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  • 1.
    • CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN AUSTRALIA
  • 2.
    • INTRODUCTION
    • Climate Change  significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences.
    • The average weather may include  average temperature, precipitation and wind patterns.
    • In environmental policy, refers to changes in modern climate.
    • 21st century are dependent of future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols.
    • SRES  global average warming projections range from 1.4 to 5.8 ºC (by 2100 to 1990)
    • AUSTRALIA
      • - Highest emitter of greenhouse gases per capita in the developed world
      • (coal  releases CO 2 )
      • - It is one of the countries most at risk from climate change (Stern report)
    • Causes : agriculture sector and long coastline.
    • For this the adaptation is essential to cope with unavoidable climate changes (by Australians for Australians in each local situation)
  • 3.
    • SCENARIOS FOR THE AUSTRALIAN REGION
    • The Australian region has varied climates and ecosystems (deserts, rangelands, rainforests, coral reefs and alpine areas)
    • Climate  strongly influenced by the surrounding oceans.
    • - Changes in the tropical cyclones could cause variations in return periods locally.
    • - Annual average temperatures  Rise 1.6ºC by 2030, and 5ºC by 2070, relative to 1990. (due to potential evaporation and heatwaves, and fewer frosts)
    • - In the northern and eastern Australia could show an variations in:
        • Rainfall at a given locality
        • Increases in potential evaporation
        • Droughts more severe
        • Rise sea level
        • Higher the stabilised carbon dioxide concentrations, the greater would be the impacts and risks, especially beyond 2100.
  • 4.
    • EFFECTS
    • Australia is vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation projected for the next 50 to 100 years because:
    • - extensive arid and semi-arid areas  SE & SW droughts
    • - relatively high rainfall variability from year to year
    • - existing pressures on water supply in many areas
    • - high fire risk
    • - high concentration of population in coastal areas  Erosion & Inundation 8- 88 cm
    • - economy strongly dependent on world commodity prices
  • 5. Fig.1. Changes of average annual warming and rainfall.
  • 6. - tourism dependent on the health of fragile ecosystems  invasion by exotic animal and plant species introduced. SW & Western Australia  Endangered species or extinct Great Barrier Reef  Bleaching & substantial losses of species associated Lord Howe Island  extinction ( reef-fringed lagoon 94 spp, 490 fish species) Inland waters  80% loss of freshwater wetlands/floods/rising salinity
  • 7. Fig.2. Change influences recruitment of some fish species and the incidence of toxic algal blooms.
  • 8. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NEW SOUTH WALES STATE Fig.3. Australian States
  • 9. Tabla.1. Future New South Wales scenarios Source : Future Climate Change in Australia- CSIRO 2002 .
  • 10.
    • Temperature
    • - Become warmer, with more hot days and fewer cold nights
    • Water
    • - Droughts will become more frequent and more severe  greater fire risk
    • - Water resources will be further stressed due to projected growth in demand and climate-driven changes in supply for irrigation, cities, industry and environmental flows.
    • National Parks
    • - Significant impact on snow cover in the Snowy Mountains  34% - 97% reduction by 2050 in the areas that have more than 60 days snow cover.
    • - The projected increased incidence of bushfires and susceptibility of eucalyptus trees to climate change will threaten biodiversity in the Blue Mountains.
    • Natural Disasters
    • - Coastal erosion  Byron Bay, Wamberal and Collaroy/ Narrabeen
    • - Increased storm surges and sea level
    • - Tropical Cyclones may track further south and hit the northern NSW coast.
  • 11.
    • MEMBERS OF THE GROUP:
    • - Leticia Calvo Cabrerizo
    • - Ana Sotillos Núñez