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Multivariant Narratives
       Marie-Laure Ryan
Once upon a time, Dan gave a
presentation to ARIN6912...
Once upon a time, Dan gave a
  presentation to ARIN6912...
★Summary of Multivariant Narratives
Once upon a time, Dan gave a
  presentation to ARIN6912...
★Summary of Multivariant Narratives
★Critique
Once upon a time, Dan gave a
  presentation to ARIN6912...
★Summary of Multivariant Narratives
★Critique
★Position the art...
Once upon a time, Dan gave a
  presentation to ARIN6912...
★Summary of Multivariant Narratives
★Critique
★Position the art...
Once upon a time, Dan gave a
  presentation to ARIN6912...
★Summary of Multivariant Narratives
★Critique
★Position the art...
Summary:
Summary:
★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their
  material mediums
Summary:
★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their
  material mediums
★ Emergence of digital media coincides ...
Summary:
★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their
  material mediums
★ Emergence of digital media coincides ...
Summary:
★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their
  material mediums
★ Emergence of digital media coincides ...
Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
★   Narrative: “medium-free, semantically
    based definition, according to which
    narrat...
Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
★   Narrative: “medium-free, semantically
    based definition, according to which
    narrat...
Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
★   Narrative: “medium-free, semantically
    based definition, according to which
    narrat...
Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
★   Narrative: “medium-free, semantically
    based definition, according to which
    narrat...
Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
★   Narrative: “medium-free, semantically
    based definition, according to which
    narrat...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
       1. Oral Age
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
         1. Oral Age
     2. Chirographic Age
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
         1. Oral Age
     2. Chirographic Age
         3. Print Age
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
         1. Oral Age
     2. Chirographic Age
         3. Print Age
         4. Digital Age
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                       1. Oral Age
                   2. Chirographic Age
                       3....
THE HISTORY OF WRITING
                     1. Oral Age
                 2. Chirographic Age
                     3. Print...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982)
★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission
★ Facilitated by prosodic features...
C20th Experiments:
C20th Experiments:
★ 1920s Dada Poetry
C20th Experiments:
★ 1920s Dada Poetry

★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges
C20th Experiments:
★ 1920s Dada Poetry

★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges

★ 1960ish: Cut-up Technique
C20th Experiments:
★ 1920s Dada Poetry

★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges

★ 1960ish: Cut-up Technique


...
C20th Experiments:
★ 1920s Dada Poetry

★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges

★ 1960ish: Cut-up Technique


...
Limits of pre-digital attempts at
multivariant narrative:
Limits of pre-digital attempts at
multivariant narrative:
 1. Theorised but did not deliver mulivariance (eg Borges)
Limits of pre-digital attempts at
multivariant narrative:
 1. Theorised but did not deliver mulivariance (eg Borges)

 2. ...
Limits of pre-digital attempts at
multivariant narrative:
 1. Theorised but did not deliver mulivariance (eg Borges)

 2. ...
The Digital Era
The Digital Era
★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission
  or production of print texts
The Digital Era
★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission
  or production of print texts

★ Digital narrative...
The Digital Era
★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission
  or production of print texts

★ Digital narrative...
The Digital Era
★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission
  or production of print texts

★ Digital narrative...
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

         1.
algorithm driven
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

        1.
algorithm driven
        2. reactive & intera...
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

        1.
algorithm driven
        2. reactive & intera...
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

        1.
algorithm driven
        2. reactive & intera...
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

        1.
algorithm driven
        2. reactive & intera...
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

        1.
algorithm driven
        2. reactive & intera...
Properties of Digital Media
(relevant to narrative & textuality)

        1.
algorithm driven
        2. reactive & intera...
3 Aspects of
Variable Narrative:
3 Aspects of
  Variable Narrative:
★Variable Discourse
3 Aspects of
  Variable Narrative:
★Variable Discourse
★Variable Point of View
3 Aspects of
  Variable Narrative:
★Variable Discourse
★Variable Point of View
★Variable Plot
Variable Discourse:
Variable Discourse:
★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple
  possible paths through a system of story fr...
Variable Discourse:
★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple
  possible paths through a system of story fr...
Variable Discourse:
★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple
  possible paths through a system of story fr...
Variable Discourse:
★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple
  possible paths through a system of story fr...
Variable Discourse:
★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple
  possible paths through a system of story fr...
Variable Point of View:
Variable Point of View:
★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
Variable Point of View:
★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interacti...
Variable Point of View:
★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interacti...
Variable Point of View:
★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interacti...
Variable Point of View:
     ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
     ★ Key examples: some hypertexts,...
Variable Point of View:
     ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
     ★ Key examples: some hypertexts,...
Variable Plot
★ Multiple outcomes, multiple paths for reaching them


★ Digital media allows for the development of simple...
Interactive Fiction
Interactive Fiction
★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based
  on affordances
Interactive Fiction
★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based
  on affordances
★ “the only room for variati...
Interactive Fiction
★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based
  on affordances
★ “the only room for variati...
Interactive Fiction
★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based
  on affordances
★ “the only room for variati...
Interactive Fiction
★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based
  on affordances
★ “the only room for variati...
Interactive Fiction
★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based
  on affordances
★ “the only room for variati...
First Person Shooter
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
First Person Shooter
★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than
  recounted by narrator

★ Plot is infinitely ...
God Game
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity

★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents
  in...
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity

★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents
  in...
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity

★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents
  in...
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity

★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents
  in...
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity

★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents
  in...
God Game
★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity

★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents
  in...
General Critiques
General Critiques
★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the
  inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital m...
General Critiques
★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the
  inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital m...
General Critiques
★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the
  inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital m...
General Critiques
★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the
  inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital m...
Theoretical Context
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
       ★What’s a game?
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
       ★What’s a game?
       ★If some games...
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
       ★What’s a game?
       ★If some games...
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
       ★What’s a game?
       ★If some games...
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
       ★What’s a game?
       ★If some games...
Theoretical Context
Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
       ★What’s a game?
       ★If some games...
Arin6912 Wk 11 - Multivariant Narratives
Arin6912 Wk 11 - Multivariant Narratives
Arin6912 Wk 11 - Multivariant Narratives
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  • Transcript of "Arin6912 Wk 11 - Multivariant Narratives"

    1. 1. Multivariant Narratives Marie-Laure Ryan
    2. 2. Once upon a time, Dan gave a presentation to ARIN6912...
    3. 3. Once upon a time, Dan gave a presentation to ARIN6912... ★Summary of Multivariant Narratives
    4. 4. Once upon a time, Dan gave a presentation to ARIN6912... ★Summary of Multivariant Narratives ★Critique
    5. 5. Once upon a time, Dan gave a presentation to ARIN6912... ★Summary of Multivariant Narratives ★Critique ★Position the article in broader context
    6. 6. Once upon a time, Dan gave a presentation to ARIN6912... ★Summary of Multivariant Narratives ★Critique ★Position the article in broader context ★View some examples
    7. 7. Once upon a time, Dan gave a presentation to ARIN6912... ★Summary of Multivariant Narratives ★Critique ★Position the article in broader context ★View some examples ★Discussion
    8. 8. Summary:
    9. 9. Summary: ★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their material mediums
    10. 10. Summary: ★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their material mediums ★ Emergence of digital media coincides with a crisis in literature around truth and authority
    11. 11. Summary: ★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their material mediums ★ Emergence of digital media coincides with a crisis in literature around truth and authority ★ Digital media present new opportunities for the development of multivariant narratives
    12. 12. Summary: ★ The way we tell and read stories is related to their material mediums ★ Emergence of digital media coincides with a crisis in literature around truth and authority ★ Digital media present new opportunities for the development of multivariant narratives ★ BUT, “the creation of multivariant narratives depends on the existence of protocols that maintain linear coherence on the cognitive level…”
    13. 13. Ryan’s Definition of Narrative
    14. 14. Ryan’s Definition of Narrative ★ Narrative: “medium-free, semantically based definition, according to which narrative is a type of meaning or mental image generated in response to certain
    15. 15. Ryan’s Definition of Narrative ★ Narrative: “medium-free, semantically based definition, according to which narrative is a type of meaning or mental image generated in response to certain ★ Narrative script: “pictures a world situated in time and populated by intelligent agents” and the time span frames various states with accidental and/or deliberate actions
    16. 16. Ryan’s Definition of Narrative ★ Narrative: “medium-free, semantically based definition, according to which narrative is a type of meaning or mental image generated in response to certain ★ Narrative script: “pictures a world situated in time and populated by intelligent agents” and the time span frames various states with accidental and/or deliberate actions ★ Narrativity commonly lives in texts but can emerge from stimuli that are not narrative texts (eg from life itself)
    17. 17. Ryan’s Definition of Narrative ★ Narrative: “medium-free, semantically based definition, according to which narrative is a type of meaning or mental image generated in response to certain ★ Narrative script: “pictures a world situated in time and populated by intelligent agents” and the time span frames various states with accidental and/or deliberate actions ★ Narrativity commonly lives in texts but can emerge from stimuli that are not narrative texts (eg from life itself) ★ Narrative is not only linear (or possibly multi- linear), but vectoral, must be followed from beginning to end.
    18. 18. Ryan’s Definition of Narrative ★ Narrative: “medium-free, semantically based definition, according to which narrative is a type of meaning or mental image generated in response to certain ★ Narrative script: “pictures a world situated in time and populated by intelligent agents” and the time span frames various states with accidental and/or deliberate actions ★ Narrativity commonly lives in texts but can emerge from stimuli that are not narrative texts (eg from life itself) ★ Narrative is not only linear (or possibly multi- linear), but vectoral, must be followed from beginning to end. ★ Narrative can be told (diegetic mode), Shown (mimetic mode), Enacted (embodied mode?)
    19. 19. THE HISTORY OF WRITING
    20. 20. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age
    21. 21. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age
    22. 22. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age
    23. 23. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age
    24. 24. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves...
    25. 25. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique
    26. 26. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique
    27. 27. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable
    28. 28. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience
    29. 29. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience
    30. 30. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed
    31. 31. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent
    32. 32. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent
    33. 33. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent durable
    34. 34. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent durable
    35. 35. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent durable evanescent/durable
    36. 36. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent durable evanescent/durable Digital texts are durable in that they are recorded but subject to unstable platforms.
    37. 37. THE HISTORY OF WRITING 1. Oral Age 2. Chirographic Age 3. Print Age 4. Digital Age material support of language moves... unique freely copiable Live audience Widely distributed evanescent durable evanescent/durable
    38. 38. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible.
    39. 39. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. ★ Narrative length increased. ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc.
    40. 40. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. ★ Narrative length increased. ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc.
    41. 41. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. Narrative length increased. The Novel ★ ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc.
    42. 42. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. Narrative length increased. The Novel ★ ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc.
    43. 43. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. Narrative length increased. The Novel ★ ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc. C20th Epistemological Crisis of Authority
    44. 44. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. Narrative length increased. The Novel ★ ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc. C20th Epistemological Crisis of Authority
    45. 45. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. Narrative length increased. The Novel ★ ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc. Pre-digital Experiments in Multivariant Narrative C20th Epistemological Crisis of Authority
    46. 46. Oral Cultures (see Ong, 1982) ★ Narrative as mnemonic device for knowledge transmission ★ Facilitated by prosodic features (eg rhyme, metre, alliteration), story formulas, standardised images, etc. ★ Unit permutation possible. Written Cultures (first manuscipts, later facilitated by print) ★ Epic, permutable plots frozen in fixed sequence. ★ Mnemonic devices made obsolete. Narrative length increased. The Novel ★ ★ Spatiality of the page enables use of layout, font, graphics, etc. Pre-digital Experiments in Multivariant Narrative “...the idea of making the text endlessly self- C20th renewable, of capturing infinity in its necessarily bounded body, of turning the work Epistemological of art from a static self-identical object into a Crisis of Authority matrix of possibilities.”
    47. 47. C20th Experiments:
    48. 48. C20th Experiments: ★ 1920s Dada Poetry
    49. 49. C20th Experiments: ★ 1920s Dada Poetry ★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges
    50. 50. C20th Experiments: ★ 1920s Dada Poetry ★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges ★ 1960ish: Cut-up Technique
    51. 51. C20th Experiments: ★ 1920s Dada Poetry ★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges ★ 1960ish: Cut-up Technique ★ 1960 - Present: OuLiPo
    52. 52. C20th Experiments: ★ 1920s Dada Poetry ★ 1941: “The Garden of Forking Paths” by JL Borges ★ 1960ish: Cut-up Technique ★ 1960 - Present: OuLiPo
    53. 53. Limits of pre-digital attempts at multivariant narrative:
    54. 54. Limits of pre-digital attempts at multivariant narrative: 1. Theorised but did not deliver mulivariance (eg Borges)
    55. 55. Limits of pre-digital attempts at multivariant narrative: 1. Theorised but did not deliver mulivariance (eg Borges) 2. Relied on “chunking”, which can be aleatory (eg Cut-up)
    56. 56. Limits of pre-digital attempts at multivariant narrative: 1. Theorised but did not deliver mulivariance (eg Borges) 2. Relied on “chunking”, which can be aleatory (eg Cut-up) 3. Relied on branching, which has limited possible outcomes and maintains authorial control (eg Choose Your Own Adventure)
    57. 57. The Digital Era
    58. 58. The Digital Era ★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission or production of print texts
    59. 59. The Digital Era ★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission or production of print texts ★ Digital narrative is shaped by both the material medium (hardware), and the “affordances of the system through which it is created and executed” (software)
    60. 60. The Digital Era ★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission or production of print texts ★ Digital narrative is shaped by both the material medium (hardware), and the “affordances of the system through which it is created and executed” (software) ★ Digital texts can be kaleidoscopic (Murray 1997), producing a vast number of versions from a limited number of elements
    61. 61. The Digital Era ★ Computer as more than just a medium for transmission or production of print texts ★ Digital narrative is shaped by both the material medium (hardware), and the “affordances of the system through which it is created and executed” (software) ★ Digital texts can be kaleidoscopic (Murray 1997), producing a vast number of versions from a limited number of elements ★ Digital technology presents opportunity for the development because it allows for conditional branching of plot lines: IF...THEN...ELSE - GOTO
    62. 62. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality)
    63. 63. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven
    64. 64. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven 2. reactive & interactive
    65. 65. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven 2. reactive & interactive 3. performantial aspect
    66. 66. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven 2. reactive & interactive 3. performantial aspect 4. multimedia
    67. 67. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven 2. reactive & interactive 3. performantial aspect 4. multimedia 5. network capability
    68. 68. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven 2. reactive & interactive 3. performantial aspect 4. multimedia 5. network capability 6. volatile signs
    69. 69. Properties of Digital Media (relevant to narrative & textuality) 1. algorithm driven 2. reactive & interactive 3. performantial aspect 4. multimedia 5. network capability 6. volatile signs 7. modularity
    70. 70. 3 Aspects of Variable Narrative:
    71. 71. 3 Aspects of Variable Narrative: ★Variable Discourse
    72. 72. 3 Aspects of Variable Narrative: ★Variable Discourse ★Variable Point of View
    73. 73. 3 Aspects of Variable Narrative: ★Variable Discourse ★Variable Point of View ★Variable Plot
    74. 74. Variable Discourse:
    75. 75. Variable Discourse: ★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple possible paths through a system of story fragments
    76. 76. Variable Discourse: ★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple possible paths through a system of story fragments ★ Key example is hypertext, a form of Interactive Fiction
    77. 77. Variable Discourse: ★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple possible paths through a system of story fragments ★ Key example is hypertext, a form of Interactive Fiction ★ Author can exert control on the local decisions of a reader (take option A or B), but not the global (the meaning the reader assembles from the combination of their decisions)
    78. 78. Variable Discourse: ★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple possible paths through a system of story fragments ★ Key example is hypertext, a form of Interactive Fiction ★ Author can exert control on the local decisions of a reader (take option A or B), but not the global (the meaning the reader assembles from the combination of their decisions) ★ Reader rarely reconstructs the entire narrative because they don’t visit every node
    79. 79. Variable Discourse: ★ Narrative organisation that allows the reader multiple possible paths through a system of story fragments ★ Key example is hypertext, a form of Interactive Fiction ★ Author can exert control on the local decisions of a reader (take option A or B), but not the global (the meaning the reader assembles from the combination of their decisions) ★ Reader rarely reconstructs the entire narrative because they don’t visit every node ★ Hypertext most successful when navigation of fragments has significance in relation to the text (eg Patchwork Girl, Victory Garden)
    80. 80. Variable Point of View:
    81. 81. Variable Point of View: ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives
    82. 82. Variable Point of View: ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives ★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interactive TV
    83. 83. Variable Point of View: ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives ★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interactive TV ★ Can be used to illustrate subjectivity (eg A Long Wild Smile)
    84. 84. Variable Point of View: ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives ★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interactive TV ★ Can be used to illustrate subjectivity (eg A Long Wild Smile) ★ Shift in POV commonly seen in video games, can facilitate different modes of play (eg bird’s eye view for strategy vs first person for combat
    85. 85. Variable Point of View: ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives ★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interactive TV ★ Can be used to illustrate subjectivity (eg A Long Wild Smile) ★ Shift in POV commonly seen in video games, can facilitate different modes of play (eg bird’s eye view for strategy vs first person for combat ?!
    86. 86. Variable Point of View: ★ Reader has access to various characters’ perspectives ★ Key examples: some hypertexts, Interactive TV ★ Can be used to illustrate subjectivity (eg A Long Wild Smile) ★ Shift in POV commonly seen in video games, can facilitate different modes of play (eg bird’s eye view for strategy vs first person for combat ?! ★ Shift of POV in games is almost never shift in focalisation from one character to another - different category needed here?
    87. 87. Variable Plot ★ Multiple outcomes, multiple paths for reaching them ★ Digital media allows for the development of simple decision tree format of IF (interactivity purely selective) by allowing selective and productive user input ★ 3 examples: Interactive Fiction, First Person Shooters, God Games
    88. 88. Interactive Fiction
    89. 89. Interactive Fiction ★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based on affordances
    90. 90. Interactive Fiction ★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based on affordances ★ “the only room for variation lies in the player’s unsuccessful attempts”
    91. 91. Interactive Fiction ★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based on affordances ★ “the only room for variation lies in the player’s unsuccessful attempts” ★ May have multiple outcomes (ie plot variation)
    92. 92. Interactive Fiction ★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based on affordances ★ “the only room for variation lies in the player’s unsuccessful attempts” ★ May have multiple outcomes (ie plot variation) ★ Low re-playability
    93. 93. Interactive Fiction ★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based on affordances ★ “the only room for variation lies in the player’s unsuccessful attempts” ★ May have multiple outcomes (ie plot variation) ★ Low re-playability ★ Primitive example: Zork
    94. 94. Interactive Fiction ★ Parsing software interprets user input, responds based on affordances ★ “the only room for variation lies in the player’s unsuccessful attempts” ★ May have multiple outcomes (ie plot variation) ★ Low re-playability ★ Primitive example: Zork ★ AI Example: Facade
    95. 95. First Person Shooter
    96. 96. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator
    97. 97. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity
    98. 98. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ★ High re-playability
    99. 99. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ★ High re-playability ★ Low recountability
    100. 100. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ?! ★ High re-playability ★ Low recountability
    101. 101. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ?! ★ High re-playability Why are these important values? ★ Low recountability
    102. 102. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ?! ★ High re-playability Why are these important values? ★ Low recountability
    103. 103. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ?! ★ High re-playability Why are these important values? ★ Low recountability
    104. 104. First Person Shooter ★ “Life Story” of the character is enacted, rather than recounted by narrator ★ Plot is infinitely variable within a very limited diversity ?! ★ High re-playability Why are these important values? ★ Low recountability ★ Example: CounterStrike
    105. 105. God Game
    106. 106. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity
    107. 107. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity ★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents in the world (human or machine)
    108. 108. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity ★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents in the world (human or machine) ★ “The ludic pleasure of deciphering the logic of the system...cannot be separated from the narrative pleasure of watching the story unfold.”
    109. 109. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity ★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents in the world (human or machine) ★ “The ludic pleasure of deciphering the logic of the system...cannot be separated from the narrative pleasure of watching the story unfold.” ★ Ryan argues balance of replayability & recountability
    110. 110. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity ★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents in the world (human or machine) ★ “The ludic pleasure of deciphering the logic of the system...cannot be separated from the narrative pleasure of watching the story unfold.” ★ Ryan argues balance of replayability & recountability ★ Example: Civilization
    111. 111. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity ★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents in the world (human or machine) ★ “The ludic pleasure of deciphering the logic of the system...cannot be separated from the narrative pleasure of watching the story unfold.” ★ Ryan argues balance of replayability & recountability ★ Example: Civilization ?!
    112. 112. God Game ★ Creates a dynamic model of a complex entity ★ World evolves as a result of interrelated actions of agents in the world (human or machine) ★ “The ludic pleasure of deciphering the logic of the system...cannot be separated from the narrative pleasure of watching the story unfold.” ★ Ryan argues balance of replayability & recountability ★ Example: Civilization ?! Is this an example of emergent narrativity, rather than an example of a narrative text?
    113. 113. General Critiques
    114. 114. General Critiques ★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital multivariance are offered, but selectively appeals to visual, procedural, embodied digital texts
    115. 115. General Critiques ★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital multivariance are offered, but selectively appeals to visual, procedural, embodied digital texts ★ Linear nature of narrative temporality is argued selectively,
    116. 116. General Critiques ★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital multivariance are offered, but selectively appeals to visual, procedural, embodied digital texts ★ Linear nature of narrative temporality is argued selectively, ★ Game knowledge seems dilettante-ish, fetishises narrative over ludic values.
    117. 117. General Critiques ★ Inconsistent focus on print text as the subject of the inquiry. Only print examples of pre-digital multivariance are offered, but selectively appeals to visual, procedural, embodied digital texts ★ Linear nature of narrative temporality is argued selectively, ★ Game knowledge seems dilettante-ish, fetishises narrative over ludic values. ★ Does not take into account meta-narratives (including parallel, alternate narratives)
    118. 118. Theoretical Context
    119. 119. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...)
    120. 120. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...) ★What’s a game?
    121. 121. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...) ★What’s a game? ★If some games have narratives, and narrative fiction is becoming interactive, how far can existing models of narratology go towards analysing them? What new models arise?
    122. 122. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...) ★What’s a game? ★If some games have narratives, and narrative fiction is becoming interactive, how far can existing models of narratology go towards analysing them? What new models arise? Convergence Culture/Transmedia (Jenkins)
    123. 123. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...) ★What’s a game? ★If some games have narratives, and narrative fiction is becoming interactive, how far can existing models of narratology go towards analysing them? What new models arise? Convergence Culture/Transmedia (Jenkins) ★How do narratives operate across, as well as within texts and platforms?
    124. 124. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...) ★What’s a game? ★If some games have narratives, and narrative fiction is becoming interactive, how far can existing models of narratology go towards analysing them? What new models arise? Convergence Culture/Transmedia (Jenkins) ★How do narratives operate across, as well as within texts and platforms? Beyond Postmodern Deconstruction (?)
    125. 125. Theoretical Context Narratology vs Ludology debates (Juul, Bogost, Murray...) ★What’s a game? ★If some games have narratives, and narrative fiction is becoming interactive, how far can existing models of narratology go towards analysing them? What new models arise? Convergence Culture/Transmedia (Jenkins) ★How do narratives operate across, as well as within texts and platforms? Beyond Postmodern Deconstruction (?) ★ SO WHAT? How does textual/narrative innovation promote social justice/progress/development?
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