Fighting Cancer With Your Fork

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Audio and slides for this presentation are available on YouTube: http://youtu.be/UVRYzgFqVGM …

Audio and slides for this presentation are available on YouTube: http://youtu.be/UVRYzgFqVGM

Dana-Farber Nutritionist Hillary Wright presents on how to fight cancer with your fork. She discusses the importance of healthy eating, and dispels some of the common myths about certain foods and cancer.

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  • Best is combination of weight-bearing exercise for your bones and weight, and cardiovascular exercise for your heart. Cardiovascular exercise recommendations: Walking is a great form of exercise – aim for 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes/week of vigorous-intensity exercise. You can get to that goal in whatever way you want. For example: (150 minutes/week): 1.5 hour moderate-intensity gardening = 90 minutes 20 minute walk with friends 3x/week = 60 minutes
  • Singling out one element is not wise as optimal and safe doses have not yet been established Phytonutrients work together to enhance one another’s function James Levine

Transcript

  • 1. Fighting Cancer with Your Fork: Separating Fact From Fiction Hillary M. Wright, MEd, RD, LDN Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Leonard P. Zakim Center for Integrated Therapies
  • 2. How Do We Figure Out What May Affect Cancer Risk/Survivorship?The American Institute for Cancer Research “Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective”• The result of an analysis of over 7000 research studies on the link between diet, lifestyle and cancer, and for the first time cancer survivors• www.aicr.org   “comprehensive global report”  10 Recommendations, last one specific to survivors.
  • 3. America’s Challenging Food Environment
  • 4. Question: Is it also our lifestyle?
  • 5. Watch Your Weight!• 65% of Americans are overweight or obese.• Only 6% of Americans identify being overweight or obese as a risk factor for cancer despite a clearly established scientific link.• Research shows that fat cells can act as "hormone pumps," secreting hormones and other growth factors into the bloodstream.• If the bodys cells are exposed to very high levels of these substances over an extended period, they tend to reproduce more quickly  ? Increase cancer cell growth.• Researchers stress that this potentially dangerous condition is reversible!
  • 6. Question: But after cancer treatment, Iactually lost weight?
  • 7. Weight Loss during Cancer Treatment• Possible causes: – Changes in metabolism, anorexia, side effects of treatment (nausea, vomiting, fatigue, taste changes, dry mouth, throat soreness if esophagus affected by radiation), over-aggressive efforts to eat a “cancer-fighting” diet.• Weight loss is associated with increased difficulty tolerating treatment and poorer quality of life.• Nutritionist can help: – Five or six small meals/snacks – Suggestions for smoothies or liquid nutrition supplements – Strategies to concentrate calories in food and increase overall intake
  • 8. Movement is critical to the health of the human body!! Absolutely necessary if you want to maintain a healthy weight!• New Guidelines from the Dept of Health & Human Services Minimum 150 min moderate, or 75 min vigorous to reduce risk of chronic disease – Ideally aim for more – and necessary if weight loss and maintenance of loss is the goal – 300 min of moderate or 150 minutes of vigorous.• Physical activity linked to lower risk of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer; necessary for weight control.
  • 9. Different ways to be active… If you like it – you’ll do it!
  • 10. Fruits and vegetables may exert a protective effect:
  • 11. Phytonutrients• Beyond vitamins, minerals and fiber, natural compounds found in plants may exert profound disease preventive effects• The “immune system” of a plant – many also represent the pigment that gives the plant it’s color.
  • 12. Phytonutrients: Prevention in a Plant• How do they work? – Stimulate enzymes that help the body detoxify – Reduce the genetic damage from cancer causing agents – May interfere with growth and multiplication of cancer cells – Decrease inflammation
  • 13. If It Stains Your Shirt…• If a fruit or vegetable has a strong smell or taste, it’s probably biomedically active• If it stains your shirt, it’s definitely biomedically active!
  • 14. Antioxidants• Vitamin A, C, E, Selenium & Phytonutrients• Help prevent damage to cells from the attack of free radicals• “But I take antioxidant supplements in pill form, so I’m getting all the antioxidant benefits that way, right?”
  • 15. Food First• Phytonutrients work together to provide a synergistic benefit
  • 16. Choose a Predominately Plant Based Diet• Eat 5-10 servings fruits & veggies each day – 1 serving = 1/2 cup cut, cooked or sliced; 1 piece medium fruit; 1 cup leafy greens• Emphasis on variety• Look for richly colored plant foods
  • 17. Question: What about juicingvegetables?
  • 18. How to Get It All In: Fruits & VeggieslTry to eat at least 2 colorful plant foodsbefore noonlMake a breakfast smoothie with low-fatmilk, yogurt and fresh or frozen fruitslAdd frozen veggies to soup, casseroleslKeep veggies & fruit cut-up and readilyavailable for quick snacks anywhere
  • 19. Great Gains from Whole Grains• Keep weight off (portions still matter!)• Isoprenoids in whole grains suppress tumor growth• Tepernoids and Tocotrienols encourage tumor dormancy and decrease tumor cell division• Stimulate GST (detoxifying enzyme)
  • 20. Sugar and Cancer – It’s not that simple…..• Sugar does not FEED cancer• Chronic, excess intake of simple sugar leads to excess production of hormones like insulin, IGF that encourage cellular growth
  • 21. Insulin and Cancer• Excess insulin can promote tumor cell growth• Behaviors that increase insulin levels – Consumption of refined sugar and flour – Overeating – Weight gain – Sedentary lifestyle• Behavior that reduces insulin levels – Physical activity, weight loss, unrefined carbs
  • 22. Question: Some programs I’ve seensuggest links between sugar and brainfunction?
  • 23. Question: What’s the differencebetween sugar and carbohydrates thatturn into sugar?
  • 24. Question: So should we follow theadage: eat breakfast like a king, lunchlike a prince and dinner like a pauper?
  • 25. Insulin and Cancer• Excess insulin can promote tumor cell growth• Behaviors that increase insulin levels – Consumption of refined sugar and flour – Overeating – Weight gain – Sedentary lifestyle• Behavior that reduces insulin levels – Physical activity, weight loss, unrefined carbs
  • 26. Donut vs. Orange• 200 calories • 62 calories• 10 grams sugar • 12 grams sugar• 0 grams fiber • 3 grams fiber• 0 phytonutrients • 170 phytonutrients
  • 27. Get Into the Bean Routine….
  • 28. Question: I take Arimidex so is it not agood idea to experiment withsoybeans?
  • 29. Get Into the Bean Routine….
  • 30. Question: What about multivitamins?
  • 31. Question: Can you talk about the acidvs. alkaline diet?
  • 32. Get Into the Bean Routine….
  • 33. Question: Can someone get enoughprotein from eating beans?
  • 34. Find Healthful Fats Reduce consumption  Choose of saturated and trans- Monounsaturated and fats Omega-3 Fats  Saturated  Monounsaturated • Found in animal fat, • Found in olive oil, canola butter, full-fat dairy, oil, olives, avocado, nuts coconut and palm oils and nut butters  Trans  Omega-3 • Found in margarine, • Found in salmon, processed foods herring, sardines, containing hydrogenated mackerel, bluefish and or partially tuna hydrogenated oils • Strive to include 4 oz of oily fish 2-3 times a week
  • 35. The Typical American Plate 50% Meat 25% vegetable > 25% starch
  • 36. AICR: Limit Red Meat Intake• Limit red meat to 18 ounces per week (includes beef, pork and lamb)• Avoid processed meats• “Processed meat” refers to meats preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or by the addition of preservatives (ham, bacon, pastrami, salami, hot dogs and sausages.• When meat is preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or by the addition of preservatives, cancer-causing substances (carcinogens) can be formed. These substances can damage cells in the body, leading to the development of cancer.• Studies show people who eat more meat often eat less plant-based food.
  • 37. Healthy Eating Plate • Aim for ½ plate of plants (preferably vegetables) at lunch and dinner • ¼ of plate as lean protein • ¼ of plate of complex carbohydrate
  • 38. Question: I heard that you should eatyour fruits and vegetables separately.Is that true?
  • 39. Organic vs. Conventional• No scientific evidence to date that organic offers anti-cancer advantage at this point• More than ½ of dietary pesticide exposure comes from 12 foods – EWG “Dirty Dozen”• Bottom line: wash things thoroughly
  • 40. Question: What about eating the skinon apples?
  • 41. Question: What about veggieswashes?
  • 42. Food First• 75% of Americans don’t eat “5 a day”• Americans eat 1.5 servings of vegetables & less than 1 serving of fruit daily, despite consistent evidence that these foods decrease the risk of many chronic diseases.• We throw away more than 11 billion pounds of fruits and vegetables every year in the US!!• Americans spend $18.7 billion per year on dietary supplements despite limited and inconclusive scientific evidence of effectiveness in disease prevention and treatment
  • 43. Dietary Supplements That May Help Cancer Survivors • Vitamin D • Omega-3 • Probiotics and calcium if needed24,000 Dietary Supplementsmarketed to Cancer Survivors!
  • 44. Vitamin D and Cancer • Inverse relationship between Vitamin D and several types of cancer – Possible anti-angiogenesis and helps keep cell replication normal • Ask your doctor to check your serum 25(OH) vitamin D level. • Supplementation is likely necessary. – 1000 IU/day is safe for most people.
  • 45. Omega 3 Fats– Anti-inflammatory– Reduce muscle wasting during treatment– Great for your cardiovascular system • Salmon, herring, sardines, mackerel • Aim for 4 oz of oily fish 2-3 times a week • Daily goal: 1000 mg of EPA/DHA • Look for 500 EPA/DHA per capsule
  • 46. Question: Should I be worried aboutmercury in Omega 3 supplements?
  • 47. Question: Can you give yourself toomuch Omega 3?
  • 48. Alcohol– Alcohol intake should be limited – one per day for women, 2 per day for men.– Serving is:12 ounce beer5 ounces wine1.5 ounces spirits
  • 49. Question: I have oatmeal andblueberries for breakfast every day,but I use the instant oatmeal. Is thatokay?
  • 50. Question: Is there any research onpesticides on certain vegetables thatsays that contributes to cancer?
  • 51. Thank You!• For more information about fighting cancer with your fork, please visit the nutrition section of our web site:www.dana-farber.org/Adult-Care/Treatment-and-Su