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Dairy Food Safety


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Based upon risk management supported by quality science, the Australian …

Based upon risk management supported by quality science, the Australian
dairy industry has developed stringent quality management systems that are
underpinned by comprehensive regulatory requirements.

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  • 1. the Australian approach Dairy Food Safety National Dairy Food Safety Regulatory Framework
  • 2. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach National Regulatory Framework Dairy Australia Development of Dairy Food Policy Relationship of Federal and State Regulatory Agencies The Australian New Zealand Food Regulation Ministerial Council consisting of Health and Agriculture Ministers from the states and Federal Government level Partner organisations territories and the Governments of Australia Introduction and New Zealand sets policies for food Development of policy and standards APVMA - agricultural and production in Australia. Food Standards for dairy food production veterinary chemicals Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) uses AQIS AHA - animal health and welfare, The dairy industry is one of Australia’s major rural industries with disease control these policies as a framework to develop approximately 8,000 farmers producing about 9.4 billion litres of milk. FSANZ NLIS - animal identification food standards. Australia is the third largest global exporter of dairy products. The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) provides certification for State and Territory Australian dairy farmers are cost efficient pasture based producers of high EPAs - for measures to protect exported dairy products and helps facilitate Government level SDFAs the environment. quality milk. On farm productivity continues to increase through improved market access arrangements. AQIS is also The Australian Pesticide and Veterinary AQIS has arrangements in place with Implementation, enforcement pastures, supplementary feed and herd management techniques. responsible for the surveillance of animals, Medicines Authority (APVMA) is responsible SDPIs and surveillance of standards SDFAs for the enforcement of standards feeds and foods imported into Australia. for a national system that evaluates and for exported product. AQIS may inspect or Viable dairy industries supplying fresh milk to nearby cities and towns exist registers agricultural and veterinary chemicals check test imported foods for compliance International standards and codes of in all Australian states. As a major regional employer, the industry value- and specifies the conditions of use. with Australian standards. practice derived from the Codex Alimentarius adds through the processing of milk to produce butter, cream, frozen Commission, World Animal Health The Animal Health Committee (AHC) All dairy businesses (farm and factory) must Organisation (OIE), World Trade Organisation develops national approaches for the control be licensed. Individual Food Safety Programs milk products, cheese, yoghurts, specialised powdered milks and dairy of animal diseases the implementation (WTO) and World Customs Organisation (FSP) for farms and factories are validated ingredients. Around half of the total milk production is exported. Major export (WCO) provide guidelines for Australian food supported by Animal Health Australia (AHA). by SDFAs before licences are granted and markets include Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, China and The regulation. The National Livestock Identification System compliance monitored through regular (NLIS) provides lifetime traceability for Philippines. Development of Food Standards audits. An annual verification program is animals. conducted by SDFAs and AQIS. Food standards covering all foods produced State Environmental Protection Authorities Based upon risk management supported by quality science, the Australian State Departments of Primary Industries/ domestically or imported for sale in Australia (EPAs) establish and administer regulations dairy industry has developed stringent quality management systems that are and New Zealand are developed by Agriculture (SDPIs) enforce regulations for and codes of practice for the protection underpinned by comprehensive regulatory requirements. Customer needs, FSANZ in conjunction with stakeholders use of chemicals on farms, animal welfare, of the environment including recycling of such as consumers, government agencies control of animal disease and biosecurity food safety and product traceability are paramount drivers for the quality materials and water. and industry groups. The Standards including traceability. systems but factors such as animal welfare, biosecurity and environmental Enforcement and verification are published in the Australian and New The relevant State Veterinary Practitioners sustainability are important considerations in the development of the quality Zealand Food Standards Code (FSC). The Food standards are enforced in the Registration Board registers veterinarians for management programs. Industry quality assurance (QA) programs require all FSC includes the Primary Production and Australian dairy industry predominately clinical practice. Processing Standard for Dairy Products. by State Dairy Food Authorities (SDFA) in sectors of the supply chain to take responsibility for food safety. conjunction with State Health Departments State Environmental Protection Agencies AQIS regulates the export of dairy products (SDoHs) and local government. (EPAs) monitor the environment including The industry works collaboratively with federal and state government to meet importing country requirements water and air supplies for conformance with through the Export Orders. Wherever regulatory agencies and service suppliers to ensure a preventative approach regulatory requirements. possible the Export Orders are harmonised to food safety across the integrated supply chain. Potential risks are with the FSC. Surveillance monitored on an ongoing basis with industry regularly updated on possible A range of industry and regulatory agencies consequences from the risks. The industry approach is outcome focused, monitor the safety and quality of milk and science based, non-prescriptive and proportionate to risk. dairy products through the supply chain. These include dairy companies, regulatory The national regulatory framework is an integrated system involving federal groups such as the Australian New Zealand Dairy Authorities Committee (ANZDAC), and state regulatory agencies, dairy farmers, dairy companies and Dairy federal and state regulatory agencies, Australia. Internationally recognised Codes and Standards provide a basis for SDFAs, SDPIs and EPAs. Australian dairy food regulation. The Australian Milk Residue Analysis (AMRA) Survey is an important measure in monitoring the safety of milk. (See Further information section for more about the AMRA Survey). State Departments of Health (SDHs) monitor the safety of food at retail level. Disclaimer: While Dairy Australia has taken all care to ensure the content of this Booklet is accurate at the time of production, it does not accept responsibility for any errors, and accepts no liability if, for any reason, the information is inaccurate or out of date. page 1
  • 3. National DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Regulatory Framework NOTES 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm,     transport, manufacture and distribution sectors of the supply chain. 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. 4. AQIS is responsible for regulatory oversight of importation of goods in these categories.  Framework Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies Influences Indicates secondary responsibility FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  FSANZ APVMA SDFAs SDPIs 1 EPAs  2 SDoH  3 AQIS  SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS Pre-farm Animals Water 4 Feed 4 Agricultural & Vet chemicals Fertilisers 4 Farm Feed Water Agricultural chemicals Fertilisers Veterinary chemicals Animals Premises and equipment Milking practices Cleaning  Milk storage  Skills and knowledge Traceability Transport Milk / Traceability Manufacture Milk Ingredients Water Packaging material Equipment Cleaning Skilled staff  Traceability Distribution Product / Traceability Markets Product / Traceability page 2 page 3
  • 4. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Pre-farm Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies Indicates secondary responsibility Influences FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  FSANZ APVMA SDFAs SDPIs 1 EPAs  2 SDoH  3 AQIS  SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS Animals Water 4 Feed 4 Pre-Farm Agricultural chemicals Veterinary chemicals Fertilisers 4 NOTES 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm, transport, manufacture and distribution sectors      of the supply chain. Producing milk and meat requires a range of Electronic ear tags identify all cattle from Only registered veterinarians can prescribe 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. 4. AQIS is responsible for regulatory oversight of importation of goods in these categories.  inputs: feed, livestock, fertiliser, chemicals, the property of birth through to death or prescription veterinary chemical treatments water, skilled labour and other resources. slaughter. This ensures traceability of the for use. The industry sees each of these inputs animal’s movements, interactions with other Potential risks to food safety and Water as essential to food safety and product animals, and health status through its life. product integrity from initial inputs such Farm Food Safety Programs (FSPs) must integrity along the supply chain, so the risks The National Livestock Identification System as feed, livestock, fertilisers, water and ensure water supplies are of suitable quality are identified and controlled by a range of (NLIS) provides the framework for the chemicals are assessed by government to protect animal health and to prevent standards and systems operating well before identification of all Australian livestock. and national industry agencies on an contamination of milk. State Environmental they reach the dairy farm. ongoing basis. Vendor declarations are required to Protection Authorities (EPAs) regulate the Feed accompany animals moving off farm or move disposal of effluent, which must be retained The risk management approach leads Farmers acquire about one-third of their onto the farm from other properties. The on farm and cannot contaminate the water to the development of standards and herd’s feed requirements from off-farm declaration provides information about the supply or environment. codes of practice and guidelines for use sources, including grain, concentrates, specific animal identification, health status, by farmers and the farm service sector. fodder and sometimes by-products from the access to and withhold permits for treated food industry e.g. molasses, brewers grain. feedstuffs and veterinary treatment. The grains and stockfeed industries have Animal Health Australia (AHA) coordinates HACCP based accredited QA programs for the implementation of national animal health use by their members to ensure the feed is programs across Australia. These programs safe for use by livestock e.g. Feedsafe. The are implemented through the SDPIs with the Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines assistance of the livestock industries and Authority (APVMA) determines the types of registered veterinarians. chemicals and their use in the production of Fertiliser stockfeed as well as determining maximum State legislation ensures fertilisers are residue limits (MRL). Vendor declarations appropriately labelled, and sets maximum about the background and quality of the feed limits for elements that may accumulate or are supplied with consignments of feed to pose a risk to agriculture over the longer dairy farmers. term. To prevent the transmission of disease, state Chemicals livestock disease control law prohibits the feeding of ruminants with animal material. The importation, manufacture, supplies and Compliance is monitored by Animal Health use of agricultural and veterinary chemicals Australia, State Departments of Primary is tightly regulated through Federal and Industries/Agriculture (SDPIs) and State Dairy state legislation administered by APVMA Food Authorities (SDFAs). in conjunction with state governments. Chemicals including pesticides must be Animals registered before they are supplied to Australia is recognised internationally farmers, a process involving a rigorous as being free of cattle diseases such as assessment of efficacy, safety, and   Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and BSE. AQIS the potential impacts to trade and the manages biosecurity on imported animals environment. An approved label details and plant materials at national level while instructions for use and withholding periods SDPIs are responsible authorities for the for milk and meat. management of biosecurity at state level. page 4 page 5
  • 5. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Farm Dairy farms in Australia are primarily Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies pasture-based with conserved fodders, Indicates secondary responsibility Influences FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  grains and prepared stock-foods used as FSANZ APVMA SDFAs SDPIs 1 EPAs  2 SDoH  3 AQIS  SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS supplementary feed. Feed Under the FSANZ Food Standards Code (FSC) Standard 4.2.4 all dairy farms Water are legally are required to develop and Agricultural chemicals implement a documented Food Safety Program (FSP). Core elements of the FSP Fertilisers include: Veterinary chemicals • Control of contaminants – physical, chemical and microbiological Animals • Dairy milking premises Premises and equipment • Hygienic milking • Water supply and quality Milking practices • Cleaning and sanitising Cleaning  • Traceability and records Farm • Personnel competency Milk storage Vendor declarations are required when The milking shed and holding yards are These programs are approved and Skills and knowledge accredited by SDFA before dairy farm animals are sold off farm or purchased from designed and constructed to minimise licences are issued. Approved auditors external sources. animal stress and injury and for the ease of Traceability cleaning. Effluent is disposed carefully to conduct regular audits. All antibiotics and most other veterinary minimise pollution of the environment and NOTES chemicals are only available by prescription 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  the farm water supplies. 2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm, transport, manufacture and distribution sectors  through registered veterinarians. Farmers     of the supply chain. must use veterinary medicines in accordance Milk Storage 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. with label directions, observe recommended Milk is quickly cooled after collection from withholding periods for milk and meat and the cow and before storage in a bulk milk All Australian dairy farms are required to keep records of all treatments. vat. FSC Standard 4.2.4 requires milk to have documented food safety programs (FSP). State Dairy Food Authorities Government controls diseases of regional be cooled and stored at temperatures that (SDFAs) approve the FSP before a dairy significance through a range of legislated prevent or minimise the growth of microbial farm licence is granted. Approved programmes under the Livestock Disease hazards in the milk. Current guidelines auditors conduct regular audits of the Control legislation. Welfare standards for require milk to be cooled to 5°C within 3½ farm FSP . animals are legislated by each State. hours from start of milking. All animals are individually identified from Trained personnel service the cooling To support farmers with the management of birth to death. Farmers actively monitor system and milk temperature is checked mastitis, reproduction and animal welfare, the health and well being of animals with at the time of collection. Cleaning and the Australian dairy industry has developed the assistance of registered veterinarians. sanitising procedures for cooling and and conducts numerous extension programs Vendor declarations are required for that address animal health and welfare storage equipment are documented and animals and stockfeed purchased from e.g. Countdown Downunder, Incalf and implemented in accordance with the external sources. farm’s FSP. Risks from agricultural chemicals in CowTime. Risks from agricultural and veterinary feed and water are minimised by the use Milk Harvesting Skilled managers and staff are required chemicals are minimised by ensuring that of chemicals registered by the APVMA with to manage potential food safety risks that only chemicals registered by Australian Skilled staff use modern machine milking farmers following directions for use and may arise from the milk production process. Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines techniques and practices to ensure that recommended withholding periods for milk Information from dairy companies on milk Authority (APVMA) are used on the farm. cows are milked hygienically with minimal and meat. The farmer records the frequency quality and feedback from audits of FSP Label instructions for use and withholding stress. The cows are usually milked twice a and duration of use of chemicals. Vendor assists farm managers to ensure the safety periods for milk and meat are followed. day. Colostrum is segregated from the main declarations are required for feed sourced of milk. The dairy industry supported by Records document the frequency and milk supply. from external sources. educational providers such as National duration of use. Milking equipment is cleaned and sanitised Centre for Dairy Education Australia Trained operators using clean and The health and welfare of the animals ready for the next milking using detergents develops and deliveries specialist programs sanitised equipment milk cows. The milk is is paramount to ensure optimal production. and sanitisers registered by the APVMA. to strengthen farmers’ skills. cooled promptly and stored until collection Although most dairy cattle are bred on the The quality of water used in the dairy is under temperatures to minimise the farm, all livestock must be individually The farm FSP requires comprehensive growth of microbial hazards. monitored to ensure it does not have the identified from birth to death to ensure records to be maintained. These include   potential to contaminate milk. lifetime traceability. In consultation with use of chemicals, animals treated, milk and registered veterinarians, farmers actively Trained technicians supply and maintain meat withhold periods, vendor declarations monitor and treat diseases as required. milking equipment. for incoming and outgoing feed and animals, Treated animals must be clearly identified to milk quality reports, audit results and action ensure segregation of unsuitable milk. taken if problems are identified. page 6 page 7
  • 6. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Transport Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies Indicates secondary responsibility Influences FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  FSANZ APVMA SDFAs SDPIs 1 EPAs  2 SDoH  3 AQIS  SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS Milk Traceability NOTES 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm, transport, manufacture and distribution sectors      of the supply chain. 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. Milk transport operators must have an In peak season, collection usually occurs approved Food Safety Program (FSP) daily. When production declines, milk and be licensed by the relevant State collections may reduce to a SDFA approved Dairy Food Authority (SDFA). frequency. The temperature and time of transport Prior to milk collection at the farm, tanker is managed to minimise potential food drivers sample milk for testing by the safety risks. company. Typical tests include fat, protein, somatic cell count, microbiological quality All milk transport operators must have a and antibiotic residues. The results of the documented Food Safety Program (FSP) tests are provided to the farmer and used approved by SDFAs. Core elements of the as a basis for payment. If an abnormal FSP include: Transport result, such as positive antibiotic residue • control of food safety hazards during or high somatic cell is detected, the farmer collection and transport from equipment, is promptly notified of the result and vehicles, containers and personnel appropriate action is taken. • product traceability • time and temperature controls • personnel skills and knowledge Prior to unloading at the factory, the manufacturer may check the milk for quality. Typical tests include antibiotic residue and temperature. If a positive residue result is detected, trace-back testing is performed on individual milk samples from each farm supplier so corrective action can be taken. The temperature of milk or product and time of transport is controlled to minimise potential hazards. Tankers are cleaned using Cleaning in Place (CIP) systems with approved chemicals and potable water. Visual inspections of the internal tanker surfaces and swabbing of food contact surfaces may be used to check the effectiveness of cleaning programmes. Information on the origin of and destination of milk supplies is recorded to ensure traceability from farm to manufacturer and from manufacturer to farm if required.   page 8 page 9
  • 7. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Manufacture Once delivered to the manufacturer, milk Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies is processed in modern and automated Indicates secondary responsibility Influences FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  factories using responsible environmental FSANZ 1 2 3 practices. The relevant SDFA licenses all APVMA SDFAs SDPIs EPAs  SDoH  AQIS  SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS dairy factories while factories manufacturing Milk product for export also require AQIS Ingredients registration. Documented HACCP based food safety Water plans and quality assurance programs Packaging material are developed to ensure that consumer needs and specifications, including food Equipment safety, are constantly met. The FSP must be Cleaning approved by SDFAs prior to the granting of a licence. Skilled staff The core elements of the FSP for Traceability manufacturing establishments include: NOTES • pathogen reduction technologies including 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  pasteurisation 2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm, transport, manufacture and distribution sectors      of the supply chain. • temperature controls 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. • processing • cleaning and sanitising All dairy manufacturers must have • storage an approved Food Safety Program • traceability through distribution (FSP) before licensing by State Dairy • post-pasteurisation hazard management Food Authorities (SDFAs) for domestic • raw material and ingredient management Standard operating procedures are used to for companies seeking to improve their production and for registration by AQIS for • traceability train staff and to provide ongoing guidance performance while maintaining compliance. export production. The HACCP technique • records and for the safe manufacture of products. Auditors approved by regulatory is used to assess and manage food safety • personnel competency Verification techniques used by dairy agencies including AQIS conduct external risks in the factory. Product specifications reflect compliance companies include: audits of the food safety and quality systems Product specifications reflect compliance with regulatory requirements within the Food • measurement of temperature, time and of factories. Follow-up audits are conducted Manufacture with customer requirements, regulatory Standards Code (FSC) and in the case of chemical composition if non-compliance is noted. requirements within the FSANZ Food • calibration of measuring and testing exports, the requirements of AQIS and the Australian and international customers may Standards Code (FSC) and in the case of equipment importing country. also audit all or part of a company’s food exports, the requirements of AQIS and the • monitoring of the factory environment for The dairy collection and transportation safety and quality assurance program. importing country. contaminants section of FSC Standard 4.2.4 covers food • final product testing An annual verification program to confirm All suppliers of ingredients, services and safety requirements for milk and bulk dairy • internal auditing of procedures the implementation of the FSC Standard packaging work with dairy companies to products transferred to other factories for 4.2.4 across the dairy industry has been ensure their materials and services meet Information such as product name, date of further processing. implemented by SDFAs and AQIS. In exacting requirements, especially with production, production plant and packing regard to the traceability of ingredients All suppliers of ingredients, services addition, SDFAs and other regulatory equipment is used to identify different and materials. and packaging work with dairy companies agencies monitor the quality of milk and product batches. Additional information to ensure their materials and services meet dairy products. The Australian Milk Residue All dairy manufacturers have Product including nutritional and use by information exacting requirements, especially with regard Analysis (AMRA) Survey is an important part Recall systems. is required for labels of goods sold within to the traceability of materials. of industry’s verification process (refer to Australia and in overseas markets. Auditors approved by regulatory agencies Further Information for more information on Potable quality water is used in processing Under the FSC, all manufacturers are the AMRA Survey). and AQIS audit all FSP. of milk and dairy products and for cleaning required to have a Product Recall system of surfaces in direct contact with product. Industry guidelines for food safety post in place detailing the measures to be taken farmgate have been developed through Rigorous standards exist for the design in the unlikely event of a product recall. collaboration of SDFAs and AQIS under the and construction of factories in order to The system is based on the FSANZ Food Australian New Zealand Dairy Authorities minimise cross-contamination of the final Industry Recall Protocol. Committee (ANZDAC) and industry working product from raw materials and the external Manufacturers regularly check their ability to groups. Examples include Guidelines for environment. trace the movement of product and raw Food Safety Validation and Verification of Storage and processing equipment materials forward through the production Heat Treatment and Processing Equipment. is constructed to meet manufacturing process and backwards through the supply Dairy manufacturers actively work with   requirements and to ensure food contact chain. State Environmental Protection agencies to surfaces are clean and hygienic. Training and development of staff in all reduce the impact of dairy processing on the Approved chemicals are used in cleaning areas of food safety, quality, environment and environment. and sanitising processing equipment. occupational health and safety is imperative page 10 page 11
  • 8. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Distribution Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies Indicates secondary responsibility Influences FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  FSANZ APVMA SDFAs SDPIs 1 EPAs  2 SDoH  3 AQIS  SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS Product Traceability NOTES 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm, transport, manufacture and distribution sectors      of the supply chain. 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. In addition to the FSP, the warehouse Containers destined for export are must have a Product Recall system sealed and appropriate documentation is based upon the FSANZ Food Industry completed prior to shipping. Companies Recall Protocol. use the AQIS ExDoc electronic system for certification of dairy exports. Prior to loading of product, warehouse staff check the cleanliness of the interior of Auditors approved by regulatory transport vehicles and shipping containers. agencies including AQIS conduct audits Where required, temperature of the product of the warehouse FSP. Additional follow-up is checked at loading and monitored audits are conducted if non-compliance is throughout the distribution chain. noted. Transporters of bulk product between dairy Australian and international customers manufacturing plants intended for further also conduct audits on all or part of a processing are required to have a FSP warehouse’s quality assurance programme. conforming to the requirements of FSC Standard 4.2.4. Warehouses are usually licensed by State Dairy Food Authorities (SDFAs) for product destined for the domestic market and require registration by AQIS for storage of export product. For traceability purposes, records are maintained of incoming and outgoing product including damaged goods. All warehouses have a Product Recall Distribution system based upon the FSANZ Product Recall Protocol. Prior to despatch to customers, finished product is stored in warehouses operated by the dairy company or by external contractors. The effective implementation of a Food Safety Program (FSP) is required for all warehouses that are licensed by SDFAs. Warehouses used for export product need to be registered by AQIS. The FSP must address the prevention or control of potential hazards to food safety, as well as identification and thus traceability of product. page 12 page 13
  • 9. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Markets Indicates primary responsibility Domestic market Export market  Partner agencies Indicates secondary responsibility Influences FederaI Influences  State Government Influences  FSANZ APVMA SDFAs SDPIs EPAs1 SDoH2 AQIS 3 SDFAs SDPIs AHA NLIS Product Traceability NOTES 1. In some regions, the regional Catchment Management authority has responsibility for regulation of effluent and run off.  2. State Health Departments have agreed arrangements with State Dairy Food Authorities for implementation of regulation for the farm, transport, manufacture and distribution sectors      of the supply chain. 3. AQIS approves State Dairy Food Authorities as authorised agencies for export regulations. Australian dairy manufacturers work closely with domestic and international customers to ensure safe and consistent quality dairy products is supplied year around. FSANZ is the key authority for development of national food standards The relationship between Australian Under the FSC, all manufacturers, Ongoing discussions occur between AQIS, and codes for practice for products dairy companies and their domestic and wholesalers, distributors and importers federal and state regulators as well as destined for the domestic market and international markets has been developed of food are required to have in place a industry to ensure maximum harmonisation imported dairy products. State Health over years through close communication written recall plan. The recall plan should be of export and domestic requirements. Departments implement the standards at with customers and consistent delivery of modelled upon the FSANZ Product Recall Industry and regulators have established a state level. safe quality dairy products. Protocol 2008. valuable co-regulatory approach. AQIS plays an important role in Retail or ingredient customers within Under Australia’s export legislation and The requirement of international and interpreting and negotiating the market Australia and overseas apply rigorous buying importing country requirements AQIS domestic customers is consistent - safe and access requirements of importing specifications. Typical buying specifications is the competent authority for export high-quality product delivered with reliability. countries. The regulatory framework include product specification, transport inspection and certification. Export This requires an integrated approach by the for dairy products sold within Australia conditions and the buyers’ expectations regulations covers many requirements Australian dairy industry with the support of and overseas is harmonised wherever of the quality assurance approach. Many including the importing country’s food regulators to food safety and quality across possible. customers audit their suppliers on a regular safety requirements, product standards, the supply chain from farm to customer. Federal and state government agencies basis. biosecurity, quarantine standards and work closely with industry to provide safe traceability. Competent authorities within Federal dairy products for both Australian and and State regulatory agencies underpin international customers. the national approach to food safety and quality. Standards and Codes developed by international agencies such as Codex Alimentarius Commission and World Trade Organisation provide guidance to the Australian dairy food regulatory framework. The FSANZ Food Standard Code (FSC) covers all food products either manufactured within Australia or imported. The FSC includes requirements for: • General Food Standards including Markets  Labelling and other required information Substances added to foods  Contaminants and Residues including  MRLs Foods requiring Pre-Market Clearance  Microbiological and Processing  Requirements • Product Standards • Food Safety Standards • Primary Production and Processing Standards page 14 page 15
  • 10. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Agencies at a glance Acronym Organisation Function Website Federal Government FSANZ Food Standards Australia New Zealand Sets food standards for sale of foods within Australia and New Zealand AQIS Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service Negotiates with importing countries re market access requirements Administers inspection and certification of exported dairy products Inspects imported food products APVMA Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines  Administers the national scheme for the assessment, approval, registration Authority of agricultural and veterinary chemicals National industry groups AHA Animal Health Australia Coordinates national animal health programs ANZDAC Australian New Zealand Dairy Authorities  Monitors industry performance in food safety and identifies potential risks.  Committee Manages the annual Australian Milk Residue (AMRA) Survey  DA Dairy Australia Develops and delivers services to support the dairy industry’s farm production, manufacture and export capabilities NLIS National Livestock Identification System Australia’s system for livestock identification and traceability State Government Regulators State Dairy Food Authorities SDFAs Administers dairy food safety in each state DFSV Dairy Food Safety Victoria NSW Food Authority Safe Food Queensland TDIA Tasmanian Dairy Industry Authority Dairy Authority of South Australia WA Department of Health Food Unit State Departments of Primary Industries/ SDPIs Enforces regulations regarding livestock disease, livestock identification,  Agriculture animal welfare, use of agriculture and veterinary chemicals.  Advise and assist dairy farmers DPIV Department of Primary Industries Victoria DPIW Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment Tasmania PIRSA Department of Primary Industry and Resources SA DPI NSW NSW Department of Primary Industries DPI QLD Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries Department of Agriculture and Food WA Environmental Protection Authorities EPAs Develop policy planning and regulation for the environment and sustainable industries. Monitor and enforce regulations Agencies Veterinary Practitioners Registration Boards Registration of veterinarians to practice page 16 page 17
  • 11. DAIRY FOOD SAFETY the Australian approach Further Information INFO Animal Heath Farmer to Manufacturer Communication relevant factors, are taken into consideration. and SDFAs have implemented a national Supporting Programs Safety Victoria, food safety programs have AQIS is responsible for biosecurity of If farmers have concerns about the quality In addition to random sampling, targeted verification program to provide market A range of programs from government/ also been developed for the manufacturing livestock imported into Australia. The Animal of milk, they will contact the company to sampling is conducted when new residue assurance and to monitor compliance with industry agencies supports the dairy industry sector. Health Committee (AHC) develops national discuss the concerns. The company will risks are identified, or to collect data on FSC Standard 4.2.4. food safety regulatory approach. Some There are many supporting programs approaches to the prevention and control of arrange for an investigation to take place and potential emerging residue risks. All companies have programs for the regular of these programs include the National underpinning dairy food safety. The programs disease in the livestock industry. The national for testing to be conducted before the milk is The European Union (EU) residue monitoring auditing of their quality management systems Livestock Identification System (NLIS) listed above provide examples of programs approaches are implemented by State cleared as suitable for collection. directives are used to provide a framework and the QA programs of suppliers including and Feedsafe and Foddercare programs but this is not an exhaustive list. Departments of Primary Industries/Agriculture The manufacturer provides fast feedback to for the Survey. farmers. Many companies including those operating in the fodder industries. All dairy Emerging Food Safety issues (SDPI) in conjunction with Animal Health farmers on quality tests conducted by the Samples for the Survey are taken from with ISO certification use third party auditors farmers are accredited under the beef Australia. for this role. industries food safety program (Livestock The Australian dairy industry’s Issues manufacturer. If urgent corrective action is bulk milk farm pick-up tankers. State dairy Management Group (IMG) is a network On farms, the health of animals is monitored required, electronic communication is used authorities are responsible for investigating Dairy company QA programs are frequently Production Assurance – LPA). This programs covers the food safety elements of on farm of interested industry and government closely. Sick animals are segregated from the or the farmer contacted personally. Company any samples with a positive antimicrobial audited by major customers from Australia stakeholders coordinated by Dairy Australia. main herd. Registered veterinarians diagnose field service officers may work with the farmer or aflatoxin test result, or pesticide and and overseas. These audits may include the meat production. The objective is to provide a comprehensive and advise on appropriate treatment. The to identify suitable corrective action. anthelmintic residues detected at 50% or farm sector as well as manufacturing, storage National and regional extension programs and industry-wide approach to address veterinarian is required to advise the SDPIs if Monitoring and Surveillance Programs greater than the Maximum Residue Limits and distribution. Regulators from several have been developed by the dairy industry to issues that may affect the reputation and a notifiable disease is diagnosed. (MRLs). Similarly, residues of environmental importing countries conduct compliance support the farm sector. Some areas covered future viability of the Australian dairy industry. Australian Milk Residue Analysis (AMRA) by these programs include: Control of Pathogens contaminants are investigated when detected audits across the Australian dairy supply Survey The Australian dairy industry works in a co- at 50% or greater than the maximum chain. • mastitis prevention and treatment - Farm level The AMRA Survey plays an important role regulatory partnership approach to identify allowable level. All results are reported Traceability of Product Across the Supply Countdown Downunder Food Safety Programs (FSPs) include in the Australian dairy industry by gathering against the limits or levels established by any emerging food safety issues that may Chain • animal fertility - Incalf impact on dairy product safety. This requires measures to ensure the health of milking and compiling information on the chemical FSANZ and published in the Food Standards animals. Sick animals are separated from the residue status of Australian milk. This helps Code. Comprehensive records are maintained • use of grains as supplementary feed - strong links with a wide range of Australian herd during treatment. Cows with mastitis are to verify that the quality assurance (QA) across all sectors of the supply chain from Grains2Milk and international organisations such as Australian and international farm to distributor to ensure traceability of FSANZ, APVMA, CSIRO, Codex Alimentarius clearly identified when treated and the milk measures in place are managing potential • increasing efficiency of milk harvesting - requirements for MRLs animals, feed, milk, ingredients and products. Commission, World Animal Health is withheld from the farm bulk milk. Water food safety risks. Cowtime supplies are monitored to ensure they are The FSANZ Food Standards Code considers Many of the records are stored electronically. Organisation (OIE) and the International Dairy The purpose of the AMRA Survey is to • handling of animals to minimise stress and clean and will not spread disease. Milking the MRLs recommended by Codex Many dairy companies conduct regular Federation (IDF). This ensures the Australian provide a credible, independent, national injury equipment is cleaned and sanitised after Alimentarius Commission when establishing checks on product traceability through their industry is aware of potential issues in other monitoring system for potential agricultural each milking. or reviewing MRLs. supply chain. These checks are important • Australian Breeding Values (ABV) genetic countries and actions being taken by various and veterinary chemical residues, and Product Monitoring measures to ensure companies can quickly selection of bulls for ease of calving, agencies and scientific researchers to Manufacturer level environmental contaminants in Australian identify, hold from sale and if required recall fertility, mastitis resistance and survivability, investigate measures to correct or manage FSC Standard 4.2.4 requires milk to be heat bovine milk. The program also provides an All manufacturers conduct extensive product from customers within Australia and the issue. treated to the equivalent of 72oC for 15 assurance that the dairy product export analytical programs to provide evidence to • design of milking sheds, laneways and requirements of AQIS are being met. customers their buying specifications have overseas. stockyards Proactive and reactive measures are seconds or more if the milk solids content been achieved. The FSC Standard 4.2.4 for dairy production undertaken to ensure industry risk is greater than normal milk. Milk must be Dairy Food Safety Victoria (DFSV), in • environmental issues – DairySAT, and processing requires the farm, transport management plans remain appropriate for cooled after the heat treatment to minimise cooperation with Dairy Australia and the SDFAs conduct product monitoring programs DairyGains and manufacturing sectors to have systems the risk and do provide safe food. Proactive the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms. Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service and pathogen prevention programs. State The dairy industry directly supports the in place to ensure traceability of key measures include marketing research Cheese can be made from milk with a lower (AQIS), currently coordinates the Survey Heath departments may also include dairy various State Governments’ dairy extension components. and commissioning specific research as heat treatment but must be held for 90 days on behalf of the Australia New Zealand products in their food quality monitoring activities which focus mainly on business, appropriate to detect any emerging food or more. Dairy Authorities’ Standards Committee programs. Audits by regulatory agencies and customers productivity and environmental aspects of safety issues) while reactive measures (ANZDASC) and the Australian dairy industry. Current Industry Audit Requirements – focus on traceability of product and major dairy farming. Regulators and industry have prepared include communication strategies to respond The Survey is risk-based in its design, Compliance Checks ingredients. The FSANZ Food Recall Protocol to potential food safety issues across the guidelines for the validation and verification of Dairy Australia has established the National and reflective of agricultural practices in emphasises the need for complete records industry and to convey accurate information heat treatment equipment and processes. Auditors approved by regulatory agencies Centre for Dairy Education Australia (NCDEA) the Australian dairy industry. Sampling is of products, ingredients, packaging and to customers and importing countries. including AQIS conduct regular audits of to develop and deliver vocational education predominantly random selection, however manufacturing to enable effective and rapid Regular reviews of potential risks and the food safety programs through the dairy and training for all sectors of the dairy historical patterns of agricultural chemical recall of product if a food safety issue is measures in place to manage identified risks food supply chain. The audit frequency may industry. In conjunction with Dairy Food and veterinary drug usage, as well as other identified. are conducted. be based upon past performance. AQIS page 18 page 19
  • 12. Darwin Cairns Brisbane Camberra Sydney Perth Adelaide Melbourne Indicates major dairy’s regions Hobart For more information: Dairy Australia ABN 60 105 227 987 Level 5, IBM Centre 60 City Road, Southbank Vic 3006 Australia T + 61 3 9694 3777 F + 61 3 9694 3701