Improving N efficiency through managing soil nitrate                  Michael Russelle           USDA-ARS, St. Paul, Minne...
Many N sources, many not measured  N dynamics in western Iowa watersheds                                          Burkart ...
Large losses of NH3 from surface-applied urea fertilizer and manure    livestock buildings    feed and stand-off pads    m...
Manure mis-management                                       29 farms in Victoria, and Wisconsin, USA                      ...
Dairy cattle                                        PoultryBeef cattle                                          Pigs  Shee...
Ammonia emissions are re-deposited downwindCumulative deposition (%)                                                 Fores...
Redeposition of atmospheric ammonia            Wet deposition, dry depositionPrecip., turbulence, LAI, NH3 compensation po...
Ammonia redeposition          North CarolinaCajke et al. 2004. 24th Annual ESRI Int. User Conf.                           ...
The Netherlands, Asman et al. 2004Loubet et al.2009, in Sutton et al. Atmospheric Ammonia
Deposition affected by                                                                        crop speciesAirborne N input...
Rotations of perennials and annuals           conserve and build resources               Tim McCabe, NRCS            Don R...
N mineralization is earlier, faster, and longer after alfalfa                                     40                      ...
Protease inhibitors reduce N mineralization from soil OM and plant residue               Purified proteases applied to soi...
Protease inhibitor activity can delay N mineralization and nitrate leaching         Brassica residues with (line 108b) and...
Reduce nitrate movementPredicted nitrate loss: not all soils are leaky.    Protect drinking water strategically           ...
Derailment site                                                                 NH4 and NO3 in                            ...
Reduce leaching from an abandoned WI barnyard  Terraserver                                                    normal    no...
Good substitution between soil N and fixed NRusselle et al., 2007, Agron. J. 99:738
Nitrate leaching not eliminated by alfalfa                                              + an upgradient source of nitrateR...
‘Grassed’ waterways reduce nitrate loss in tile drains                                                                    ...
J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012                                             Maize          Kura clover                         ...
J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012Living mulches
Corn in living mulchRosemount, MN2011Silage productionequivalent toconventional corn,with substantiallyless N fertilizerJ....
J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012
Can plants remediate nitrate contaminated water?
Small plot experiment, drip irrigation, loamy sandEstablished lucerne, cocksfoot, Bromus inermis, and soybean     irrigate...
Ceramic suction cup samplers at 1 m depth                                      Russelle et al., 2003
Glasshouse trial, constant water flux                        100 cm column filled                         with sand      ...
R2 values:          Orchardgrass=0.94          Alfalfa=0.861.0 1.4            Kathy Bellrichard, undergrad thesis
12        30Optimal application rate in coarse sand      Lucerne        4.3 mm/hr      Cocksfoot      9.5 mm/hr Phytofiltr...
We can select alfalfa for/against soil nitrate uptake                              Fraction of N from nitrate             ...
Hotspots are where it’s atParkin 1987 Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1194
Tall Tower Trace Gas Observatory      University of Minnesota                           Tim Griffis, Univ. Minnesota
Regional Perspective                       Tim Griffis, Univ. Minnesota
Land-use CharacteristicsUSDA-NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway (http:www.datagateway.nrcs.usda.gov) Univ. Minnesota            ...
Tim Griffis, Univ. Minnesota
Tall tower (100m) N2O conc. at Rosemount, MN vs. background concs.             2X flux compared to upscaling   Nocturnal b...
Hot spots may be generated by tile drainage                                          Griffis et al., 2012, in prep
Courtesy Dan Jaynes, USDA-ARS
Can we foster more complete denitrification?
Pumping-induced ebullition   Ebullition: spontaneous formation        of bubbles   Occurs when PT > PH (soda bottle)   Low...
Bryant A. Browne
Excess N2                                                   Groundwater analyses, 2002                       DOC (mg/L)   ...
Managing soil nitrate: Reduce sources Reduce accumulation Reduce movement Reduce the hotspots Reduce to N2
Matric potential better predictor than WFPS across soilsDoes higher SOM and aggregation increase or decrease N2O?         ...
Integral total nitrogen input (ITNI) system                       15N fed at constant atom %If N input = 0           then ...
J.M. Baker,USDA-ARS, 2012
Watonwan County, MN                          1140 km2                                                                     ...
J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012Increase landscape water storage capacity
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Improving N Efficiency through Managing Soil Nitrate

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Presentation given by Dr. Michael Russelle to the PICCC Strategic Science Think Tank - Nitrogen efficiency. Thursday 16 August 2012, 10 am – 7 pm, at the University of Melbourne

http://www.piccc.org.au/news/2012/aug/29/piccc-strategic-science-think-tank-nitrogen-efficiency

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  • But the N that is excreted in urine and dung also needs attention.We need to devise systems for better collection, and application, but also for preserving manure quality. Reducing ammonia loss will enhance value and increase reliability.
  • Ammonia emissions are surely large in Victoria. Can you provide information for farmers or advisors?How can we reduce N losses from non-productive land, manured surfaces and storage, and during land application?
  • There is a lot to recommend rotations of annuals with perennials.
  • Because N release can be both fast and considerable, the rotation needs to be planned for the soil, climate, and farm constraints
  • This is a system that could potentially support both grain and bioenergy production from the same land base, without the risk of erosion and soil carbon loss.
  • MN has developed a statewide map dataset of potentially restorable wetlands that can be used as a guide for feasibility studies. Here is an example, happens to be Watonwan County, that has been overlaid on a land use map. The flesh-color that covers most of the map denotes fields that are planted in corn or soybean. The blue indicates existing water and the green delineates potentially restorable wetlands. You can see that they are scattered throughout, offering substantial flexibility in locating surface water storage. Now obviously an area like this has a substantial amount of tile drains and ditches. In relatively level fields with pattern tile drains, if these systems are hydraulically connected to surface water bodies they can be used in reverse, a practice known as subirrigation that has been shown to increase yields of both corn and soybeans. Where the terrain is not so level, or where the tile networks are more haphazard, other irrigation techniques would be necessary. These could include conventional center pivots, traveling guns, rolling systems, or newer designs. Note the amount of money that has been spent on crop insurance payouts for water-related yield loss – over $9 million during the past 12 years. These payments scale with crop prices. Over the period corn averaged $3.05 and soybeans 6.14. Current prices are just about double. If they stay that high over the next 12 years, the payout will double – over $18 million, even assuming no change in freq. or intensity of drought/excess water. Climate models suggest that both will intensity.
  • These would provide wildlife habitat, and reduction in downstream N & sediment loss. Can we make them leaky, in a way that will increase their effective capacity, recharge aquifers and support pivot irrigation?
  • Transcript of "Improving N Efficiency through Managing Soil Nitrate"

    1. 1. Improving N efficiency through managing soil nitrate Michael Russelle USDA-ARS, St. Paul, Minnesota USA Within the context of maintaining an adequate supply for plant growth, • Reduce sources • Reduce accumulation • Reduce movement • Reduce the hotspots • Reduce to N2
    2. 2. Many N sources, many not measured N dynamics in western Iowa watersheds Burkart et al. 2005
    3. 3. Large losses of NH3 from surface-applied urea fertilizer and manure livestock buildings feed and stand-off pads manure storage facilities Burkart et al. 2005
    4. 4. Manure mis-management 29 farms in Victoria, and Wisconsin, USA Non-productive areas 25 to 50% loss Engineered sand lot C = Confinement to separate urine and dung, C, EY = Confinement with exercise yard C, SG = Confinement with seasonal grazing provide storage, and YG = Year-round grazing facilitate collection YG, FP = Year-round grazing with feeding areaHristov et al. 2011, Can. J. Anim.Sci. 91:1 Gourley et al. 2012. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 147:73
    5. 5. Dairy cattle PoultryBeef cattle Pigs Sheep Ammonia loss from pastures 60 kg/ha Animal population density varies widely Ammonia emissions and redeposition will vary accordingly Eckard et al., 2003, Aust. J. Agric. Res. 54:561 Stephanie Muir, 2011, Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian beef feedlots. PhD Dissertation, Univ. Melbourne http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/about-agriculture/publications-resources/animal-health-report
    6. 6. Ammonia emissions are re-deposited downwindCumulative deposition (%) Forests Agriculture Distance from a point source (m) 0.25 1 6 20 100 miles Grünhage et al. 2002. Landbauforschung Völkenrode 4(52):219
    7. 7. Redeposition of atmospheric ammonia Wet deposition, dry depositionPrecip., turbulence, LAI, NH3 compensation point ….. Corn and Soybean Digest, 2011
    8. 8. Ammonia redeposition North CarolinaCajke et al. 2004. 24th Annual ESRI Int. User Conf. Model results kg N/ha/yr < 0.8 16-23 2.2-4 33-46 6.5-10 >61
    9. 9. The Netherlands, Asman et al. 2004Loubet et al.2009, in Sutton et al. Atmospheric Ammonia
    10. 10. Deposition affected by crop speciesAirborne N input (μg N/pot/d) Total deposition Deposition to potAdPN (μg/d/g DM) DM (g) Canola Barley Sunflower Corn Sugarbeet Cabbage Russow and Böhme. 2005. Geoderma 127:62
    11. 11. Rotations of perennials and annuals conserve and build resources Tim McCabe, NRCS Don Reicosky, USDA-ARS• Deep roots recover • Fertilizer N credit leached N • Less pesticide use• Utilizes shallow GW • Spread labor needs• Improves soil tilth • Improves aesthetics• Erosion control • Wildlife habitat
    12. 12. N mineralization is earlier, faster, and longer after alfalfa 40 35 Net N mineralized (kg N/ha) 15-cm Soil Temperature (C) C,S,W/A, A C,C 30 30 Soil temp 25 20 20 10 15 0 10 0 50 100 150 200 Day of Incubation Follow the legume (or grass pasture) with the right crops Often sufficient for a high yielding maize cropDOC also released – need to reduce rate of nitrate production low Carpenter-Boggs et al. 2000. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 66:2038 Lawrence et al., 2008, Agron. J. 100:73
    13. 13. Protease inhibitors reduce N mineralization from soil OM and plant residue Purified proteases applied to soil or soil + alfalfa; 50-day incubation 40 (a) CS+Complete PI (D0+D25) Soil only 30 CS+Aprotinin CS+Complete PI CS+EDTA CS+Leupeptin Control soil (CS) Net N Mineralized (mg/kg soil) 20 Complete ‘cocktail’ best 10 0 120 (b) Soil + alfalfa CSA+Complete PI (D0+D25) 100 Control soil + alfalfa (CSA) 80 Complete ‘cocktail’ best CSA+Complete PI 60 with 2X dose CSA+Leupeptin CSA+Aprotinin (11 Mg/ha tissue added) CSA+EDTA 40 20 0 Kuldip Kumar et al., 2004, in D.J. Hatch (ed) Controlling nitrogen flows and losses, p.186-7
    14. 14. Protease inhibitor activity can delay N mineralization and nitrate leaching Brassica residues with (line 108b) and without the Pin 2 from potatoLeaves mechanically wounded 3 days before adding to soil (1.5-2X increase in PI activity) PI-transgenic Non-PI isogenic PI- transgenic Non-PI-isogenic 140 (a) 40 120 100 * 30 Conc. Inorganic N in leachate (mg(mg/L) 80 Residue N mineralized (% of applied) of inorganic-N in leachate L ) Residue N mineralized (%) * 20 -1 60 Mixed with soil 40 10 * 20 * * 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Days 140 (b) 40 120 100 30 * 80 20 60 * On soil surface 40 * * 10 * 20 * 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Days Kuldip Kumar et al., 2006, Agron. J. 98:514
    15. 15. Reduce nitrate movementPredicted nitrate loss: not all soils are leaky. Protect drinking water strategically Lucerne Corn 145 kg N/ha < 2 lb N/a Dark green 2-4 lb N/a Light green 4-8 lb N/a Yellow 8-16 lb N/a Orange > 16 lb N/a RedRusselle et al., 2011, GIS in Agriculture
    16. 16. Derailment site NH4 and NO3 in soil and shallow ground water Not remediated after 7 years of various treatments. CP Rail Site remediated in 3 years with Still contaminated alfalfa. Excess N removed Fixing and non-fixing equal N2-fixing Non-N2-fixingRusselle et al., 2001, JEQ 30:30 Bruce Fritz Bruce Fritz
    17. 17. Reduce leaching from an abandoned WI barnyard Terraserver normal non-N-fixing lucerne lucerneRusselle et al., 2007, Agron. J. 99:738 N.B. Turyk, 2002
    18. 18. Good substitution between soil N and fixed NRusselle et al., 2007, Agron. J. 99:738
    19. 19. Nitrate leaching not eliminated by alfalfa + an upgradient source of nitrateRusselle et al., 2007, Agron. J. 99:738
    20. 20. ‘Grassed’ waterways reduce nitrate loss in tile drains How they work Lynn Betts, NRCS PEI Dept Agric. & For. April 35Nitrate concentration (ppm N) 30 25 October 20 15 10 5 0 Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan 2002 2003 2004 2005 NO3
    21. 21. J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012 Maize Kura clover SoybeanData from adjacent fields with same soil type , Rosemount MN 2010
    22. 22. J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012Living mulches
    23. 23. Corn in living mulchRosemount, MN2011Silage productionequivalent toconventional corn,with substantiallyless N fertilizerJ.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012
    24. 24. J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012
    25. 25. Can plants remediate nitrate contaminated water?
    26. 26. Small plot experiment, drip irrigation, loamy sandEstablished lucerne, cocksfoot, Bromus inermis, and soybean irrigated with high nitrate water (25 to 50 mg N/L) by drip irrigation during the growing season (2.5 to 5.0 cm water/week)
    27. 27. Ceramic suction cup samplers at 1 m depth Russelle et al., 2003
    28. 28. Glasshouse trial, constant water flux  100 cm column filled with sand  Three plants per column  Species alternating in adjacent columns  Three treatment groups Kathy Bellrichard, undergrad thesis
    29. 29. R2 values: Orchardgrass=0.94 Alfalfa=0.861.0 1.4 Kathy Bellrichard, undergrad thesis
    30. 30. 12 30Optimal application rate in coarse sand Lucerne 4.3 mm/hr Cocksfoot 9.5 mm/hr Phytofiltration works, but only on sands Kathy Bellrichard, undergrad thesis
    31. 31. We can select alfalfa for/against soil nitrate uptake Fraction of N from nitrate 0.8 1999 0.7 2000 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Total herbage N (g/plant) Heritable and reproducible in the field Should be useful in clovers for grass/legume mixtures.Can we leverage particular host/rhizobium combinations? Lamb et al., 2008. Crop Sci. 48:450
    32. 32. Hotspots are where it’s atParkin 1987 Soil Sci Soc Am J 51:1194
    33. 33. Tall Tower Trace Gas Observatory University of Minnesota Tim Griffis, Univ. Minnesota
    34. 34. Regional Perspective Tim Griffis, Univ. Minnesota
    35. 35. Land-use CharacteristicsUSDA-NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway (http:www.datagateway.nrcs.usda.gov) Univ. Minnesota Tim Griffis,
    36. 36. Tim Griffis, Univ. Minnesota
    37. 37. Tall tower (100m) N2O conc. at Rosemount, MN vs. background concs. 2X flux compared to upscaling Nocturnal boundary layer budget estimates, 7-d running mean Griffis et al., 2012, in prep
    38. 38. Hot spots may be generated by tile drainage Griffis et al., 2012, in prep
    39. 39. Courtesy Dan Jaynes, USDA-ARS
    40. 40. Can we foster more complete denitrification?
    41. 41. Pumping-induced ebullition Ebullition: spontaneous formation of bubbles Occurs when PT > PH (soda bottle) Lowering PH below PT allows a harvest of bubbles Accomplished with frictional loss of head (small diam. tubing)Mini-piezometers HDPE tubing (4.3 mm i.d.) Perforated along distal 2.5 cm Installed with a stainless steel rod Browne, 2004, Environ. Sci. Technol. 38:5729
    42. 42. Bryant A. Browne
    43. 43. Excess N2 Groundwater analyses, 2002 DOC (mg/L) DO (%) Corn Pasture Corn Pasture Denitrified N (%) DON (mg/L) 4 ha Dairy cowsBrowne et al., 2002, Corn Pastureunpublished data Corn Pasture
    44. 44. Managing soil nitrate: Reduce sources Reduce accumulation Reduce movement Reduce the hotspots Reduce to N2
    45. 45. Matric potential better predictor than WFPS across soilsDoes higher SOM and aggregation increase or decrease N2O? Castellano et al., 2009, Global Change Biol. 16:2711 van der Weerden et al., 2012. Soil Res. 50:125
    46. 46. Integral total nitrogen input (ITNI) system 15N fed at constant atom %If N input = 0 then 15Nsystem = 15N as fedIf N input only to plant then 15N plant < 15N as fed and 15N solution stableIf N input only to soil then 15N plant, soil, and solution < 15N as fedIf N input to both then 15N plant, soil, and solution < 15N as fed ufz.de
    47. 47. J.M. Baker,USDA-ARS, 2012
    48. 48. Watonwan County, MN 1140 km2 White = urbanCorn & soybean crop insurance payments, Watonwan County 2000-2011 flooded or wet soil - $3,170,336 drought - $5,938,457J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012
    49. 49. J.M. Baker, USDA-ARS, 2012Increase landscape water storage capacity

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