Universal Design, Education and Technology


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Universal Design, Education and Technology

  1. 1. Ciarán O’Leary, Damian Gordon Dublin Institute of Technology Thursday, 22 nd October 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>Universal Design is the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size or disability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability Act, 2005 </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  3. 3. <ul><li>The design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centre for Universal Design, North Carolina State University </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  4. 4. <ul><li>Universal design is an approach to design that honours human diversity . It addresses the right for everyone – from childhood into their oldest years – to use all spaces, products and information, in an independent, inclusive and equal way . It is a process that invites designers to go beyond compliance with access codes, to create excellent, people centred design. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaine Ostroff </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  5. 5. <ul><li>Product or process? </li></ul><ul><li>Disability? </li></ul><ul><li>Good deed or market driven? </li></ul><ul><li>Carrot or stick? </li></ul><ul><li>User centred design? </li></ul><ul><li>Good design? </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sustainable design includes environmental, economical, ethical and social considerations in product, service and environmental development </li></ul><ul><li>Universal design is therefore an integral part of sustainable design </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  7. 7. <ul><li>Equitable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in Use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptible Information </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low Physical Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Space for Approach and Use </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  8. 8. <ul><li>Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid segregating or stigmatising any users </li></ul><ul><li>Provisions for privacy, security and safety should be equally available to all users </li></ul><ul><li>Make the design appealing to all users </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  9. 9. Ciarán O'Leary
  10. 10. <ul><li>Provide choice in method of use </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate right-handed or left-handed access and use </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the user’s accuracy and precision </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adaptability to the user’s pace </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  11. 11. Ciarán O'Leary
  12. 12. <ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent with user expectations and intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange information consistent with its importance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  13. 13. Ciarán O'Leary
  14. 14. <ul><li>Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Maximise legibility of essential information and its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e. make it easy to give instructions or directions) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  15. 15. Ciarán O'Leary
  16. 16. <ul><li>Arrange elements to minimise hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated or shielded </li></ul><ul><li>Provide warnings of hazards and errors </li></ul><ul><li>Provide fail safe features </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  17. 17. Ciarán O'Leary
  18. 18. <ul><li>Allow user to maintain a neutral body position </li></ul><ul><li>Use reasonable operating forces </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise repetitive actions </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise sustained physical effort </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  19. 19. Ciarán O'Leary
  20. 20. <ul><li>Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user </li></ul><ul><li>Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate variations in hand and grip size </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  21. 21. Ciarán O'Leary
  22. 22. <ul><li>Equitable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in Use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptible Information </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low Physical Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Space for Approach and Use </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary (Reprise)
  23. 23. <ul><li>Equitable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in Use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptible Information </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low Physical Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Space for Approach and Use </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary Overriding Philosopy (Reprise)
  24. 24. <ul><li>Equitable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in Use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptible Information </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low Physical Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Space for Approach and Use </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary Overriding Philosopy Domain General Principles (Reprise)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Equitable Use </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in Use </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptible Information </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance for Error </li></ul><ul><li>Low Physical Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Space for Approach and Use </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary Overriding Philosopy Domain Specific Principles Domain General Principles (Reprise)
  26. 26. <ul><li>Four Principles of Accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceivable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understandable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (Version 2.0) </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  27. 27. <ul><li>Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to perceive the information being presented (it can't be invisible to all of their senses) </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  28. 28. <ul><li>User interface components and navigation must be operable. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to operate the interface (the interface cannot require interaction that a user cannot perform) </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  29. 29. <ul><li>Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to understand the information as well as the operation of the user interface (the content or operation cannot be beyond their understanding) </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  30. 30. <ul><li>Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that users must be able to access the content as technologies advance (as technologies and user agents evolve, the content should remain accessible) </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  31. 31. <ul><li>Ageing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Global ageing is changing the social and economic nature of the planet” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US Census Bureau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The increase in elderly people means that 15% of Europeans have a disability, including age-related disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This figure will increase by 1% per year over the next 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with disabilities need to be catered for to become more independent </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  32. 32. <ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Kilimo Kwanza” </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  33. 33. <ul><li>MSc level module </li></ul><ul><li>Offered to students on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSc Computing (Assistive Technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSc Computing (Information Technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSc Computing (Knowledge Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>11 students took the module, in total </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse backgrounds </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  34. 34. <ul><li>Computer Science and Software Engineering are design and modelling disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Design is good design </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges existing technology </li></ul><ul><li>Moral, ethical, legislative requirements </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  35. 35. <ul><li>“ Good method for individual research and learning the main aspects such as seven principles of Universal Design in a real world product, domain or service. Rather than just learning through theory classes. ” </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  36. 36. <ul><li>“ The module's message goes far beyond the boundaries of the Assistive Technologies course. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reduce the amount of detail presented in favour of focusing on the spirit, the module after all is of a philosophical nature. ” </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  37. 37. <ul><li>http://www.comp.dit.ie/coleary/teaching/ud/ </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  38. 38. <ul><li>Mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  39. 39. <ul><li>User-Centred Design -v- Universal Design </li></ul><ul><li>Personas and Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>User Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Use Cases </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  40. 40. <ul><li>HCI? </li></ul><ul><li>End-to-End </li></ul><ul><li>Considerate Software </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Analysis </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  41. 41. <ul><li>Throughout the programme </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  42. 42. <ul><li>Show how the quicksort algorithm sorts the following numbers: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>45 30 12 19 35 11 10 19 1 </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  43. 43. <ul><li>Tom’s in-car navigation system automatically calculates possible routes home for him, depending on his current location. Today, it has determined nine different routes, which Tom would like to be read out by the system, ordered by distance. Show how the quicksort algorithm could organise the following distances, from highest to lowest. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> 45 30 12 19 35 11 10 19 1 </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  44. 44. <ul><li>Mary’s grandchildren bought her a personal computer for her 80th birthday, and have shown her how to visit online stores to make purchases. To compare prices on different websites, Mary uses software which records prices when clicked, and then displays prices in order on the top of the screen. Show how this software would use the quicksort algorithm to order the following prices, from lowest to highest: </li></ul><ul><li> 45 30 12 19 35 11 10 19 1 </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  45. 45. <ul><li>Early, Often and Everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>User Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Message and Medium </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  46. 46. <ul><li>Universal Design is not (just) about disability </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Design is about good design </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Design processes need to be brought to maturity, to lead to better technology </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary
  47. 47. <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Ciarán O'Leary