Poetry unravelled

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Analysis of poetry and introduction

Analysis of poetry and introduction

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  • 1. HOW TO APPROACH POETRY • POETRY ALWAYS SEEMS TO BE DIFFICULT • SOME STUDENTS MAY DISLIKE OR FEAR POETRY • HOWEVER; IT’S VERY EASY! THERE CAN NEVER BE A RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER. • IT IS UP TO YOUR INTERPRETATIONS AS LONG AS YOU CAN JUSTIFY IT!! • POEMS CAN BE WRITTEN ABOUT ANYTHING. • THEY CONTAIN IDEAS, FEELINGS, AND SOUNDS INTO A FEW WORDS OR SENTENCES. 2
  • 2. WHAT IS POETRY? • A POEM IS A COMPOSITION IN VERSE. IT PAINTS PICTURES BY MEANS OF POETIC DEVICES SUCH AS FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, RHYTHM AND RHYME. • POETRY (ANCIENT GREEK: ΠΟΙΕΩ (POIEO) = I CREATE) • TO FIND OUT MORE VISIT:HTTP://WWW.POETRY.ORG/WHATIS.HTM • "THE SPONTANEOUS OVERFLOW OF POWERFUL FEELINGS;“ –WORDSWORTH • "IF I READ A BOOK AND IT MAKES MY BODY SO COLD NO FIRE EVER CAN WARM ME, I KNOW THAT IS POETRY;“ – EMILY DICKINSON 3
  • 3. STARTING OFF… TITLE • READ THE TITLE OF THE POEM • IF THERE IS WORDS IN THE TITLE THAT YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND, LOOK IT UP BEFORE READING THE POEM. • THE TITLE IS THE THEME OF THE POEM. • WHAT WILL YOU PREDICT THE POEM IS ABOUT? • WRITE DOWN THIS PREDICTIONS TO REFLECT ON IT LATER. POET • WHEN STUDYING A POET PAY ATTENTION TO THE DATE OF BIRTH AND TO THE DATE OF HIS/HER DEATH. THIS WILL ALLOW YOU TO UNDERSTAND WHERE HE/SHE IS COMINGFROM WHEN THE POEM WAS WRITTEN • ALSO LOOK AT WHAT THE POET HAS ACHIEVED IN HIS/HER LIFE TIME. • POETS REFLECT THE EVENTS AND IDEAS OF THEIR TIMES THROUGH POETRY. • UNDERSTANDING OF A POET’S TIME MAY LEAD TO AN UNDERSTANDING OF HIS IDEAS. • KNOWLEDGE OF A POET’S BACKGROUND ALSO GIVES US INSIGHT INTO HIS INTENTION. 4
  • 4. READ THE POEM! READ THE POEM MORE THAN ONES!!! KEEP THE POET IN MIND. LOOK UP WORDS THAT SEEM UNFAMILIAR. WHILE READING LINK THE TITLE WITH THE IDEAS IN THE POEM. 5
  • 5. PARAPHRASE THE POEM TRANSLATE THE POEM INTO YOUR OWN WORDS. • RE-WRITE THE PLOT OF THE POEM IN YOUR OWN WORDS, KEY IN ON THE LITERAL MEANING. FREQUENTLY, REAL UNDERSTANDING OF A POEM MUST EVOLVE FROM COMPREHENSION OF “WHAT’S GOING ON IN THE POEM.” 6
  • 6. ANALYSIS OF POETRY • THEME/MAIN IDEA • FORM • DICTION (WORD CHOICE) • TONE (ATTITUDE) • IMAGERY • RHYTHM • RHYME • METRE 7
  • 7. THEME/MAIN IDEA • EACH POEM CONVEYS THE MESSAGES OR INTENTIONS OF THE POET AND THESE MAY BE EXPLICIT (0BVIOUS) OR IMPLICIT (IMPLIED). • THE POEM MAY BE A NARRATIVE, WHICH TELLS A STORY, OR A LYRIC, WHICH DESCRIBES THE PERSONAL FEELINGS OF THE POET. • IN IDENTIFYING THEME, YOU WILL WANT TO CONSIDER THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE, MOTIVATION, OR CONDITION SUGGESTED BY THE POEM. • ASK YOURSELF, WHAT IS THE POET TRYING TO SAY ABOUT LIFE? 8
  • 8. NARRATIVE FORM TYPES: • THE BALLAD • THE EPIC • THE ALLEGORY • DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE • A NARRATIVE FORM TELLS A STORY. • IT USUALLY HAS A BEGINNING, MIDDLE, CLIMAX AND CONCLUSION. • DIRECT AND NARRATED SPEECH CAN BE USED. • OFTEN COMPOSED TO RECORD HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND FAMILY EVENTS. • PASSED DOWN FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION. 9
  • 9. NARRATIVE POETRY: THE BALLAD • OLDEST FORM OF NARRATIVE VERSE. • AT ONE STAGE IT WAS SUNG. • SUBJECT MATTER: LOVE, DEATH, WAR, BRAVERY, ADVENTURE, ACTION. • RHYTHM HAS STRONG BEAT. • TODAY = SONGWRITERS. • EXAMPLES: JOHN KEATS’S “LA BELLE DAME SANS MERCI,” THOMAS HARDY’S “DURING WIND AND RAIN,” AND EDGAR ALLAN POE’S“ANNABEL LEE.” 10
  • 10. NARRATIVE POETRY: THE EPIC • AN EPIC (FROM THE ANCIENT GREEK ADJECTIVE ἘΠΙΚΌΣ (EPIKOS), FROM ἜΠΟ Σ (EPOS) "WORD, STORY, POEM" • LONG, NARRATIVE POEM TELLING THE STORY OF AN HISTORICAL FIGURE OR EVENT. • HAS BEEN REFERRED TO AS A “NOVEL IN VERSE”. 11
  • 11. NARRATIVE POETRY: THE ALLEGORY • THE ALLEGORY IS A NARRATIVE POEM THAT APPEARS IN THE FORM OF AN EXTENDED METAPHOR. • IT CONVEYS A VEILED MORAL MEANING. • IT CAN BE EITHER IN PROSE OR VERSE. • EXAMPLE: “FAERIE QUEENE” BY SPENCER. • THE WIZARD OF OZ WAS ORIGINALLY AN ALLEGORY. 12
  • 12. NARRATIVE POETRY: DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE • SPOKEN IN THE FIRST PERSON (“I”). • THE SPEAKER ADDRESSES AN INVISIBLE RECIPIENT. • FROM HIS WORDS, WE LEARN MORE ABOUT THE SPEAKER. • STORY LINE = NARRATIVE. • EXAMPLE: ROBERT BROWNING. 13
  • 13. LYRIC FORM TYPES: • ELIZABETHAN SONNET • PETRARCHAN SONNET • MODERN SONNET • THE ODE • THE ELEGY • THE LYRIC IS A POEM WITH A MUSICAL OR SONG- LIKE QUALITY. • THE LYRIC CONVEYS THE PERSONAL THOUGHTS OF THE POET. • THE LYRIC WAS ORIGINALLY ACCOMPANIED BY THE LYRE. • THIS FORM WAS FAVOURED BY ROMANTIC POETS LIKE WORDSWORTH, KEATS AND SHELLEY. 14
  • 14. LYRICAL POETRY: ELIZABETHAN SONNET • SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET • ENGLISH SONNET • 14 LINES • THREE QUATRAINS + RHYMING COUPLET. • IAMBIC PENTAMETER. • COUPLET: TIES UP THE IMAGES AND FEELINGS AND STATES THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE POET. 15
  • 15. LYRIC FORM: PETRARCHAN SONNET • ITALIAN SONNET • OCTAVE (8 LINES) + SESTET (6 LINES). • OCTAVE: THE PROBLEM • SESTET: THE SOLUTION • BREAK = VOLTA • OCTAVE: ABBAABBA • SESTET: CDECDE OR CDCDC OR CDDCEF. 16
  • 16. LYRIC POETRY: MODERN SONNET • THESE OFTEN COMBINE ASPECTS OF THE SHAKESPEAREAN AND PETRARCHAN FORMS. • THEY MAY CREATE THEIR OWN FORMS, BUT ALWAYS RETAIN THE 14 LINES. 17
  • 17. LYRIC POETRY: SONNET COMPARISON 18
  • 18. LYRIC POETRY: THE ODE • THE ODE IS AN FORMAL ADDRESS OR TRIBUTE IN PRAISE OF SOMETHING, SOMEONE OR AN EVENT. • IT DESCRIBES THE PERSONAL FEELINGS OF THE POET. • ORIGINALLY SUNG AS ACCOMPANIMENT TO A GREEK DANCE. • LATER: PRAISE OF INANIMATE OBJECT • ORIGINALLY ACCOMPANIED BY MUSIC AND DANCE, AND LATER RESERVED BY THE ROMANTIC POETS TO CONVEY THEIR STRONGEST SENTIMENTS. SEE MORE AT: HTTP://WWW.POETS.ORG/VIEWMEDIA.PHP/PR MMID/5784#STHASH.7EPERV5M.DPUF 19
  • 19. LYRIC POETRY: THE ELEGY • A REFLECTIVE POEM OR LAMENT DEALING WITH TOPICS SUCH AS DEATH OR MOURNING. • EXAMPLES: “ELEGY WRITTEN IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD” BY GRAY AND “LYCIDAS” BY MILTON. • THE ELEGY BEGAN AS AN ANCIENT GREEK METRICAL FORM AND IS TRADITIONALLY WRITTEN IN RESPONSE TO THE DEATH OF A PERSON OR GROUP. - SEE MORE AT: HTTP://WWW.POETS.ORG/VIEWMEDIA.PH P/PRMMID/5778#STHASH.VHSIK0Z0.DPU F 20
  • 20. FORM • A POEM IS WRITTEN IN A PARTICULAR FORM. • POEMS ARE USUALLY WRITTEN IN LINES. • THESE LINES CAN BE GROUPED INTO STANZAS. • ENJAMBMENT OR RUN-ON LINES OCCUR IN POETRY WHERE THERE IS NO PUNCTUATION AT THE END OF A LINE. THE POET’S THOUGHTS REMAIN UNBROKEN. Enjambment: the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza. Example 21
  • 21. DICTION • THE POET’S USE OF WORDS CREATES ATMOSPHERE AND SETS THE POEM IN IT’S CORRECT TIME AND PLACE. • WORD CHOICE INFLUENCES RHYTHM AND MOOD. • IN A RHYMING POEM, APPROPRIATEWORD CHOICE IS CRUCIAL. • JARGON AND SLANG MAY BE USED FOR EFFECT. • THE USE OF REPETITION IS ALSO AN EFFECTIVE DEVICE. 22
  • 22. TONE/ATTITUDE • THE TONE OF THE POEM REVEALS THE POET’S SUBJECTIVE VIEWS AND ATTITUDE TO THE READER AND TO THE SUBJECT. • OBSERVE BOTH THE SPEAKER’S AND POET’S ATTITUDE (TONE) • TONE CONTRIBUTES TO THE MOOD OR ATMOSPHERE OF THE POEM. • HAVING EXAMINED THE POEM’S DEVICES AND CLUES CLOSELY, YOU ARE NOW READY TO EXPLORE THE MULTIPLE ATTITUDES THAT MAY BE PRESENT IN THE POEM. BEST DESCRIPTIVE WORDS FOR TONE: FRIENDLY SHARP SARCASTIC IRONIC ANGRY HUMOROUS CONDESCENDING 23
  • 23. SPEAKER • THE SPEAKER OF THE POEM IS THE VOICE THAT RELATES THE STORY OR IDEA OF THE POEM. THE SPEAKER MAY BE THE POET, SPEAKING DIRECTLY TO THE READER, OR THE SPEAKER MAY BE A CHARACTER OR VOICE CREATED BY THE POET. • NOTE THE SHIFT OF SPEAKERS AND ATTITUDE IN THE POEM. • LOOK FOR THE FOLLOWING: KEY WORDS (BUT, YET, HOWEVER, ALTHOUGH) PUNCTUATION (DASHES, PERIODS, COLONS, ELLIPSIS) STANZA DIVISIONS CHANGES IN LINE OR STANZA LENGTH OR BOTH IRONY (SOMETIMES IRONY HIDES SHIFTS) EFFECT OF STRUCTURE ON MEANING CHANGES IN SOUND THAT MAY INDICATE CHANGES IN MEANING CHANGES IN DICTION (SLANG TO FORMAL LANGUAGE) 24
  • 24. THE VOICE MAY INCLUDE 25
  • 25. IMAGERY • IMAGERY IS LANGUAGE THAT APPEALS TO THE READER’S FIVE SENSES- SIGHT, HEARING, SMELL, TASTE, AND TOUCH. • POETRY IS A COMBINATION OF LITERAL AND FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE. • IMAGERY CONJURES UP WORD PICTURES – THESE AFFECT US EMOTIONALLY AND INTELLECTUALLY. • METAPHORS, SIMILES, PERSONIFICATION. • ALLITERATION, ASSONANCE, CONSONANCE, ONOMATOPOEIA. Figurative language: language which expresses more than a literal meaning 26
  • 26. RHYTHM: TECHNIQUE THAT CREATES SOUND • RHYTHM SETS THE PACE AND SHOULD MATCH THE MEANING. • SLOW RHYTHM = SOMBRE MEANING. • QUICK PACE = HAPPY MOOD. • WHEN READING A POEM ALOUD, FEEL THE CHANGE OF PACE AND HOW IT AFFECTS THE MOOD OF THE POEM. • PACE (TEMPO)AND PAUSE AFFECT RHYTHM 27
  • 27. RHYME SCEME: TECHNIQUE THAT CREATES SOUND • RHYME DEPENDS ON SOUND, NOT SIGHT. • RHYME SCHEMES DIFFER. • COUPLET: TWO CONSECUTIVE RHYMING LINES. • QUATRAIN: FOUR-LINED STANZA. • AABB = PAIR RHYME • ABAB = ALTERNATE/CROSS RHYME • AABB = ENCLOSED RHYME • ABCA = FREE VERSE 28
  • 28. METRE • METRE IS THE NUMBER OF STRESSES, BEATS OR FEET IN A LINE OF POETRY. • SHAKESPEAREUSED THE IAMBIC (RISING RHYTHM OF TWO SYLLABLES) PENTAMETER (FIVE FEET) TO WRITE HIS SONNETS. 29
  • 29. REPRODUCED FROM: • DU TOIT, M. 2013. POETRY BASICS: INTRODUCTION TO POETRY ANALYSIS AND FORMS. SURFDALE. NEW ZEALAND. WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/MARIETTEDUTOITDODD/POETRY-BASICS-INTRODUCTION-TO-POETRY-ANALYSIS-AND-FORMS • ABDELHAMID, O. 2012. HOW TO ANALYSE POETRY. OASIS. WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/OMNEYA2010/HOW-TO- ANALYZE-A-POEM-11317211. • MEDWAY HIGH SCHOOL. 2009. READING AND ENJOYING POETRY. WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/FENWAYSOXSSC/READING-AND-ENJOYING-POETRY • SAMPLES .2009. POETRY: AN INTRODUCTION. LILBURN. UNITED STATE. HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/EBRAND21/POETRY- 2497280?QID=0C761995-53D4-4D4D-AC2D-CFE33EEBA2F4&V=DEFAULT&B=&FROM_SEARCH=5 • LAGAÑA, J. 2011. TYPES AND ELEMENTS OF POETRY. PHILIPPINES. PASAY CITY SCIENCE HIGH SCHOOL. WEBSITE: HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/JACKYLINELAGAA/TYPES-AND-ELEMENTS-OF-POETRY 30