062359.pdf
    • http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/05/05104027/3
    • http://news.stv.tv/politics/106902-english-report-praises-scotlands-prisons/
    • http://www.heraldscotland.com/benefits-cheat-escapes-jail-as-prisons-are-too-full-1.890485
    • http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2009/11/27094202
  • 22. References