A Compendium of Creativity ToolsPresentation Transcript
A Compendium of Creativity Tools Damian GordonComments and corrections to: Damian.Gordon@dit.ie
Thinking Creatively• Creativity is a term that is difficult to define, but most people understand it in general terms - the development of interesting and novel ideas.• We will distinguish between creativity in the artistic sense and creativity in ideas, in this presentation we are considering creativity in terms of ideas generation.
Thinking Creatively• Different people respond better to different creativity techniques or tools, so we’ll look at a range of tools and it is up to you to find a tool that best suits you.• We’ll look at three kinds of tools: – Simple Tools - easy to learn but powerful – Visual Tools – using diagrams, charts and tables – Large-Scale Tools – to quickly create multiple prototypes
Thinking Creatively• Simple Tools 1. Random Word Technique 2. The CoRT Toolkit 3. SWOT Analysis 4. KWL Tables 5. Creativity Quotes
Thinking Creatively• Simple Creativity Tools are easy to learn but can be highly effective at either generating ideas that can by used to quickly create designs or can also be used for doing simple evaluations on existing designs.• In the following slides we’ll look at five different techniques for simple creativity, chosen both for their effectiveness and their distinctiveness from each other.
Thinking Creatively1. Random Word Technique2. The CoRT Toolkit3. SWOT Analysis4. KWL Tables5. Creativity Quotes
Random Word Technique
Concepts from Random Words• This technique involves selecting a random stimulus (object, word, picture) and using it to provoke new ideas.
Step 1. Decide on Question FOCUS
Step 1. Decide on Question FOCUS Getting the most out of college
Step 2. Pick a random word FOCUS Getting the most out of college RANDOM WORD
Step 2. Pick a random word FOCUS Getting the most out of college RANDOM WORD Kitchen
Step 3. Identify 4 related ideas FOCUS Getting the most out of college 1. RANDOM WORD 2. 3. 4. Kitchen
Step 3. Identify 4 related ideas FOCUS Getting the most out of college eating RANDOM WORD toaster sink chef Kitchen
Step 4. Discard random word FOCUS Getting the most out of college eating RANDOM WORD toaster sink chef Kitchen
Step 4. Discard random word FOCUS Getting the eating toaster most out of sink college chef
Step 5. Generate ideas eating FOCUS toaster Getting the most out of college sink chef
Step 5. Generate ideas eating Eat well – a healthy body is a healthy mind FOCUS toaster Getting the most out of college sink chef
Step 5. Generate ideas eating Eat well – a healthy body is a healthy mind FOCUS toaster Pop into the library and check out a Getting the book most out of college sink chef
Step 5. Generate ideas eating Eat well – a healthy body is a healthy mind FOCUS toaster Pop into the library and check out a Getting the book most out of college sink Wash away your preconceived ideas and try something new - museum, etc. chef
Step 5. Generate ideas eating Eat well – a healthy body is a healthy mind FOCUS toaster Pop into the library and check out a Getting the book most out of college sink Wash away your preconceived ideas and try something new - museum, etc. chef Learn to cook, and make a meal for some classmates
Over to you... FOCUSRANDOM WORD
The CoRT Toolkit
Thinking Creatively• Edward de Bono, the “father of lateral thinking” has developed a number of thinking tools to help people become more creative.• He developed a collection of tools in the early 1970s called CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust) which consists of sixty creativity tools.• We’ll look at a few of them.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting) is based on the observation that when you are presented with a particular issue, you usually tend to take one side or another about that issue, and will ignore all of the points from the opposing perspective.• The PMI technique asks you to step back and defer judgement on the issue, and do an analysis of the issue (by looking at it from three different perspectives) before you make up your mind.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI stands for: – P: Plus - what is good about the idea, what are the benefits, what do you like about it – M: Minus - what is bad about the idea, what are the problems, what don’t you like about it – I: Interesting - what do you find interesting about the idea which could be: what are the potential future implications of the issue, what does this issue tell us about our current behaviour, how do we make it work
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI P M I• Here’s how you do it: – Spend three minutes focusing just on the pluses (the Plus phase) – Then spend three minutes focusing just on the minuses (the Minus phase) – Then spend three minutes focusing just on the interesting (the Interesting phase)
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Directed Thinking• It can be very difficult for people to focus on one perspective at a time (so-called “directed thinking”), so people will be in the middle of doing the Pluses and might think of an excellent Minus, it will be massively tempting to write that Minus down. To do the PMI correctly you have to ignore that idea and not write it down, you have to just focus on the Pluses during the Plus Phase. And it’s the same for the Minus and Interesting phase, just ignore ideas that aren’t in the current phase.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Short timescales• Three minutes on each phase might seem a bit short, and that’s the idea. If people are given a lot of time to think about something their minds will tend to wander, and they will be unable to focus on the topic at hand and start thinking about what they are going to have for lunch instead, so for this exercise the timescales are used to focus the mind.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• Let’s consider an example of doing a PMI on the topic of “Replacing all windows made of glass with transparent plastic”.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• The first thing we do is spend 3 minutes thinking about what would be good if we replaced all windows made of glass with transparent plastic, and create a list.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• Pluses, e.g. – The wouldn’t be as easy to break – When they did break they would splinter into shards – They might be lighter for transporting – For manufacturers would be more resilient for transporting
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• O.K., now we take a break for a few seconds to catch our breath• Next we spend 3 minutes thinking about what the problems might be if we replaced all windows made of glass with transparent plastic, and create a list.• To help you get going, it is worth looking at the Pluses and see if you can flip any of them around to make them Minuses.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• Minuses, e.g. – There are lots of factories that make windows by taking in sand and making glass out of it, much of their machinery wouldn’t work on plastic – They could get scratched more easily – They might get melted by students with cigarette lighters – Raw materials are more expensive
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• O.K., now we take a break for a few seconds to catch our breath• Next we spend 3 minutes thinking about what might be interesting if we replaced all windows made of glass with transparent plastic, and create a list.• So we’re looking at is what you find interesting about the idea which could be: what are the potential future implications, what does this tell us about our current behaviour, how do we make it work (here we can look at our minuses, and either modify the original topic or think of ways around the problems).
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• Interesting, e.g. – We might have all kinds of coloured windows because it’s easier (and cheaper) to dye plastic than stain glass. – We probably use glass for windows because we’ve used glass for thousands of year, and we don’t like to change things once they are working (we like the status quo). – We might offer the factories a tax-break to replace their machinery with plastic-making equipment – The windows could be coated with anti-scratch coating – The cost of raw materials might fall if everyone was ordering them there would be more demand for them
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Example• Interesting, e.g. – We might have all kinds ofFuture Implications coloured windows because it’s easier (and cheaper) to dye plastic than stain glass. – We probably use glass for windows because we’ve Current Behaviour used glass for thousands of year, and we don’t like to change things once they are working (we like the status quo). – We might offer the factories a tax-break to replace How do we eliminate their machinery with plastic-making equipment the Minuses as much – The windows could be coated with anti-scratch coating as possible. – The cost of raw materials might fall if everyone was ordering them there would be more demand for them
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• PMI – Exercise• O.K., Let’s do an exercise, do a PMI on the topic of “Taking all seats out of buses”.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• CAF (Consider All Factors) is based on the observation that people tend to be a little lazy in their thinking, and if, for example, they are asked why they are doing this particular programme of study in college, they will have three or four answers that they always use – pat answers – and may not think more deeply about it.• This technique recommends that people go deeper by deciding on a number of answers first, e.g. Ten answers, and to keep thinking about a topic until you reach ten answers.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• CAF is not a time-based exercise like the PMI, you take as long as you like until you get to ten answers.• Very often how this works is that the first three or four answers will be the ones that you come up with off the top of your head, you might get stuck a bit them, so just write down a few silly or fun answers and when you get as far as the seventh answer you might feel like you can’t think of anything else, but just hang in there and just push through and you will get to ten answers.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• CAF CAF• So the first step is to 1. _______________ write down the 2. _______________ numbers 1 to 10 on 3. _______________ the left margin of your 4. _______________ 5. _______________ page...and then get 6. _______________ going! 7. _______________ 8. _______________ 9. _______________ 10. _______________
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• CAF – Example• Let’s consider an example of doing a CAF on the topic of “Factors to consider when renting a flat”.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• CAF – Example1. Can I afford the rent?2. Is the location convenient?3. Does it allow pets?4. Can I smoke in it?5. How long is the lease for?6. Is the landlord nice?7. Will I have to share with roommates?8. Are the appliances all working?9. Are there any signs of mice or other pests?10. Are the windows painted shut?
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• CAF – Exercise• O.K., Let’s do an exercise, do a CAF on the topic of “Why you wear your hairstyle the way it is”.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV (Other People’s Views) is based on the observation that to solve a problem in its totality you need to see it from all sides, and one way of doing that is to see the range of people who are impacted by the problem, and try to understand the problem from each of their perspectives.
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV• So the OPV requires two steps 1. Identify who the stakeholders are – who is impacted by this problem 2. How do they feel about the problem, what is their perspective on the situation?
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV OPV• Sometimes when people do the OPV they express Stakeholder________ the same view from all Perspective________ of the stakeholders _________________ (using them almost as “sock puppets”), Stakeholder________ whereas what they should be doing is Perspective________ attempting to genuinely _________________ reflect how each stakeholder really feels Stakeholder________ about the problem. Perspective________ _________________
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV – Example• Let’s consider an example of doing an OPV on the following scenario:• “A student decides they don’t like a particular module on their programme and decides they aren’t going to do any assignments or study for the exam for that module, and fails”
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV – Example• Who is impacted:
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV – Example• Who is impacted: – The student – The lecturer who has to write a repeat paper – The exams office who have to schedule a repeat – The student’s parents/guardians – The Head of Department
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV – Example• The student – “Ah well, I’ll just have to repeat this exam”• The lecturer who has to write a repeat paper – “Another repeat exam paper and assignment to write”• The exams office who have to schedule a repeat – “Have to schedule a room, and invigilator, etc.”• The student’s parents/guardians – “I thought they were doing so well in college”• The Head of Department – “The failure rate is too high in our department”
CoRT (The Cognitive Research Trust)• OPV – Exercise• O.K., Let’s do an exercise, do an OPV on the topic of “The state of the Irish economy”.
Thinking Creatively• SWOT• Developed originally as strategic planning tool for organisations to determine the internal and external factors that might be advantageous and detrimental to their business.• Although the origins of SWOT are elusive, generally it is credited to Albert S. Humphrey working at the Stanford Research Institute in the 1960s and 1970s.
Thinking Creatively• SWOT stands for: – S: Strengths - what is going well in this organisation? – W: Weaknesses - what is not going well in this organisation? – O: Opportunities - what external elements are present to improve success? – T: Threats - what external elements are present that might be an impediment?
Thinking Creatively SWOT• SWOT can be used for any decision making scenario where a clear Helpful Harmful External Internal end goal has been established.• The Strengths and S W Weaknesses tend to look at the present whereas the Opportunities and Threats focus on the O T future.
Thinking Creatively Topic• KWL Tables K W L
Thinking Creatively• KWL Tables – These tables are used to aid learning, for individuals and groups. – K: “What do we Know” – W: “What do we Want to know” – L: “What have we Learned”
Thinking Creatively• KWL Tables – These tables are a comprehension strategy when considering a specific topic. • The first column, K, is for what you already know about the topic under consideration. • The next column, W, is for you to list what you want to learn about the topic under consideration. • The third column, L, is filled out after research on the topic is down and is what you have learned about the topic.
Overview• This technique involves collecting a group of quotes• When trying to solve a problem read through the quotes and freely associate between the problem and quotes
Edith Warton• “There are two ways to spread the light, be a candle or the mirror that reflects it”
Aristotle• “The exercise of vital powers along the lines of excellence in a life affording them scope”
Quintilian• “The perfection of art is to conceal art”
T.S. Elliot• “And I must find every changing shape, to find expression”
L.H. Sullivan• “Form ever follows function”
A.C. Doyle• “When you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth”
Homer• “A multitude of rulers is not a good thing. Let there be one ruler, one king”
John Masefield• “I must go down to the seas again, the lonely seas and the sky, and all I ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by”
A.A. Milne• “One of the advantages of being disorderly is that one is constantly making exciting discoveries”
Robert Frost• “The world is full of willing people, some willing to work, the rest willing to let them”
Edward de Bono• “It is better to have enough ideas for some of them to be wrong, than to be always right by having no ideas at all”
Thinking Creatively• Visual Creativity Tools use diagrams, charts or tables to explore an idea to help achieve a good design.• These tools help to structure the thinking and encourage “whole brain” thinking by combining visual and textual creativity.• In the following slides we’ll look at five different visual tools, chosen both for their effectiveness and their distinctiveness from each other.
Thinking Creatively• Mindmaps Attention Memory Cognition Perception Language Actions
Thinking Creatively• How to draw a MindMap: – Create a central image representing the key idea of your design, – Draw branches flowing out from the centre to represent main themes (different colours for different branches). – Draw sub-branches for ideas off those themes.
Thinking Creatively• Some tips on MindMap: – There is no right way to draw a MindMap, it’s up to you – You can use symbols or drawings instead words for the themes – The most colour you use the better – It looks better if the branches are curved and organic as opposed to rigid and straight
Thinking Creatively• What are MindMaps good for? – Revising for exams – Planning assignments – Interviewing users – Project Management – Brainstorming in groups – Testing and Evaluation
Thinking Creatively• In-Class Activity – Spend about 10 minutes drawing a MindMap about any aspect of your life, your family, your programme of study, etc.
Thinking Creatively Concept Map• Concept Maps made of made of may include Linking Examples Concepts are are Words have are not Singular are not Ideas have Boxed have show show Linkages Hierarchy Crosslinkages provide show ensures show show Relationships Complexity Clarity must be must be Valid Significant
Thinking Creatively• What is a Concept Map? – Concept maps show the relationships between related concepts. – Concepts, usually represented as boxes or circles, are connected with labelled arrows in a downward-branching hierarchical structure. – The relationship between concepts can be described with linking phrases like "results in", "is required by," or “is part of".
Thinking Creatively• Is a Concept Map like a MindMap? – A Concept Map starts at the top and works in a downwards direction (representing a series of related concepts), whereas a Mindmap starts in the centre (with a central theme) and grows outwards. – Concept Map encourage cross-links between concepts, whereas in MindMaps the branches remain distinct.
Thinking Creatively• What is a Concept Map good for? – Concept Maps are good for visualising knowledge, – If the students are discussing a design in groups (or with potential users), a concept map can be used to represent and clarify ideas.
Thinking Creatively• In-Class Activity – Spend about 10 minutes drawing a Concept Map of the topics with modules in your programme of study, and how they inter-relate.
Thinking Creatively• Ishikawa Diagrams (or Herringbone Diagrams) Machines Methods ManpowerSecondary Cause Materials Measurements Milieu Primary Cause
Thinking Creatively• Ishikawa Diagrams (or Herringbone Diagrams) – These diagrams show the causes of a specific event, common uses are for product design and quality defect prevention, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. – Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation.
Thinking Creatively– Machines: Any equipment, – Materials: Raw materials, computers, tools etc. required parts, pens, paper, etc. used to accomplish the job to produce the final product– Methods: How the process is – Measurements: Data performed and the generated from the process requirements for doing it, that are used to evaluate its such as policies, procedures, quality rules, regulations and laws – Milieu: The environment or– Manpower: Anyone involved conditions, such as location, with the process time, temperature, and culture
Thinking Creatively• Ishikawa Diagrams – Could use the following: What When WhereSecondary Cause Why Who How Primary Cause
T-Charts, Y-Charts and X-Charts
Thinking Creatively Topic• T-Chart, Pros Cons• Y-Chart, and• X-Chart Looks Like Looks Like Sounds Feels Sounds Feels Like Like Like Like Thinks Like
Thinking Creatively• T-Chart Topic – These charts are used if you are considering a Pros Cons topic from two different facets, e.g. Pros and Cons.
Thinking Creatively• Y-Chart – These charts are used if Looks Like you are considering a topic from three Sounds Feels different facets, e.g. Like Like Using “It looks like”, “It sounds like” and “It feels like”.
Thinking Creatively• X-Chart – These charts are used if Looks Like you are considering a topic from four different Sounds Feels Like Like facets, e.g. Using “It looks like”, “It sounds Thinks like”, “It feels like” and Like “It thinks like”.
Thinking Creatively START• Flow Charts A=1 A=A+1 No Is A==6? Print A Yes END
Thinking Creatively• Flow Charts – Flowcharts are used to represent a process, showing the steps of the process as different kinds of boxes, and arrows linking these boxes. – They are commonly used for describing computer programs, but can be used for describing any process, and were developed in the 1920s for use by mechanical engineers.
Symbols TerminalInput/OutputOperation Decision Process
Flowcharts• So we start the flowchart with: START
Flowcharts• The flowchart with will finish with the following: END
Flowcharts• Flowcharts are read starting at the beginning and working its way to the end.• This is a basic assumption of all flowchart design.• We call this SEQUENCE.
Flowcharts START Statement1 Statement2 END
Flowcharts• What if we want to make a choice, for example, do we want to add sugar or not to the tea?
Flowcharts• What if we want to make a choice, for example, do we want to add sugar or not to the tea?• We call this SELECTION.
Flowcharts START Yes Is Sugar NoAdd Sugar Don’t Add Sugar required? END
Flowcharts• What if we need to indicate that we need to keep doing something until some condition occurs?
Flowcharts• What if we need to indicate that we need to keep doing something until some condition occurs?• Let’s say we wish to indicate that the you need to keep filling the kettle with water until it is full.
Flowcharts• What if we need to indicate that we need to keep doing something until some condition occurs?• Let’s say we wish to indicate that the you need to keep filling the kettle with water until it is full.• We call this ITERATION.
Flowcharts START Keep Filling Kettle Kettle is No not full? Yes END
Thinking Creatively• Large-Scale Creativity Tools are useful when you are attempting to create a lot of different prototypes or ideas quickly as they provide a range of perspectives or “lenses” to examine a particular idea from.• In the following slides we’ll look at five different techniques for large scale creativity, chosen both for their effectiveness and their distinctiveness from each other.
Thinking Creatively• The Six Thinking Hats• As well as developing the CoRT techniques, Edward de Bono also developed an approach called the Six Thinking Hats to help groups of people think more cohesively and creatively• Each of the six ‘hats’ represents a perspective or way of thinking
Thinking Creatively• The Six Thinking Hats• They are metaphorical hats that a thinker can put on or take off to indicate the type of thinking they are using• When groups meet they agree a sequence of hats (or directions of thinking), and all members of the group have to use a specific hat at a given time (thus avoiding conflict)
Thinking Creatively• The Six Thinking Hats• It also permits us to help people who insist of sticking to one perspective - we can ask them to assume a different hat• Many major international organisations use this technique for problem solving
Thinking Creatively• 1. The Blue Hat – Managing the Thinking – Setting the focus – Making summaries – Overviews & conclusions – Action Plans Think of the blue sky to remind you that the blue hat is the overview
Thinking Creatively• 2. The White Hat – Information & Data – Neutral and objective – Checked and believed facts – Missing information & Where to source it Think of white computer paper to remind you that the white hat is the logical view
Thinking Creatively• 3. The Yellow Hat – Why it may work – Values and Benefits (both known and potential) – Logical reasons must be given Think of the warmth of the sunshine to remind you that the yellow hat is the positive view
Thinking Creatively• 4. The Black Hat – Why it may not work – Cautions and Dangers – Problems and Faults – Logical reasons must be given Think of judge’s robes to remind you that the black hat is the cautious view
Thinking Creatively• 5. The Green Hat – Creative Thinking – Possibilities and Alternatives – New Ideas and New Thinking – Overcome black hat issues – Reinforce yellow hat issues Think of nature, trees and planet to remind you that the green hat is the logical view
Thinking Creatively• 6. The Red Hat – Feelings and Intuition – Emotions and hunches – No reasons or justifications – “At this point” – Keep it short Think of the heart and blood to remind you that the red hat is the feelings view
Thinking Creatively Managing the Thinking Setting the focus Making summaries Overviews & conclusions Action PlansFeelings and Intuition Information & DataEmotions and hunches Neutral and objectiveNo reasons or justifications Checked and believed facts“At this point” Missing information &Keep it short Where to source it FOCUS Creative Thinking Why it may work Possibilities * Alternatives Values * Benefits New Ideas * New Thinking (both known and potential) Overcome black hat issues Logical reasons Reinforce yellow hat issues must be given Why it may not work Cautions * Dangers Problems * Faults Logical reasons must be given
Thinking Creatively• So a typical hat sequence might consist of: – Blue (Overview and objectives) – White (What do we know, and need to know) – Red (How are we feeling about it) – Yellow (What are the potential benefits of this) – Black (What are the potential shortcomings of this) – Green (What are the alternatives, what is interesting, how do overcome objections from the Black Hat phase) – Red (Have our feelings changed now that we know more) – White (Summarize) – Blue (Conclusions and decision)
Thinking Creatively• The Six Thinking Hats• They can also be used when creating a new design to ensure you have thought of all the perspectives of importance.• The hats can also be used to make sure you’ve covered all the perspectives in a report or assignment for college.
Thinking Creatively• PESTLE Analysis• The origins of PESTLE are very elusive, but an embryonic form of it appears in a 1967 book by Francis J. Aguilar.• PESTLE is a way of looking strategically at some factors that help in the creation of a design.• The name PESTLE is an initialism (or acronym) for the factors to consider, and these supersedes previous conceptualisations such as PEST, PESTE, and SLEPT.
Thinking Creatively• P: Political – What political factors are relevant to this design? – This can be as general as the political system of the country that the design is destined. – More specifically it can be thought of as considering how much government influence and intervention applies to this design. – It could consider things such as trade restrictions or labour laws. – This can also be used to look at the political factors within an organisation or group undertaking a design – issues wroth considering include the rational fallacy, subjective meanings, and the nature of power within the group.
Thinking Creatively• E: Economic – What economical factors are relevant to this design? – This can be looked at in the general sense of economics, and looking at factors such as inflation, interest rates, etc. – It can also look specifically look at costs from the perspective of costs associated with this specific design – how much will the raw materials cost? What other associated costs will there be? How much can the design be sold for? – Other money related issues that apply include, such as – do we have enough money to achieve this design? Have we considered more expensive or cheaper approaches to this? etc.
Thinking Creatively• S: Social – What social factors are relevant to this design? – This factor can consider things like the cultural issues that can either constrain or enhance a specific design. – It can also look at things like language issues, population distributions in countries, average ages of populations, gender balance, and education levels and literacy levels within populations. – It is imperative that designs take into account colours, shapes or names that have particular societal resonances within different groups of people. – This factor can also allow designers to consider moral issues such as considering do toy guns promote violence or do dolls encourage a stereotypical view of women.
Thinking Creatively• T: Technology – What technological factors are relevant to this design? – Technology can range from Low-Tech to Medium-Tech to High-Tech and can refer to any tool that helps a person to achieve a task. – Are there technological innovations that are worth considering or investigating, for example, are there materials science innovations or new computer technologies that might be used as part of this design? – Is it possible to license the needed technologies from other organisations? – Does the technology complement and support the design or is an impediment to the use of the design?
Thinking Creatively• L: Legal – What legal factors are relevant to this design? – There are a range of laws that may apply: anti-trust laws, health and safety laws, copyright laws, equality laws, etc. – What are issues associated with Intellectual Property rights (registered and unregistered)? – What are the potential litigation or arbitration issues? – Is it worth contacting the Irish Patents Office? – Are there any jurisdictional issues? – Do we need to review the notion of Universal Design as defined in Ireland’s 2005 Disability Act, and the 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Thinking Creatively• E: Environment – What environmental factors are relevant to this design? – What are the ecological and environmental considerations that must be taken into account? – What are the range of environments in which this design will be used, for example, will different environments have variable air quality, variable levels of noise, and variable lighting, – What are the recycling issues and is there biodegradable potential for these designs? – Will this design be contributing to making Ireland more green and if so will it be possible to market and sell this design as a “green business” – Will it be possible to get LEED certification?
Thinking Creatively• SCAMPER• SCAMPER was created by Robert F. Eberle in the early 1970s (based upon Alex Osborn’s 83 brainstorming questions).• SCAMPER is based on the idea that everything new is a modification of something that already exists.• Each letter in the an initialism (or acronym) represents a different way you can play with the characteristics of the existing idea or design.
Thinking Creatively• SCAMPER – S: Substitute – C: Combine – A: Adapt – M: Modify – P: Put to Other Uses – E: Eliminate – R: Rearrange
Thinking Creatively• S: Substitute – What else can be used instead of what you’ve got? – Are there newer materials or alternative materials that could be used in this design? – Is there a different way of using the design than originally intended? – Is there a different approach or process that can be used? – Can I change the people who are making this or using it? – Can I change the name or description of the design?
Thinking Creatively• C: Combine – How can you bring together what you’ve got? – Is it possible to combine different materials (e.g. In the form of an alloy)? – Is it possible to combine this design with an existing design to form something new? – Is it possible to merge this approach or process with another one? – How can I combine the skills of the people who are making this or using this design? – Can I alter the design so that it combines several different functions in the same design?
Thinking Creatively• A: Adapt – What else is like what you’ve got? – Is it possible to find something that is similar but is used in a different context? – What other fields should I look at for inspiration? – How can I adapt the existing approach or process to make it a better design? – How are the people who are using this design adapting it for their circumstances? – Is there anything in my past experience that can be used in this case?
Thinking Creatively• M: Modify – What can be bigger or smaller in what you’ve got? – Can you magnify or minimise the whole design or some parts of the design? – What can I modify to make the design better? – How can I modify the approach or process that can be used to realise this design? – Would the design be improved by making any part of the design weaker or stronger? – Who else should be involved in making this or using the design? – Would multiple instances of the design be better?
Thinking Creatively• P: Put to Other Uses – How can use in different ways what you’ve got? – What else can this design be used for? – Can the design be changed so that it is used for things other than originally intended? – Can the approach or process used in this design be used for other processes? – How would different kinds of people (including different ages, sizes and disabilities) use it? – Are there times, other than the time this design is intended to be used at, at which the design can be used?
Thinking Creatively• E: Eliminate – How much can you remove or reduce what you’ve got? – What parts of the design can be eliminated to simplify it? – Can the design be split into different parts that are simpler to deal with and substitute? – Are there steps in the approach or process that can be eliminated? – Are there people who are making this that can be eliminated from the process? – Is there a temporal element to the design that can be eliminated?
Thinking Creatively• R: Rearrange – How can you change the order of what you’ve got? – Is there a way that cause-and-effect can be swapped around in this design? – Can the design be turned upside down or sideways in development or usage ? – Can I rearrange steps in the approach or process in some way? – Can I change the order in which people contribute who are making this or using the design? – Can I change the schedule of development for this design?
Thinking Creatively• Thinker’s Keys – The Thinker’s Keys were developed by Tony Ryan, an Australian learning consultant, as a set of twenty different activities designed to enhance thinking tasks. – Each key provides a new perspective or viewpoint to quickly generate new ideas and new directions.
Thinking Creatively• 1. The “Reverse” Key – Swap the idea around – e.g. What can’t you do instead of what can you do? What have you never seen instead of what have you seen?
Thinking Creatively• 2. The “What if” Key – Speculate on new ideas – e.g. What if there were eight days of the week instead of seven? What if wheels were square?
Thinking Creatively• 3. The “Disadvantages” Key – Look at the shortcomings – e.g. What are the disadvantages of a bus, and how could we improve it?
Thinking Creatively• 4. The “Combination” Key – Combine two concepts together – e.g. What can you come up with from the combination of a chair and a microwave?
Thinking Creatively• 5. The “BAR” Key – Bigger, Add, Replace – e.g. What would happen if you were to make a bus (or part of a bus) bigger? What could you add to a bus to improve it? What part of the bus could you replace with something else?
Thinking Creatively• 6. The “Alphabet” Key – Create a list of A to Z relevant to the idea – e.g. Topic: computers. – List: Apple, Bugs, CPU, Database, Electricity, Floppy disks, Gigabytes, Hardware, Input, Java, Keyboard, Language, Megabyte, Network, Operating System, PC, Quantum Computing, RISC, Software, Testing, User Interface, Versions, WWW, XML, Yahoo, Zip
Thinking Creatively• 7. The “Variations” Key – Look at the alternative ways – e.g. How many different ways can you think of to tell the time?
Thinking Creatively• 8. The “Picture” Key – Visualising using a simple diagram – e.g. Find a link between this diagram and your program of study:
Thinking Creatively• 9. The “Prediction” Key – Predict the Future – e.g. How will college work in 30 years time? What will be the next big development in your program of study?
Thinking Creatively• 10. The “Different Uses” Key – Unexpected uses of products – e.g. What are ten unexpected uses for a balloon?
Thinking Creatively• 11. The “Ridiculous” Key – Make statement virtually impossible to implement and try to make it work – e.g. Why can’t we power the electricity using energy generated by conversations? – We’d need microphones everywhere converting audio into electrical impulses, and instead of going to speakers, those impulses would have to go into the powergrid.
Thinking Creatively• 12. The “Commonality” Key – Create a list of features that two items have in common – e.g. A dog and a table • Both have four legs • Both can be found in houses • Both need occasional cleaning • Both have owners
Thinking Creatively• 13. The “Question” Key – List 5 questions given an answer – e.g. The answer is key 1. What opens locks? 2. Someone who sings badly is said to be off______? 3. The stone at the top of an arch called the _____stone? 4. The primary light that illuminates a scene in a play is the _____ light? 5. What did Tony Ryan suggest there were 20 of?
Thinking Creatively• 14. The “Brainstorming” Key – State the problem and brainstorm as many possible alternative solutions as possible – e.g. Encouraging people to read books • Government bans TV one day a week • Pay people to read • Make books very cheap • Hide a golden ticket in one book • Free download of eBooks once a month
Thinking Creatively• 15. The “Inventions” Key – Invent sometime new – e.g. A new type of Swiss Army Knife – A new type of key – A new way to light a room – A new way to wash dishes
Thinking Creatively• 16. The “Brick Wall” Key – State something that appears to be indisputable, and dispute it – e.g. “What goes up must come down” – Not in outer space – Not if it gets stuck – Not if it’s lighter-than-air – Not if it’s taxes
Thinking Creatively• 17. The “Construction” Key – Build something tangible with some everyday materials – e.g. Drinking straws, paper, Sellotape – Build a container that will allow you to throw an egg out a window and it will land unbroken.
Thinking Creatively• 18. The “Forced Relationships” Key – Build something to solve a problem with dissimilar materials – e.g. Mobile phone, brush, DVD, lipstick – Build a device using the above materials that will work as a fire alarm.
Thinking Creatively• 19. The “Alternative” Key – Do a common task in an unusual way – e.g. Work out a few ways to: – Brush your teeth with a toothbrush – Tell the time without a clock – Cut the grass without a lawnmower – Light a fire without matches
Thinking Creatively• 20. The “Interpretation” Key – Create an unusual scenario and come up with multiple explanations for it. – e.g. The goal posts have been removed from the local pitch. What could have happened? – A car backed into a post badly splintering it and for safety sake it had to be removed. – The local football team borrowed them – A new building is going to be built on the field
Thinking Creatively• TRIZ• Developed by Soviet engineer Genrich Altshuller and colleagues beginning in 1946.• They studied more than 300,000 patents and distilled 40 inventive principles that were often present in the most successful cases.• There are now many TRIZ Centres all around the world.
Thinking Creatively• TRIZ• TRIZ is defined as “a problem-solving, analysis and forecasting tool derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature”• Not all of the 40 inventive principles will apply to all designs, as some of the principles are very specific, so for each design skip any of the principles that don’t obviously apply
Thinking Creatively• Principle 1. Segmentation – A. Divide an object into independent parts. – B. Make an object easy to disassemble. – C. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 2. Taking Out – A. Separate an interfering part or property from an object, or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 3. Local Quality – A. Change an objects structure from uniform to non- uniform, change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform. – B. Make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operation. – C. Make each part of an object fulfil a different and useful function.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 4. Asymmetry – A. Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical. – B. If an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 5. Merging – A. Bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects, assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations. – B. Make operations contiguous or parallel; bring them together in time.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 6. Universality – A. Make a part or object perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 7. "Nested Doll" – A. Place one object inside another; place each object, in turn, inside the other. – B. Make one part pass through a cavity in the other.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 8. Anti-Weight – A. To compensate for the weight of an object, merge it with other objects that provide lift. – B. To compensate for the weight of an object, make it interact with the environment (e.g. use aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, buoyancy and other forces).
Thinking Creatively• Principle 9. Preliminary Anti-Action – A. If it will be necessary to do an action with both harmful and useful effects, this action should be replaced with anti- actions to control harmful effects. – B. Create beforehand stresses in an object that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 10. Preliminary Action – A. Perform, before it is needed, the required change of an object (either fully or partially). – B. Pre-arrange objects such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 11. Beforehand Cushioning – A. Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 12. Equi-potentiality – A. In a potential field, limit position changes (e.g. change operating conditions to eliminate the need to raise or lower objects in a gravity field)
Thinking Creatively• Principle 13. “The Other Way Round” – A. Invert the action(s) used to solve the problem – B. Make movable parts (or the external environment) fixed, and fixed parts movable. – C. Turn the object (or process) upside down.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 14. Spheroidality/Curvature – A. Instead of using rectilinear parts, surfaces, or forms, use curvilinear ones; move from flat surfaces to spherical ones; from parts shaped as a cube (parallelepiped) to ball- shaped structures. – B. Use rollers, balls, spirals, domes. – C. Go from linear to rotary motion, use centrifugal forces.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 15. Dynamics – A. Allow (or design) the characteristics of an object, external environment, or process to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition. – B. Divide an object into parts capable of movement relative to each other. – C. If an object (or process) is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 16. Partial or Excessive Actions – A. If 100 percent of an object is hard to achieve using a given solution method then, by using “slightly less” or “slightly more” of the same method, the problem may be considerably easier to solve.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 17. Another Dimension – A. To move an object in two- or three-dimensional space. – B. Use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story arrangement. – C. Tilt or re-orient the object, lay it on its side. – D. Use another side of a given area.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 18. Mechanical Vibration – A. Cause an object to oscillate or vibrate. – B. Increase its frequency (even up to the ultrasonic). – C. Use an objects resonant frequency. – D. Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones. – E. Use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 19. Periodic Action – A. Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions. – B. If an action is already periodic, change the periodic magnitude or frequency. – C. Use pauses between impulses to perform a different action.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 20. Continuity of Useful Action – A. Carry on work continuously; make all parts of an object work at full load, all the time. – B. Eliminate all idle or intermittent actions or work.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 21. Skipping – A. Conduct a process, or certain stages (e.g. destructible, harmful or hazardous operations) at high speed.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 22. “Blessing in disguise” or “Turn Lemons into Lemonade” – A. Use harmful factors (particularly, harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect. – B. Eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 23. Feedback – A. Introduce feedback (referring back, cross-checking) to improve a process or action. – B. If feedback is already used, change its magnitude or influence.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 24. “Intermediary” – A. Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process. – B. Merge one object temporarily with another (which can be easily removed).
Thinking Creatively• Principle 25. Self-service – A. Make an object serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions – B. Use waste resources, energy, or substances.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 26. Copying – A. Instead of an unavailable, expensive, fragile object, use simpler and inexpensive copies. – B. Replace an object, or process with optical copies. – C. If visible optical copies are already used, move to infrared or ultraviolet copies.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 27. Cheap Short-Living Objects – A. Replace an inexpensive object with a multiple of inexpensive objects, comprising certain qualities (such as service life, for instance).
Thinking Creatively• Principle 28. Mechanics Substitution – A. Replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical, acoustic, taste or smell) means. – B. Use electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with the object. – C. Change from static to movable fields, from unstructured fields to those having structure. – D. Use fields in conjunction with field-activated (e.g. ferromagnetic) particles.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 29. Pneumatics and Hydraulics – A. Use gas and liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts (e.g. inflatable, filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic, hydro-reactive).
Thinking Creatively• Principle 30. Flexible Shells and Thin Films – A. Use flexible shells and thin films instead of three dimensional structures – B. Isolate the object from the external environment using flexible shells and thin films.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 31. Porous Materials – A. Make an object porous or add porous elements (inserts, coatings, etc.). – B. If an object is already porous, use the pores to introduce a useful substance or function.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 32. Colour Changes – A. Change the colour of an object or its external environment. – B. Change the transparency of an object or its external environment.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 33. Homogeneity – A. Make objects interacting with a given object of the same material (or material with identical properties).
Thinking Creatively• Principle 34. Discarding & Recovering – A. Make portions of an object that have fulfilled their functions go away (discard by dissolving, evaporating, etc.) or modify these directly during operation. – B. Conversely, restore consumable parts of an object directly in operation.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 35. Parameter Changes – A. Change an objects physical state (e.g. to a gas, liquid, or solid). – B. Change the concentration or consistency. – C. Change the degree of flexibility. – D. Change the temperature.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 36. Phase Transitions – A. Use phenomena occurring during phase transitions (e.g. volume changes, loss or absorption of heat, etc.)
Thinking Creatively• Principle 37. Thermal Expansion – A. Use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials. – B. If thermal expansion is being used, use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 38. Strong Oxidants – A. Replace common air with oxygen-enriched air. – B. Replace enriched air with pure oxygen. – C. Expose air or oxygen to ionizing radiation. – D. Use ionized oxygen. – E. Replace ozonized (or ionized) oxygen with ozone.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 39. Inert Atmosphere – A. Replace a normal environment with an inert one. – B. Add neutral parts, or inert additives to an object.
Thinking Creatively• Principle 40. Composite Materials – A. Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials.