Universal Design for Learning:  Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design <ul><li>Universal design is the design of products </li></ul><ul><li>and environments to be usable by all...
What is Universal Design for Learning?  <ul><li>Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a research-based framework for desi...
Differentiated Instruction  <ul><li>No two students are alike.  </li></ul><ul><li>No two students learn in the identical w...
<ul><li>Although essential curricula goals may be similar for all students, methodologies employed in a classroom must be ...
<ul><li>Differentiating instruction means creating multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or lea...
<ul><li>Differentiation can occur in four ways; </li></ul><ul><li>the content,  </li></ul><ul><li>process,  </li></ul><ul>...
1. Differentiating the  Content/Topic <ul><li>Differentiating content requires that students are pre-tested so the teacher...
2. Differentiating  Process/Activities   <ul><li>Differentiating the processes means varying learning activities or strate...
3. Differentiating  the Product   <ul><li>Differentiating the product means varying the complexity of the product. Student...
4. Differentiating By Manipulating The Environment or Through Accommodating Individual Learning Preferences <ul><li>There ...
&quot;Here you are in Slytherin, Where you'll make your real friends,  Those cunning folk use any means  To achieve their ...
Dunn and Dunn
Multiple Intelligences
V.A.R.K. <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write </li></ul><ul><li>Kinaesthetic </li></ul>V...
Jung’s Model   Judgement Perception Feeling Thinking Perception Sensing Intuiting Carry out different teaching for differe...
Introduction to Type Theory <ul><li>Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung developed a theory early in the 20 th  century to describ...
Development of the MBTI Instrument <ul><li>Jung’s theory important but inaccessible to the general population </li></ul><u...
Development of the MBTI <ul><li>Self-reported and nonjudgmental psychological instrument categorizing people  </li></ul><u...
Framework of the MBTI <ul><li>Mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgments </li...
Mental Processes <ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How you perceive your surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S...
Mental Processes <ul><li>Judgments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basis for decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking...
Mental Orientations <ul><li>Energy orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you get your energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Mental Orientations <ul><li>Outer world orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lifestyle used to deal with your environment...
Four MBTI   Dichotomies How do you deal with the outer world? Judging – Perceiving J - P Dichotomy How do you make decisi...
Interpretation of MBTI <ul><li>I/E, S/N, T/F, J/P </li></ul><ul><li>16 possible types </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to: </li>...
Communication Using Type <ul><li>Basic compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on style recognition and understanding </li><...
Decision-Making Using Type <ul><li>Recognize how group members may complement or contrast each other </li></ul><ul><li>On ...
Occupational Trends by Type   ISTJ Management Administration Law enforcement Accounting   ISFJ Education Health care Relig...
Ability rather  than disability <ul><li>Teachers who focus on students learning styles tend to forget about the disabiliti...
 
 
 
 
Using the de Bono 6-Hats Technique as a Learning Styles Model
Topics <ul><li>Six-Hats Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Six-Hats as a Learning Styles Model </li></ul><ul><li>Hexagrid </li></...
Six-Hats Technique
Using 6-Hats as a Learning Styles Model <ul><li>de Bono says often and clearly that the 6-Hats is not a learning styles mo...
White Hat White Hat (Logical) The ‘White Hat’ is the logical approach to learning, which is similar to the logical dimensi...
Yellow Hat Yellow Hat (Positive) The ‘Yellow Hat’ is the optimistic approach, this dimension describes learners who are up...
Black Hat Black Hat (Negative) The ‘Black Hat’ is the so-called negative approach, but is better described as the cautious...
Green Hat Green Hat (Creative) The ‘Green Hat’ is the creative approach, this dimension describes learners who are creativ...
Red Hat Red Hat (Emotional)   The ‘Red Hat’ is the emotional approach, this dimension describes people who are in touch wi...
Blue Hat Blue Hat (Facilitator) The ‘Blue Hat’ is the facilitating approach, this dimension describes the learners who are...
Questionnaire <ul><li>Particularly for the non-verbal students in this study, two key decisions were taken, </li></ul><ul>...
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat
Some Heuristics for forming teams <ul><li>Only one learner with strength in the blue hat to avoid conflict between multipl...
A new Model ?
Logical &  Analytical Structured  & Practical Imaginative  & Holistic Intrapersonal  & Discussion
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Logical &  Analytical Structured  & Practical Imaginative  & Hol...
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Structured  & Practical Imaginative  & Holistic Intrapersonal  &...
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Imaginative  & Holistic Intrapersonal  & Discussion
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Intrapersonal  & Discussion
Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
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Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction

  1. 1. Universal Design for Learning: Differentiated Instruction
  2. 2. Universal Design <ul><li>Universal design is the design of products </li></ul><ul><li>and environments to be usable by all </li></ul><ul><li>people, to the greatest extent possible, </li></ul><ul><li>without the need for adaptation or </li></ul><ul><li>specialized design. </li></ul><ul><li>– Ron Mace </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Universal Design for Learning? <ul><li>Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a research-based framework for designing curricula—that is, educational goals, methods, materials, and assessments—that enable all individuals to gain knowledge, skills, and enthusiasm for learning. This is accomplished by simultaneously providing rich supports for learning and reducing barriers to the curriculum, while maintaining high achievement standards for all students. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>No two students are alike. </li></ul><ul><li>No two students learn in the identical way. </li></ul><ul><li>An enriched environment for one student is not necessarily enriched for another. </li></ul><ul><li>In the classroom we should teach students to think for themselves. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Although essential curricula goals may be similar for all students, methodologies employed in a classroom must be varied to suit to the individual needs of all students : ie. learning must be differentiated to be effective. </li></ul>Differentiated Instruction
  6. 6. <ul><li>Differentiating instruction means creating multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop and present concepts as a part of the daily learning process. It allows students to take greater responsibility and ownership for their own learning, and provides opportunities for peer teaching and cooperative learning. </li></ul>Differentiated Instruction
  7. 7. <ul><li>Differentiation can occur in four ways; </li></ul><ul><li>the content, </li></ul><ul><li>process, </li></ul><ul><li>product or </li></ul><ul><li>environment in the classroom </li></ul>Differentiated Instruction
  8. 8. 1. Differentiating the Content/Topic <ul><li>Differentiating content requires that students are pre-tested so the teacher can identify the students who do not require direct instruction. Students demonstrating understanding of the concept can skip the instruction step and proceed to apply the concepts to the task of solving a problem. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Differentiating Process/Activities <ul><li>Differentiating the processes means varying learning activities or strategies to provide appropriate methods for students to explore the concepts. It is important to give students alternative paths to manipulate the ideas embedded within the concept. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Differentiating the Product <ul><li>Differentiating the product means varying the complexity of the product. Students do assignments to demonstrate mastery of the concepts. Weaker students may have reduced performance expectations, while advanced students may be asked to produce work that requires more complex or more advanced thinking. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4. Differentiating By Manipulating The Environment or Through Accommodating Individual Learning Preferences <ul><li>There has been a great deal of work on learning styles over the last 2 decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Dunn and Dunn focuses on manipulating the school environment </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner identifies individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Jung’s work, the MBTI and Kiersey focuses on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment </li></ul>
  12. 12. &quot;Here you are in Slytherin, Where you'll make your real friends, Those cunning folk use any means To achieve their ends.&quot; &quot;You might belong in Gryffindor, Where dwell the brave at heart, There daring, nerve, and chivalry Set Gryffindors apart” &quot;Here in wise old Ravenclaw, If you've a ready mind, Those of wit and learning, Will always find their kind.&quot; &quot;You belong in Hufflepuff, Where they are just and loyal, Those patient Hufflepuffs are true And unafraid to toil&quot;
  13. 13. Dunn and Dunn
  14. 14. Multiple Intelligences
  15. 15. V.A.R.K. <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write </li></ul><ul><li>Kinaesthetic </li></ul>V A R K
  16. 16. Jung’s Model Judgement Perception Feeling Thinking Perception Sensing Intuiting Carry out different teaching for different students - Ancient Chinese Proverb
  17. 17. Introduction to Type Theory <ul><li>Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung developed a theory early in the 20 th century to describe basic individual preferences and explain similarities and differences between people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main postulate of the theory is that people have inborn behavioral tendencies and preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your natural response in daily situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used when we are generally not stressed and feel competent, and energetic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could be defined as those behaviors you often don’t notice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Development of the MBTI Instrument <ul><li>Jung’s theory important but inaccessible to the general population </li></ul><ul><li>Isabel Myers and Katherine Briggs (mother-daughter team) expanded on Jung’s work by developing an instrument to help people identify their preferences </li></ul><ul><li>The MBTI tool is an indicator of personality type (i.e. innate preferences) that has proven to be remarkably reliable and valid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the result of over 50 years of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used globally in both education and corporate settings; over 2 million people each year </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Development of the MBTI <ul><li>Self-reported and nonjudgmental psychological instrument categorizing people </li></ul><ul><li>Based on mental “preferences” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We develop strength, skills, and abilities with one hand and underdevelop the other, but we still use both hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have dominant personality traits and auxiliary traits which surface under certain conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normative data set </li></ul>
  20. 20. Framework of the MBTI <ul><li>Mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental orientations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer world orientation </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Mental Processes <ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How you perceive your surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing (S) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on actual data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information through the five senses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay attention to details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intuition (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rely on inspiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information through “sixth sense” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the big picture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Mental Processes <ul><li>Judgments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basis for decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking (T) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base decisions on logic and principles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling (F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base decisions on human values and harmonious relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subjectivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mental Orientations <ul><li>Energy orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where you get your energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introversion (I) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy directed inward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer concepts and ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think before speaking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion (E) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy directed outward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prefer to interact with people and things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak before thinking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Mental Orientations <ul><li>Outer world orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lifestyle used to deal with your environment, i.e., most often used mental preference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging (J) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decisiveness, closure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value task or project completion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceiving (P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity, flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value starting a task or project </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Four MBTI  Dichotomies How do you deal with the outer world? Judging – Perceiving J - P Dichotomy How do you make decisions? Thinking – Feeling T - F Dichotomy How do you prefer to take in information? Sensing – Intuition S - N Dichotomy Where do you prefer to focus your attention – and get your energy? Extr a version – Introversion E - I Dichotomy
  26. 26. Interpretation of MBTI <ul><li>I/E, S/N, T/F, J/P </li></ul><ul><li>16 possible types </li></ul><ul><li>Relation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive ability or general intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other personality characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication style </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Communication Using Type <ul><li>Basic compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on style recognition and understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate response the key </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the uniqueness of each person </li></ul>
  28. 28. Decision-Making Using Type <ul><li>Recognize how group members may complement or contrast each other </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, watch out for groupthink! </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on respectful debate and compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the unique value of each person’s viewpoint and input </li></ul>
  29. 29. Occupational Trends by Type   ISTJ Management Administration Law enforcement Accounting   ISFJ Education Health care Religious settings   INFJ Religion Counseling Teaching Arts INTJ Scientific or technical fields Computers Law   ISTP Skilled trades Technical fields Agriculture Law Enforcement Military ISFP Health care Business Law enforcement   INFP Counseling Writing Arts   INTP Scientific or technical fields ESTP Marketing Skilled trades Business Law enforcement Applied technology   ESFP Health care Teaching Coaching Childcare worker Skilled trades ENFP Counseling Teaching Religion Arts   ENTP Science Management Technology Arts   ESTJ Management Administration Law enforcement   ESFJ Education Health care Religion ENFJ Religion Arts Teaching   ENTJ Management Leadership
  30. 30. Ability rather than disability <ul><li>Teachers who focus on students learning styles tend to forget about the disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>They group students according to learning preference rather than disability. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Using the de Bono 6-Hats Technique as a Learning Styles Model
  32. 36. Topics <ul><li>Six-Hats Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Six-Hats as a Learning Styles Model </li></ul><ul><li>Hexagrid </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  33. 37. Six-Hats Technique
  34. 38. Using 6-Hats as a Learning Styles Model <ul><li>de Bono says often and clearly that the 6-Hats is not a learning styles model </li></ul><ul><li>Previous attempts have been made to make it so, which have concentrated on classifying learners as either ‘wearers’ of one single hat or as having a primary and a secondary hat </li></ul><ul><li>This gross approach to cataloguing learners is antithetical to the central premise of the 6-Hats </li></ul><ul><li>Our approach has his approval </li></ul>
  35. 39. White Hat White Hat (Logical) The ‘White Hat’ is the logical approach to learning, which is similar to the logical dimension of any number of learning styles models. For example, the Thinking dimension of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Quadrant A dimension of the Herrmann Brain Dominance Indicator, the Assimilators of the Kolb Model, and the Logical-Mathematical intelligence of Howard Gardner ’ s Multiple Intelligences. White Hat learners are therefore logical and analytical, they like the facts, figures and theories, and tend to be objective about ideas. Ideally they like to do independent research, read books, and compile facts and figures. They usually work best alone and are generally very strong at academic subjects.
  36. 40. Yellow Hat Yellow Hat (Positive) The ‘Yellow Hat’ is the optimistic approach, this dimension describes learners who are upbeat and positive, like the Participant dimension of the Grasha- Riechmann Model. Yellow Hat learners are upbeat and optimistic, and try to find the positive side to all situations. They enjoy learning real-world examples, are group-orientated and very supportive of other members of the group. They like practical subjects and demonstrations.
  37. 41. Black Hat Black Hat (Negative) The ‘Black Hat’ is the so-called negative approach, but is better described as the cautious or practical approach. It is equivalent the practical dimension in a number of models, for example, the Quadrant B dimension of the Herrmann Brain Dominance Indicator, Pragmatists in the Honey-Mumford Model, but most particularly it is like the Concrete Sequential learners of the Gregorc Model. Black Hat learners are cautious and practical, and they worry that the costs will outweigh the benefits of their decisions. They enjoy learning from real-world examples and like to work in groups to help them explore ideas. They like practical subjects and demonstrations.
  38. 42. Green Hat Green Hat (Creative) The ‘Green Hat’ is the creative approach, this dimension describes learners who are creative and think laterally. It is equivalent to the creative dimension in a number of models, for example, the Quadrant D dimension of the Herrmann Brain Dominance Indicator, Divergers in the Kolb Model, and Type 4 (Dynamic Learners) in the 4MAT Model. Green Hat learners are creative and innovative in their approach to learning, they enjoy puzzles and problem-solving exercises. They like to think “outside the box” and will keep seeking alternative solutions to problems and should therefore be challenged with practical exercises that require many points-of-view to fully solve.
  39. 43. Red Hat Red Hat (Emotional) The ‘Red Hat’ is the emotional approach, this dimension describes people who are in touch with their feelings and with themselves, like the Intrapersonal intelligence of Howard Gardner ’ s Multiple Intelligences. Red Hat learners are emotional and instinctive, they love to debate and discuss ideas. They are in touch with their feelings and care a lot about their own environments. They like to participate in lectures, love working in groups and are very strong at practical subjects.
  40. 44. Blue Hat Blue Hat (Facilitator) The ‘Blue Hat’ is the facilitating approach, this dimension describes the learners who are holists and natural leaders. It is like the Interpersonal intelligence of Howard Gardner ’ s Multiple Intelligences. The Blue hat learners are holistic in their approach, can be very effective leaders, but need lots of thinking time to help them ensure they have thought things out fully. They prefer lectures or exercises where a clear overview is given, can have a strong visual preference, and tend to be very rule-orientated.
  41. 45. Questionnaire <ul><li>Particularly for the non-verbal students in this study, two key decisions were taken, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the questions were kept relatively straightforward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of questions was kept to a minimum. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 46. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4
  43. 47. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat
  44. 48. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat
  45. 49. Some Heuristics for forming teams <ul><li>Only one learner with strength in the blue hat to avoid conflict between multiple leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>As many learners with strengths in green hat as possible, to ensure high creatively. </li></ul><ul><li>An equal number of yellow hat as black hat learners, to balance the positive with the negative. </li></ul><ul><li>An equal number of white hat as red hat learners, to balance the logical with the emotional. </li></ul><ul><li>Considering that black hat thinking is heavily emphasised by Western thinkers (de Bono 00, p. xii) and comes most naturally to us, as an alternative to point (c) it may be worth considering having a few more yellow hats than black hats. Clearly it may not always be possible to have all of these criteria </li></ul>
  46. 50. A new Model ?
  47. 51. Logical & Analytical Structured & Practical Imaginative & Holistic Intrapersonal & Discussion
  48. 52. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Logical & Analytical Structured & Practical Imaginative & Holistic Intrapersonal & Discussion
  49. 53. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Structured & Practical Imaginative & Holistic Intrapersonal & Discussion
  50. 54. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Imaginative & Holistic Intrapersonal & Discussion
  51. 55. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat Intrapersonal & Discussion
  52. 56. Red Hat Black Hat Yellow Hat Green Hat Blue Hat White Hat
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