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O leary2012 comp_ppt_ch05
 

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  • System software is not a single program but is a collection of programs that handles hundreds of technical details End-users focus on application programs more than the system software, but it is important to understand how system software works
  • Resources Coordinate input and outputs such as keyboard, microphones, printers, mouse, storage devices, and memory User interface (Key Term) Primarily graphical user interface (GUI) Use of icons (Key Term) Applications Word processing Spreadsheets Databases Supporting multitasking (Key Term) Windows most popular operating systems Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows ME, Windows XP (Key Term), Windows Vista (Key Term) MAC OS – designed to run Apple computers Unix – used by powerful microcomputers, servers on the Web, and minicomputers in network environment Linux – nonproprietary operating systems that run cross platform (Key Term) New photo.
  • Booting is the process of starting a computer Warm boot (Key Term) – computer is already on and you restart it without turning off the power Cold boot (Key Term) – starting a computer that has been turned off Files (Key Term) – used to store data and programs Folders (Key Term) – stores and organizes related files. May also house other folders
  • Operating system is sometimes called the software environment (Key Term) or platform Most are proprietary operating systems– owned and licensed by a corporation Non-proprietary – source code is available to the public Called open source Linux is an open source program In certain situations, the desktop operating system (Key Term) may also be referred to as a client operating system (Key Term) Network server (Key Term) – coordinates all communication between the other computers
  • Note that LINUX is easier to learn; easily transfer to UNIX UNIX originally designed as cross-platform to help “integrate” the Web
  • Windows has over 90 percent of the market More application programs are designed to run under Windows than any other operating system
  • First introduced in 1984 Provided one of the first GUIs Powerful and easy-to-use operating system Mac OS X, version 10.4 – also known as Tiger (Key Term), provides photo-quality icons and easy-to-use menus Spotlight (Key Term) – advanced search tool Dashboard widgets (Key Term) – collection of specialized programs that update and display information One version of Mac OS (called Leopard) will include Boot Camp (Key Term) which allows Apple computers to run both Mac OS and Windows operating systems
  • UNIX Used by powerful microcomputers and by servers on the Web There are a large number of different versions of UNIX LINUX One of the most popular and powerful alternatives to the Windows operating system
  • Utilities – specialized programs designed to make computing easier Hard disk crashes Antivirus programs Computer freeze-ups Decrease operation slow-downs
  • These utilities can be accessed from the System Tools menu
  • If you backup (Key Term) your files, you have a copy of your data in case of a disk failure
  • When you search the Web, a variety of programs and files are saved to your hard drive Use disk cleanup (Key Term) to get rid of these unnecessary files Files are stored and organized on a disk according to tracks and sectors Tracks (Key Term) – concentric ring Sectors (Key Term) – wedge-shaped sections of a track OS tries to save a file on a single track across contiguous sectors. Often the file has to broken into small parts and stored wherever space is available and the disk over time becomes fragmented
  • Disk Defragmenter (Key Term) should be run on your computer often Some end-users run this utility program daily, while some run it once a week Fragmented (Key Term) files - result of a file having to be broken apart into smaller parts so it can be stored wherever space is available
  • Norton SystemWorks AntiVirus CleanSweep Web Cleanup GoBack Personal Edition Norton Utilities One button checkup (Key Term) - integrates several of the separate troubleshooting utilities McAfee Similar programs
  • Device drivers - programs that work with the operating system to allow communication between device(s) and the rest of the physical system Device drivers are also referred to simply as “drivers” (Key Term) Step-by-step guidance is offered by Windows in the form of wizards that assist with installing drivers e.g. “Add Printer Wizard” (Key Term) Drivers can also be easily updated in Windows by utilizing the Windows Update (Key Term) functionality
  • Computers may be able to fix themselves in the future Autonomic computing is a system that allows machines to run with little human intervention
  • Have students turn to the end of Chapter 5 in their textbooks to view the same “Open-Ended” questions/statements
  • Have students turn to the end of Chapter 5 in their textbooks to view the same “Open-Ended” questions/statements

O leary2012 comp_ppt_ch05 O leary2012 comp_ppt_ch05 Presentation Transcript

  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill Chapter 05: System SoftwareChapter 05: System SoftwareChapter 05: System SoftwareChapter 05: System Software
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-2McGraw-Hill CompetenciesCompetencies (Page 1 of 2)(Page 1 of 2) • Describe the differences betweenDescribe the differences between system softwaresystem software and application softwareand application software • Discuss the four types of system softwareDiscuss the four types of system software • Discuss the basic functions, features, andDiscuss the basic functions, features, and categories ofcategories of operating systemsoperating systems • DescribeDescribe WindowsWindows,, Mac OSMac OS,, UNIXUNIX,, LinuxLinux,, andand virtualizationvirtualization
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-3McGraw-Hill CompetenciesCompetencies (Page 2 of 2)(Page 2 of 2) • Describe the purpose ofDescribe the purpose of utilitiesutilities andand utility suitesutility suites • Identify the five most essential utilitiesIdentify the five most essential utilities • Discuss Windows utility programsDiscuss Windows utility programs • DescribeDescribe device driversdevice drivers, including Windows’, including Windows’ Add a Device WizardAdd a Device Wizard andand UpdateUpdate
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-4McGraw-Hill IntroductionIntroduction • Computers are ubiquitous in our lives andComputers are ubiquitous in our lives and we expect them to “be there when wewe expect them to “be there when we need them”.need them”. • We give little thought to the processesWe give little thought to the processes and programs running behind the scenesand programs running behind the scenes to keep them functioning effectively.to keep them functioning effectively. • Such programs (i.e. operating systems,Such programs (i.e. operating systems, utility programs, and device drivers) areutility programs, and device drivers) are the system software you learn about here.the system software you learn about here.
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-5McGraw-Hill System SoftwareSystem Software • Handles the technical detailsHandles the technical details – Includes the operating system, utilities,Includes the operating system, utilities, device drivers, anddevice drivers, and language translatorslanguage translators
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-6McGraw-Hill Operating SystemsOperating Systems • A collection of programs that handle technicalA collection of programs that handle technical tasks, including managing computertasks, including managing computer resourcesresources • Every computer has an operating system (OS),Every computer has an operating system (OS), such as Windows 7 or Mac OS Xsuch as Windows 7 or Mac OS X • The OS provides the interface between the userThe OS provides the interface between the user and computer, and is required to run applicationsand computer, and is required to run applications
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-7McGraw-Hill Functions of an Operating SystemFunctions of an Operating System • Manages computer resourcesManages computer resources – Coordinate memory, processing storage, and printersCoordinate memory, processing storage, and printers – Monitor system performanceMonitor system performance – Provide securityProvide security – Start-up the computerStart-up the computer • Provides user interfaceProvides user interface – Character-based interfaceCharacter-based interface – Graphical user interface (GUI)Graphical user interface (GUI) • Runs applicationsRuns applications – MultitaskingMultitasking – Foreground and background applicationsForeground and background applications
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-8McGraw-Hill Features of an Operating SystemFeatures of an Operating System • BootingBooting • Features in common with application softwareFeatures in common with application software – IconsIcons – PointersPointers – WindowsWindows – MenusMenus – Dialog boxesDialog boxes – HelpHelp
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-9McGraw-Hill Categories of Operating SystemsCategories of Operating Systems • Hundreds of operating systemsHundreds of operating systems • Three basic categoriesThree basic categories – Embedded operating systemsEmbedded operating systems (handheld)(handheld) – Network operating systemsNetwork operating systems (linked computers)(linked computers) – Stand-alone operating systemsStand-alone operating systems (desktop)(desktop)
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-10McGraw-Hill More on Operating SystemsMore on Operating Systems • An OS is often called the software environment orAn OS is often called the software environment or platformplatform • Operating systems commonly used by individualsOperating systems commonly used by individuals – Windows – most widely usedWindows – most widely used – Mac OS – powerful and easy to useMac OS – powerful and easy to use – UNIX – network; originally designed for WebUNIX – network; originally designed for Web – LINUX – non proprietary; free from the WebLINUX – non proprietary; free from the Web
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-11McGraw-Hill WindowsWindows • The most popular microcomputer operatingThe most popular microcomputer operating system – over 90 percent of the marketsystem – over 90 percent of the market • Comes in a variety of different versionsComes in a variety of different versions • Windows 7 provides several improvements overWindows 7 provides several improvements over Windows VistaWindows Vista
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-12McGraw-Hill Mac OSMac OS • Mac OS XMac OS X is designed to run on Apple computersis designed to run on Apple computers • One of the most innovative operating systems, but notOne of the most innovative operating systems, but not used as widely as Windowsused as widely as Windows • Mac OS (Boot Camp) allows you to run bothMac OS (Boot Camp) allows you to run both the Mac OS andthe Mac OS and WindowsWindows
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-13McGraw-Hill UNIX and LINUXUNIX and LINUX • UNIX operating systemUNIX operating system – Originally designed to run on networkedOriginally designed to run on networked minicomputersminicomputers • LINUX is a version of UNIXLINUX is a version of UNIX – Open sourceOpen source – Not proprietaryNot proprietary
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-14McGraw-Hill VirtualizationVirtualization • Ability to support multiple operating systems on aAbility to support multiple operating systems on a single physical machinesingle physical machine • Virtualization softwareVirtualization software – Physical machine can be logically separated intoPhysical machine can be logically separated into separate and independent virtual computers calledseparate and independent virtual computers called virtual machinesvirtual machines • Host operating systemHost operating system • Guest operating systemGuest operating system
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-15McGraw-Hill Mobile Phone Operating SystemsMobile Phone Operating Systems • Type of embedded operating system that isType of embedded operating system that is present in every smartphonepresent in every smartphone • Some of the best known (with release dates):Some of the best known (with release dates): – Symbian (2009)Symbian (2009) – BlackBerry OS or RIM OS (1999)BlackBerry OS or RIM OS (1999) – iPhone OS (2007)iPhone OS (2007) – Android (2007)Android (2007) – Windows Phone 7 (2010)Windows Phone 7 (2010)
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-16McGraw-Hill UtilitiesUtilities • Specialized programs to make computing easierSpecialized programs to make computing easier • Most essential utilitiesMost essential utilities – TroubleshootingTroubleshooting oror diagnostic programsdiagnostic programs – Antivirus programsAntivirus programs – Uninstall programsUninstall programs – Backup programsBackup programs – File compression programsFile compression programs
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-17McGraw-Hill Windows UtilitiesWindows Utilities • Backup and RestoreBackup and Restore • Disk CleanupDisk Cleanup • Disk DefragmenterDisk Defragmenter
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-18McGraw-Hill Backup and RestoreBackup and Restore • Utility program included withUtility program included with many Windows versionsmany Windows versions • Makes a copy of all files or selectedMakes a copy of all files or selected files that have been saved on a diskfiles that have been saved on a disk • Helps prevent against disk failureHelps prevent against disk failure Return
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-19McGraw-Hill Disk CleanupDisk Cleanup • Identifies and eliminatesIdentifies and eliminates nonessential filesnonessential files • Frees up valuable space andFrees up valuable space and improves system performanceimproves system performance Return
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-20McGraw-Hill Disk DefragmenterDisk Defragmenter • Identifies and eliminates unnecessary fragmentsIdentifies and eliminates unnecessary fragments • Rearranges files and unused disk space toRearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operationsoptimize operations • Speeds up file accessSpeeds up file access Return
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-21McGraw-Hill Utility SuitesUtility Suites • A group of utility programs bundled for saleA group of utility programs bundled for sale • Buying the package is more affordableBuying the package is more affordable • Popular suitesPopular suites – Norton System WorksNorton System Works – McAfee OfficeMcAfee Office – V CommunicationsV Communications SystemSuiteSystemSuite
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-22McGraw-Hill Device DriversDevice Drivers • Specialized programs that allow communication betweenSpecialized programs that allow communication between a device and the computera device and the computer • Loaded into memory each time a computer is startedLoaded into memory each time a computer is started • When a new device is added, new deviceWhen a new device is added, new device driversdrivers must bemust be installedinstalled
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-23McGraw-Hill Virus Protection and Internet SecurityVirus Protection and Internet Security • Internet Security SuiteInternet Security Suite – Continually monitors your computerContinually monitors your computer • VirusScanVirusScan – Controls the frequency of searches forControls the frequency of searches for virusesviruses – Quarantines or deletes infected filesQuarantines or deletes infected files • Privacy ServicePrivacy Service – Helps protect yourHelps protect your privacy onlineprivacy online – Block websites, cookies,Block websites, cookies, and adsand ads
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-24McGraw-Hill Careers In ITCareers In IT • Computer support specialist provideComputer support specialist provide technical support to customers andtechnical support to customers and other usersother users • Resolve common networkingResolve common networking problems and use troubleshootingproblems and use troubleshooting programs to diagnose problemsprograms to diagnose problems • Employers look for a bachelorsEmployers look for a bachelors degree, good analytical anddegree, good analytical and communication skillscommunication skills • Computer support specialist canComputer support specialist can expect to earn $32K - $53K annuallyexpect to earn $32K - $53K annually
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-25McGraw-Hill A Look to the FutureA Look to the Future IBM's Aware SupercomputerIBM's Aware Supercomputer • IBM’s Automatic Computing Initiative (ACI)IBM’s Automatic Computing Initiative (ACI) – Handles time-consuming maintenanceHandles time-consuming maintenance – Self-regulating and virtually invisibleSelf-regulating and virtually invisible • Self-maintaining serversSelf-maintaining servers – Self-repairingSelf-repairing – Self-updatingSelf-updating – Self-protectingSelf-protecting
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-26McGraw-Hill Open-Ended Questions(Page 1 of 2)Open-Ended Questions(Page 1 of 2) • Describe system software. What are the fourDescribe system software. What are the four types of system programs?types of system programs? • What are the basic functions of every operatingWhat are the basic functions of every operating system? What are the three basic operatingsystem? What are the three basic operating system categories?system categories? • Explain the differences and similarities betweenExplain the differences and similarities between Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. DiscussWindows, Mac OS, and Linux. Discuss virtualization.virtualization.
  • Copyright © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. ComputingEssentials2012:ComputingEssentials2012:MakingITWorkforYouMakingITWorkforYou 5-27McGraw-Hill Open-Ended Questions(Page 2 of 2)Open-Ended Questions(Page 2 of 2) • Discuss utilities. What are the five most essentialDiscuss utilities. What are the five most essential utilities? What is a utility suite?utilities? What is a utility suite? • Explain the role of device drivers. Discuss theExplain the role of device drivers. Discuss the AddAdd a Device Wizarda Device Wizard andand Windows UpdateWindows Update..