*Simplified so that audience who would know who to root for
MontageLovingly made by:Dan Black, Matthew Brown, Victoria Guerrero, as well asEvan Harms
History• Montage – French "putting together"• Story as a whole / symbolic meaning“To determine the nature of montage is tosolve the specific problem of cinema.”
Montage• The process or technique of selecting, editing, and piecing together separate sections of film or video to form a continuous whole.• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JU9Uwhjlog8
Differences• American – Unity through opposition• Soviet – Opposite ideas making new• French – Movement• German – Light and color
Sergei Eisenstein• One of the first important narrative filmmakers• Pioneer in the use of montage • Linkage of shots to evoke emotions• Methods of Montage: • 1. Metric • 2. Rhythmic • 3. Tonal • 4. Overtonal • 5. Intellectual
Metric Montage • Time length of shots • Combination of shots = Absolute Length • Example: • Paint in painting • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D ig3HDSH9CE
Rhythmic Montage• Rate of action in comparison to music• Changing shots in time with musical beat• Acceleration of action compared to music • Fast action : Slow music Example: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b2uLNioV W-M
Tonal Montage• Tone of shot matches tone of music • Dark shot will have dark music • Loud action has loud music• Example: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jSTWy25h RiI
Overtonal/Associational• Combination of all previous (Metric, Tonal, Rythmic)• Abstract + Complicated effect• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a miVgxYQ3q8
Eisenstein’sFeatures of Film • Primo - Photo-fragments of nature • This is the distorted fragment of nature (Only a part of nature is seen) • Secundo - The combination of the fragments of nature, which thus creates a scene (also known as a montage)
Eisenstein’s Dialectic Approach to Film Form• Philosophical • Projection of opposing views in film can abstractly create a process of thinking• Artistic • The same projection which concretely creates and gives form to film makes the film.• Combination of abstract and concrete projection creates conflict • Fundamental concept of approach to film form.
Art • “Art is Always Conflict” • According to: • It’s social mission • It’s nature • It’s methodology
To Social Mission • Art’s task is to bring contradictions (conflict) of what is, to the audience’s mind.
To Nature • In conflict with nature due to the natural existence and creative tendency. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDOvMb6pSlo
To Methodology • The methods of filmmaking bring about two counterpoints; • Visual and Audio-Visual
The Counterpoints • Visual Counterpoints • Through visual aspects it helps to create conflict graphically, on planes, spatially, and through lights. • http://www.youtube.com/watchv=6P2iUJuc bk4 • Audio-Visual Conflicts • Through sound it helps to create conflict through volumes and in tempo. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqRHjYl9 55s
Battleship Potemkin, 1925• Made by Sergei Eisenstein• Celebrates 1905 Revolution against Tsarism in Russia• Sailors rebellion• Captain orders them shot• Gained support
Battleship Potemkin• Created to inspire comrades towards Bolshevism• Test theory of montage• Emotional Response• Characterization simplified
Odessa Steps• Massacre of Civilians on the Odessa Steps• Many films have paid homage to scene• Fictional• Rhythmic Montage• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D LEE2UL_N7Q
More on Battleship Potemkin• Critically acclaimed worldwide• Eisenstein focused on structural issues • Camera angles • Crowd movements • Montage • Brought under fire from Soviet film community • Forced to issue public articles of self-criticisms, commitments to reform his cinematic visions to conform to socialist realism’s doctrines
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