Priciples and methods of training


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Priciples and methods of training

  1. 1. TrainingWhy, When, How
  2. 2. Why Do People Train?For a specific sportTo manage weightImprove generalfitnessRecover frominjuryMusculardevelopmentSocial, physical,mental reasons
  3. 3. How to Design an Exercise Programme1. Have a Goal or Aim2. Decide on a Training Method3. Apply the Principles of Training4. Plan the Training Session
  4. 4. Training ThresholdThis is the MINIMUM amount of training orexercise that must be undertaken to makea significant difference.As your body adapts to training and youget fitter, the training threshold willincrease.Training Threshold can be determined andmonitored by measuring your heart rate.(Heart Rate should be above 60% of MaxHeart Rate).
  5. 5. The Principles of TrainingSpecificityProgressionOverloadReversibilityTedium SPORT
  6. 6. SpecificityTraining needs tobe SPECIFIC to theindividual, the aimof the programme,the muscles used,the skills required,the energy systemused etcEg……
  7. 7. ProgressionThe amount of exercise and theamount of stress you put on youbody must be gradually increased.Increased must be realistic, butsignificant.No increased = No improvement.Increase to big =Unachievable and demotivated
  8. 8. OverloadOverloading your body with higher workrates will increase the demand placedon the body. This will improve fitness.
  9. 9. Overload Overload can be increased in 3 ways1. Increasing Frequency – How Often2.Increasing Intensity – How Hard3.Increasing Duration – How Long
  10. 10. ReversibilityFitness levels willdeteriorate rapidy if youstop training.It only takes 3 / 4 weeksto get out of condition.Training must besustained.
  11. 11. TediumIf training is boring, you are lesslikely to continue.Training should be fun and varied.
  12. 12. The FITT PrincipleFrequency – How Often - at least 3 x a week. - eg every other day to allow recoveryIntensity- How Hard - monitor heart rate - keep above training thresholdTime – How Long - Minimum of 20 mins per sessionType – What Kind - Training method
  13. 13. Training MethodsContinuous TrainingFartlek TrainingInterval TrainingWeight TrainingCircuit Training
  14. 14. Continuous Training No rest periods Aerobic Steady pace Training must be within heart rate zone (60%-80% of max heart rate)Eg running, cycling, rowing, aerobics
  15. 15. Fartlek TrainingSpeed PlayContinuous training thatvaries the intensity.Aerobic exercise withshort bursts of anaerobicRunning is most popular.
  16. 16. Interval Training Alternate periods of work and rest. Long work periods need long rest, short work periods need shorter rests.Eg. On 100m track Sprint 100m, walk 300m. Repeat several times.
  17. 17. Weight TrainingA heavy weight lifted a few times willincrease your maximum strength.A light weight lifted repeatedly willincrease your dynamic strength /muscular endurance.A medium weight moved quickly willincrease your explosive strength /power.
  18. 18. Weight Training Repetitions (Reps) EgHow many times you lift Bench Press the weights. 15 x 20kg (15 Reps) Repeat 3 times (3 Sets) SetsHow many reps you perform.
  19. 19. Circuit Training8 – 15 stations arranged ina loop.Different exercisecompleted at each station.
  20. 20. Circuit TrainingWays to complete the Ways to progress thecircuit. circuit.Do a number of reps at Do more reps at eacheach station. station.Spend an amount of time Increase time spent onat each station eg 30 secs. each station.Short rests may be Reduce rest time betweenincluded between stations. stations. Repeat circuit. Make activities more challenging eg raise height of step if doing step ups.
  21. 21. Continuous TrainingAdvantages Disadvantages Good for aerobic Can be boring. fitness. Not good for No specialist anaerobic or speed equipment needed. training. Good for fat burning.
  22. 22. Fartlek TrainingAdvantages Disadvantages Trains aerobic and Difficult to measure anaerobic systems. training. Good for games Needs self which have discipline to changes of pace. maintain work rate. No specialist Not sport specific. equipment.
  23. 23. Interval TrainingAdvantages Disadvantages Used for aerobic and Hard to keep going. anaerobic or mixture Can be repetitive and of both. boring. Easy to measure workload. Suitable for lots of sports. Times and distances can be varies to suit individuals.
  24. 24. Weight TrainingAdvantages Disadvantages Can target specific Needs specialist muscle groups equipment which can Used for most sports be exspensive. Effect way of Needs special location increasing muscular to be used safely. strength and Needs to be well endurance. planned with correct Progression can be techniques. easily measured. Not suitable for U16
  25. 25. Circuit TrainingAdvantages DisadvantagesLots of activities can be Needs organisation andincluded. Which helps planning.motivation. Can take time to set up.Can be designed to bespecific to any sport.Can be adapted to includefitness and skill work.Does not require specialistequipment.Can train both aerobic andanaerobic.