2008 Paper Research Methods
5a) Using crime statistics <ul><li>The limitations </li></ul><ul><li>You require a minimum of three detailed points with e...
P- Political Agenda to crime statistics <ul><li>Government commission or highlight specific statistics to suit their aims ...
P - Data on new crimes is unreliable <ul><li>Could be due to stigma and under-reporting… </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed,  male  ...
P – Official data not always reliable  <ul><li>Very often seen to be unreliable as they do not form a comparison over time...
Real Examples The BCS is a face-to-face victimisation survey in which people resident in households in England and Wales a...
Read this document about statistics and crime: <ul><li>http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/crime-statistics-independen...
Interview with Chief Constable <ul><li>High relevant person – Chief Constable  is the title given to the  chief police off...
Structured interview <ul><li>Specific goals of interview detailed in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Provides coherent structure...
Unstructured Interview <ul><li>Better in initial stages of research </li></ul><ul><li>Provide general answers in your area...
( a ) To what extent can  valid  and  reliable  conclusions be made from this information? <ul><li>Define  valid  and  rel...
<ul><li>O – ORIGIN (who/ when?) </li></ul><ul><li>P – PURPOSE (why?) </li></ul><ul><li>C – CONTENT (What info does it cont...
Evidence that suggests that the information does allow us to make valid and reliable conclusions: <ul><li>Relatively recen...
Evidence that suggests that the information does not allow us to make valid and reliable conclusions: <ul><li>NGO – so is ...
( b ) Suggest, with reasons,  one  alternative way in which this information could be presented in order to make it easier...
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2008 paper ah

  1. 1. 2008 Paper Research Methods
  2. 2. 5a) Using crime statistics <ul><li>The limitations </li></ul><ul><li>You require a minimum of three detailed points with examples </li></ul><ul><li>P.E.E.L </li></ul><ul><li>List answers not acceptable </li></ul>
  3. 3. P- Political Agenda to crime statistics <ul><li>Government commission or highlight specific statistics to suit their aims or to support their policies </li></ul><ul><li>Also statistics can be manipulated or “massaged” to suit the powers that be </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects political trends </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Statisticians responsible for the published crime statistics for 2008-09 took the unprecedented step of omitting the &quot;most serious violence against the person&quot; category, now they have seen the impact of further government changes to the counting rules. For, had this category been included, it would have given the impression that serious violence had increased by nearly 150% on the previous year. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/jul/20/crime-figures </li></ul>
  4. 4. P - Data on new crimes is unreliable <ul><li>Could be due to stigma and under-reporting… </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, male rape did not exist in the eyes of UK law until 1994. Before this, male rape was classified as indecent assault. Following introduction of the new law, in 1995 there were 3142 indecent assaults and 227 rapes against men - an increase of 51% from 1994 (Stationary Office 1996). More recent Home Office Statistics show an increase of 400% in reported cases of male rape between 1995 and 2000. However, for many reasons, the vast majority of incidents of male rape go unreported. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/counselloradvice9907.html </li></ul>
  5. 5. P – Official data not always reliable <ul><li>Very often seen to be unreliable as they do not form a comparison over time only a snapshot in the moment </li></ul><ul><li>Also criticised for lack of reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Crime Stats/ Police Force data (reported crime) </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. BCS </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes of a secret Home Office meeting obtained by The Sunday Telegraph in 2010 showed that an internal review was set up to examine the operation of the British Crime Survey (BCS) amid fears that it was underestimating key findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly with 16-24 year olds in the most deprived neighbourhoods </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/7550002/New-row-over-crime-statistics.html </li></ul>
  6. 6. Real Examples The BCS is a face-to-face victimisation survey in which people resident in households in England and Wales are asked about their experiences of crime in the 12 months BUT still reliant on self-reporting Only a snapshot Incomplete data Stigma of some crimes http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/7550002/New-row-over-crime-statistics.html Annual Crime Statistics from Home Office: Only crime recorded: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/about-us/national-archives/ Crime mapping by the Metropolitan Police: Only crime recorded http://maps.met.police.uk/tables.htm
  7. 7. Read this document about statistics and crime: <ul><li>http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs06/crime-statistics-independent-review-06.pdf </li></ul>
  8. 8. Interview with Chief Constable <ul><li>High relevant person – Chief Constable is the title given to the chief police officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Useful? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cypnow.co.uk/news/868327/Interview-childrens-copper---Chief-constable-Ian-McPherson-ACPO-lead-children-young-people/ </li></ul><ul><li>Less useful? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.windsorleadershiptrust.org.uk/en/1/sthorntonint.html </li></ul>
  9. 9. Structured interview <ul><li>Specific goals of interview detailed in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Provides coherent structure </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed information on the issues you seek answers to </li></ul><ul><li>Specific clear facts/ figure/ answers </li></ul>
  10. 10. Unstructured Interview <ul><li>Better in initial stages of research </li></ul><ul><li>Provide general answers in your area of study </li></ul><ul><li>Provide starting point to use to find more info </li></ul><ul><li>Less pressure on interviewee might mean more open honest responses </li></ul>
  11. 11. ( a ) To what extent can valid and reliable conclusions be made from this information? <ul><li>Define valid and reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>Valid: true knowledge. Accurately measuring the concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable: concerned with the question of whether the results of the study are can be trusted and are consistent. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>O – ORIGIN (who/ when?) </li></ul><ul><li>P – PURPOSE (why?) </li></ul><ul><li>C – CONTENT (What info does it contain?) </li></ul><ul><li>R – Recalled KU </li></ul>
  13. 13. Evidence that suggests that the information does allow us to make valid and reliable conclusions: <ul><li>Relatively recent (within a 5 year window) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date of January 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives evidence of deaths 5 th and 15th January 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inquest is a non-governmental organisation -independent of government so less pro-govt bias will be evident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winners of the Longford Prize 2009 and the Liberty/JUSTICE Human Rights Award 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt statistics may have a political agenda and be less impartial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INQUEST conducts its own research – established, reliable, credible source and reputable </li></ul><ul><li>• its statistics show 5 year period so valid. </li></ul><ul><li>Quote/ opinion from co-director of the charity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deborah Coles </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Evidence that suggests that the information does not allow us to make valid and reliable conclusions: <ul><li>NGO – so is potentially biased </li></ul><ul><li>Has a particular agenda … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INQUEST is a charity that provides a free advice service to bereaved people on contentious deaths and their investigation with a particular focus on deaths in custody. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting biased in favour of the dead person as they cannot speak for themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biased statements throughout eg “ prisons as dumping grounds” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>” Already this year” but no facts to compare with last year </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics – unclear what some of the categories mean eg “other non-natural causes” (What would be included in this?) </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed source of statistics or how they are collected not given </li></ul><ul><li>and cannot compare with years previous to those shown </li></ul><ul><li>Figures since 2007 not included (could be more up to date) </li></ul><ul><li>4 points x 3 marks </li></ul>
  15. 15. ( b ) Suggest, with reasons, one alternative way in which this information could be presented in order to make it easier for a researcher to use. <ul><li>Drop down menu of choices across the top separating into categories… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High profile cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics – link to official and Inquest commissioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs/ Family stories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related news articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links to related campaigns/ issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colour and more illustrations </li></ul><ul><li>Link to a face book page/ social networking site </li></ul><ul><li>List of related events/ campaigns </li></ul>

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