Qualitative techniques - incomplete *DRAFT*


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Qualitative techniques - incomplete *DRAFT*

  1. 1. Qualitative Techniques Damian Gordon
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodology </li></ul><ul><li>Autoethnography </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenography </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Constructionism/Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic Enquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Biography </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative Inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Q Methodology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ethnography Key Question What is the culture of this group of people? Disciplinary roots Anthropology Focus Describing and interpreting a cultural and social group Data Collection Primarily observations and interviews with additional artifacts during extended time in the field (e.g., 6 months to a year) Data Analysis <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul>Narrative Focus Description of the cultural behavior of a group or an individual
  4. 4. Ethnomethodology Key Question How do people make sense of their everyday activities so as to behave in socially acceptable ways? Disciplinary roots Sociology
  5. 5. Autoethnography Key Question How does my own experience of this culture connect with and offer insights about this culture, situation, event and/or way of life? Disciplinary roots Literary Arts
  6. 6. Phenomenology Key Question What is the meaning, structure, and the essence of the lived experience of this phenomenon for this person or group of people? Disciplinary roots Philosophy Focus Understanding the essence of experiences about a phenomenon Data Collection Long interviews with up to 10 people Data Analysis <ul><li>Statements </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning themes </li></ul><ul><li>General description of the experience </li></ul>Narrative Focus Description of the “essence” of the experience
  7. 7. Phenomenography Key Question What different ways do people experience something or think about something? Disciplinary roots Education
  8. 8. Reality Testing: Positivist and Realist Approaches Key Question What’s really going on in the real world? What can we establish with some degree of certainty? What are the plausible explanations for verifiable patterns? What’s the truth insofar as we can get at it? How can we study a phenomenon so that our findings correspond, as much as possible, to the real world? Disciplinary roots Philosophy, Social Sciences, and Evaluation
  9. 9. Constructionism/Constructivism Key Question How have the people in this setting constructed reality? What are their reported perceptions, “truths”, explanations, beliefs, and worldview? What are the consequences of their constructions for their behaviours and for those with whom they interact? Disciplinary roots Sociology
  10. 10. Heuristic Inquiry Key Question What is my experience of this phenomenon and the essential experience of others who also experience this phenomenon intensely? Disciplinary roots Humanistic Psychology
  11. 11. Symbolic Interaction Key Question What common set of symbols and understandings have emerged to give meaning to people’s interactions? Disciplinary roots Social Psychology
  12. 12. Action Research and Participatory Action Research Key Question X Disciplinary roots X
  13. 13. Grounded Theory Key Question Can we develop a set of flexible analytic guidelines that enable researchers to focus their data collection and to build inductive middle-range theories through successive levels of data analysis and conceptual development? Disciplinary roots Sociology Focus Developing a theory grounded in data from the field Data Collection Interviews with 20-30 individuals to “saturate” categories and detail a theory Data Analysis <ul><li>Open coding </li></ul><ul><li>Axial coding </li></ul><ul><li>Selective coding </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional matrix </li></ul>Narrative Focus Theory or theoretical model
  14. 14. Case Study Key Question X Disciplinary roots Political science , Sociology , and Education Focus Developing on in-depth analysis of a single case of multiple cases Data Collection Multiple sources – documents, archival records, interviews, observations, physical artifacts Data Analysis <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Assertions </li></ul>Narrative Focus In-depth study of a “case” or “cases”
  15. 15. Biography Key Question X Disciplinary roots History , Anthropology , Literature , Psychology , and Sociology Focus Exploring the life of individual Data Collection Primarily interviews and Documents Data Analysis <ul><li>Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphanies </li></ul><ul><li>Historical content </li></ul>Narrative Focus Detailed picture of on individual’s life
  16. 16. Conversation Analysis Key Question What is the orderliness, structure and sequential patterns of interaction, whether this is institutional (in the school, doctor's surgery, courts or elsewhere) or casual conversation? Disciplinary roots
  17. 17. Narrative Inquiry Key Question Can we discuss the situation are a story including setting, complicating action and resolution? Disciplinary roots
  18. 18. Content Analysis Key Question Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Disciplinary roots Social Sciences
  19. 19. Q Methodology Key Question What factors can be seen as correlations between subjects across a sample of variables? Disciplinary roots Factor Analysis