Northwest Agricultural Lecture.Final Imig Copy


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  • Some examples of vocational programs: administrative Assistant; Antiques and Collectibles; Construction Education Early Childhood Education; Pharmacy Technician; Automotive Technology; Bartending ; Business Education; Cosmetology; Electronics; Medical; Retail Meat Cutting; The relatively short time frame of vocational certificate programs may attract students with limited time. This may have been the case for undergraduates with children (including single parents).
  • Cash Transfer, Food Related Programs , Prices and Other Subsidies , Public Works , Micro-Credit , School vouchers or scholarships , Fee waivers for health care services , Heating in cold climates.
  • Notes: Includes full-time year-round workers age 25 and older. Tax payments are based on 2002 tax rates and do not incorporate the 2003 federal income tax reductions. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004, PINC-03; Internal Revenue Service, 2003, Table 3; McIntyre, et al, 2003; calculations by the authors.
  • A university system is a set of multiple affiliated university campuses that are geographically distributed. Typically, all member campuses in a university system share a common component among all of their various names. All member campuses of a university system are usually governed by a systemwide governing body, such as a board of trustees or a board of regents. A university system in the USA consists most commonly of multiple state-funded public university campuses throughout a single state in the USA. The University System of Maryland (USM) is Maryland's system of public higher education. Its members include all public universities in the State, with the exception of Morgan State University and St. Mary's College. The USM is the twelfth-largest university system in the nation, and our 13 institutions offer over 600 academic programs to more than 126,000 students at 200 sites worldwide . California State University system, the largest one. Some other university systems: Indiana, New Hampshire, Minnesota 11 universities: Bowie State University ; Coppin State University ; Frostburg State University; Salisbury University; Towson University; University of Baltimore University of Maryland, Baltimore; University of Maryland, Baltimore County ;University of Maryland, College Park ; University of Maryland Eastern Shore ; University of Maryland University College Two Institutions: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science ; University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Two Centers: Universities at Shady Grove; University System of Maryland at Hagerstown;
  • President, sometimes is called chancellor.
  • By nontraditional, people possess one or more of the following characteristics: They are age 25 or older, have delayed entry into higher education after completing high school, did not earn a traditional high school diploma, are married, attend part time, work full time, or have children
  • The admissions decisions in highly selective institutions are so complex and consider so many factors that wealthy families often hire private admissions counselors to help them anticipate which factors a given institution is likely to weigh most heavily and to help their child craft an application that best meets those criteria.
  • Northwest Agricultural Lecture.Final Imig Copy

    1. 1. An Overview of US Higher Education 美国高等教育概况 Dr. James Greenberg Dr. Steven Selden College of Education University of Maryland, College Park For Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University August 7, 2009
    2. 2. The University of Maryland: The Quest for Excellence and Equity Ph. D Student Getting Hooded
    3. 3. Three Major Underpinning Philosophical Beliefs for American Higher Education: 三个支柱性理念 <ul><li>Jeffersonian ideals of limited government control and freedom of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism and the belief in the rationality of markets </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to equal opportunity and social mobility. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Distinct and Different Missions Land Grant /Morrill Act Science Technology Agriculture Commerce Engineering SERVICE American Association Of Universities RESEARCH & SCHOLARSHIP Liberal Arts Tradition TEACHING
    5. 5. Size and Composition 大学总数及分类 <ul><li>6,500 postsecondary institutions in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,200 colleges and universities that award degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 2,300 community colleges and other institutions that award certificates </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Benefits of Higher Education to Individuals and Societies <ul><li>Wider opportunities and a higher standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with higher levels of education are less likely to depend on social safety-net programs, decreasing demand on public expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>College graduates lead more productive lives with more positive perceptions of personal health and lower smoking rates </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with higher levels of education engage more in civic activities including volunteering, voting, and donating blood. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Enrollment (在校人数) <ul><li>16 million full- and part-time students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 million undergraduates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million graduate and professional students </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Notes: Includes full-time year-round workers age 25 and older. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004, PINC-03; Internal Revenue Service, 2003, Table 3; McIntyre, et al, 2003
    9. 9. Public vs. Private <ul><li>2099 public institutions enrolling 12 million (75% of students) </li></ul><ul><li>4360 private institutions enrolling 4 million (25% of students) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Major Categories of Institutions <ul><li>Doctoral Granting Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer most of doctoral degree programs and engage in extensive research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Universities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally only through master’s degree level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Baccalaureate Colleges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize liberal arts through the bachelor’s degree level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialized Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer programs only in a few areas, such as law, medicine, engineering or the arts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Colleges (Two-year colleges) </li></ul><ul><li>For-profit institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as University of Phoenix, Capella, DeVires, Strayer </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Transition Rate (入学率) from High School to Postsecondary Education <ul><li>The percentage of high school graduates who enrolled in postsecondary education immediately after graduation has increased over the past 3 decades, rising from 47 percent in 1973 to 62 percent in 2001 </li></ul>
    12. 12. DEMANDS ON AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION <ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Affordability </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul>
    13. 13. Accountability – Dominant Policy Tool in U.S. Higher Education <ul><li>Focus on Ends, Attainments, Accomplishments, Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Measurable Ends </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on Standardized Measures of Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Other Measurable Achievements re: Other Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>NSSE: Student Engagement and Involvement in Higher Education </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Demand for Accountability <ul><li>Accountability to Public, Clients and the Faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to Completion of Degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Placement & Job Success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test Scores & Certification </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Client Accountability <ul><li>Demand for an Adequate Supply of Highly Qualified Graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Graduates Who Can Meet or Exceed Client’s Needs & Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Graduates Who Can Fulfill the Purposes & Goals of the Employer </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Graduates Who can Meet the Needs of an Advancing Democratic Society and a Globalizing World </li></ul>
    16. 16. Public Accountability <ul><li>Sufficient number of graduates to meet public sector needs & expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Graduates who meet or exceed the qualitative expectations of both private & public sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency to provide evidence of appropriate use of public resources </li></ul><ul><li>Graduates who can Meet the Needs of an advancing democratic society and a globalizing world </li></ul>
    17. 17. Governance (隶属及管辖) <ul><li>States are responsible for governing public colleges and universities </li></ul><ul><li>Various degrees of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some universities enjoy constitutional autonomy, such as the University of Michigan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some universities are governed by a board appointed by the governor and/or legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some universities are part of a statewide multi-campus systems </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. External Governance <ul><li>Multiple Agencies </li></ul>University of Maryland College Park University of Maryland System & Regents State of Maryland (MHEC) U.S. Education Department Regional Accreditation Association Specialized Accreditation Agencies
    19. 19. Federal Role 联邦政府的作用 <ul><li>Primary financier of both scientific research and student financial aid </li></ul><ul><li>Exerts influence through wide range of federal reporting requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuing ways to use institutional accreditation as a way to affect core academic decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on accountability </li></ul>
    20. 20. The University System of Maryland 马里兰大学系统 <ul><li>P ublic system of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>USM consists of eleven universities, two research institutions, two regional higher education centers, and a system office </li></ul><ul><li>Two other public institutions are separate from USM   </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MHEC is a super board for the state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 community colleges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29 private colleges and universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Naval Academy </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. USM Board of Regents ( 理事会 ) <ul><li>A 17-member Board of Regents, i ncluding one full-time student </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed by the governor </li></ul><ul><li>O versee the system's academic, administrative, and financial operations; formulate policy </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint the USM chancellor and the presidents of the system's 13 institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Regents serve on the board without compensation . </li></ul>
    22. 22. USM Facts (马里兰大学系统 详情) <ul><li>Undergraduate Students: 108,849 </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate/Professional Students: 35,514 </li></ul><ul><li>Full-time Faculty: 7,506 </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time Faculty: 4,423 </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Programs: more than 600 bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and professional </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100 locations in Maryland , 1,000 buildings, including 19 libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Budget: $3.5 billion </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Board of Trustees The President of the University Vice President Business Vice President Development Vice President University Relations Vice President University Administration Vice President University Planning Vice President Student Affairs Vice President Academic Affairs Accounting Auxiliary Services The University Administrative Organization 大学管理机构图 Assistants to the President
    24. 24. The Board of Trustees 大学理事会 <ul><li>The selection of the President of the University. </li></ul><ul><li>The determination of the major goals of the University and the approval of the policies and procedures for implementation of such goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The review and approval of the operating and capital budget of the University. </li></ul><ul><li>Such other responsibilities as law, governmental directives, or custom require the Board to act upon. </li></ul><ul><li>** This information is adopted from Pennsylvania State University Website: </li></ul>
    25. 25. Faculty and Their Appointments 大学教师及聘任 <ul><li>Full time or part time </li></ul><ul><li>Tenure-track or nontenure-track </li></ul><ul><li>Tenure implies continuous employment, barring dismissals for cause or financial exigency. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all academic positions carry tenure </li></ul>
    26. 26. Current Challenges (当前的挑战) <ul><li>The market (not government) as key external driver </li></ul><ul><li>High education as an engine of mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student learning results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationalizing the collegiate experience </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Sources of Funding State General Fund Allocations Grants & Contracts Tuition & Fees Gifts & Endowment Capital Investments University of Maryland
    28. 28. Institutional Financial Aid 奖助学金 <ul><li>To low-income students </li></ul><ul><li>To attract “the best and brightest” </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain and increase ethnic/racial/gender diversity of student body </li></ul>
    29. 29. Students <ul><ul><li>Three out of four American college students are considered nontraditional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eighty percent of students work during the academic year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half attend part time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sixty percent of bachelor’s degree recipients attend more than one institution through credits transfer </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Admissions Decisions 录取决定 <ul><li>Are based on a fixed set of academic criteria, include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high school coursework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grade point average (GPA) and class rank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>admissions test score—SAT and ACT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nonacademic characteristics, such as demonstrated leadership ability, creativity, and community service </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Curriculum and Degrees <ul><li>Associate degrees , typically awarded after 60 credits. </li></ul><ul><li>The bachelor’s degree, most common type of degree awarded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two components—general education (1/4 to ½ courses) and the major field of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students choose their major either upon enrolling or after completing their second year of studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The master’s degree: enroll 75 percent of graduate students </li></ul><ul><li>A professional degree provides access to advanced professions in fields such as law and medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>The doctoral degree (PhD) </li></ul>
    32. 32. University of Maryland College Park 2004 Six Year Graduation Rates 马里兰大学 2004 年毕业率