Lecture 2 biosphere & ecosystems

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Lecture 2 biosphere & ecosystems

  1. 1. The biosphere, ecology and concept of an ecosystem Dr. B. H. Lower, PhD
  2. 2. Forging the elements:http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/origins/program-3114.htmlA Universe Hospitable for Life:http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/origins/program-3114.html
  3. 3. Estuary in South Carolina Mono Lake, California after water was diverted to nearby Los Angeles Need for fresh waterAmericans use 100 gallons of H2O/day Africans & Asians walk 4 miles/day for H2O
  4. 4. ~3% of Earths total water supply is fresh H2O 69% of fresh H2O locked in ice sheetsFresh Water 30% of fresh H2O concealed deep underground 1% of fresh H2O is available to humans
  5. 5. Fresh Water Surface and Atmospheric WaterTotal Water
  6. 6. Fromgroundwaterand surfacewater
  7. 7. •••••ooo
  8. 8. Video on NASA’s Kepler spacecraft launched March 4, 2009 to searchfor ET’s home:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MdodLNvlo4M&feature=related
  9. 9. NASA Kepler:http://kepler.nasa.gov/ Planet Size
  10. 10. An ecosystem is a community andits physical environment
  11. 11. “ecopopin”ecosystemcommunitypopulationindividual
  12. 12. Video on Arctic bow head whale:http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/whales/whale_bowhead.html
  13. 13. Japan’s Nuclear Crisis and Spent FuelStatus of NuclearReactors atFukushima DaiichiPower Plant:http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/03/16/world/asia/reactors-status.html?ref=asiaWho wants 66,000tons of hot nuclearwaste in USA?Video:http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-31727_162-20046053-10391695.htmlYucca Mountain, Nevada
  14. 14. Nuclear Weapons Radioactive fallout from weapon test present another problem with radiation in the environment and human exposure. 1-Atmospheric 2-Underground 3-Exoatmospheric 4-UnderwaterUSA Nuclear weapon test at Bikini Island in South Pacific (1946)
  15. 15. •••• Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGX8uq1e4Mo&NR=1
  16. 16. In 1997 the U.S. National Cancer Institute estimated up to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer resulted from these tests. U.S. federal government has paid over $500 million to compensate citizens who developed cancers from these tests.Per capita thyroid doses (Rads) from exposure to Iodine-131from atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at Nevada Test Site Luckily the half-from 1951-62. life of I-131 is 8 days.
  17. 17. USA: >1,150 tests (>300 atmospheric)Soviet Union: >700 testsFrance: >200 testsUK: 45 testsChina: 45 testsNorth Korea: 2 tests (most recent)Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963) endedatmospheric, underwater and outer space testing.Underground tests were still permitted.Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996) ended allnuclear testing of any kind.
  18. 18. Energy is the capacity or ability to do work. kinetic energypotential energy
  19. 19. Video link of alternative energy:http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/environment/energy-environment/alternative-energy.html
  20. 20. In ecosystemsenergy flows through decomposersa food web consumers producers
  21. 21. Video of grizzly mom teaching cubs how to fish:http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/bears-and-pandas/bear_grizzly_teachingcubs.html
  22. 22. Video on red panda named Farley:http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/animals/mammals-animals/bears-and-pandas/panda_red_farley.html

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