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27 september 2010- 2 copernicus institute

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  • This is influenced by factors such as the crop selection, farming techniques, agricultural yields and the development of new technologies
  • Increase agricultural knowledge, food crop area, or income
  • Try to stimulate the local use of Jatropha oil (for cooking and lighting), with sufficient technical know-how
  • Avoid regions with high land pressureCheck land pressure before starting to promote Jatropha in a village
    Land may be unoccupied, but not unused
  • Transcript

    • 1. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Jatropha Frame of Reference and Gaps Ir. Janske van Eijck 27th September 2010, Moshi Tanzania
    • 2. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Content • Project partners • Goal of the report • Agronomic aspects • Ecological aspects • Social aspects • Economic aspects • Questions/discussion
    • 3. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Report Jatropha Assessment Agronomic, Social, Economic and Technical aspects Facts from literature Ir. Janske van Eijck Dr. Edward Smeets Dr. Ir. Raymond Jongschaap Dr. Henny Romijn Dr. Ir. Annelies Balkema Commissioned by Agentschap NL in the framework of the Netherlands Program Sustainable Biomass
    • 4. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Goal & Method • To check current literature on facts, including background details on data sources, thereby identifying knowledge gaps. Reviewed: • 128 studies on Socio-Economic and Ecologic aspects • around 200 studies on agronomy aspects Scored studies on data source [scientific artile, NGO report, research institute, thesis etc.], region and aspects
    • 5. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Nature of publication Social issues Ecological Economic Study Year Region Country reportGovernmentissued Journal ThesisMSc ThesisPhD reportFAO,EU,ICRAF(Research) reportNGO Industry Agronomy (local)Foodsecurity Localprosperity(ruralandsocialdevelopment Labour/workingconditions(human/labourrights) Landownership,landrights Gender GHG,LCA Landuseandcarbonstock Energybalance Biodiversity Economicfeasibility Marketprospects businessmodels Legalaspects Policyissues Technicalissues Smallholder Largescaleplantation 1 IFAD/FAO 2010 2010 SSA ? ? ? 2 (Schut et al. 2010b) 2010 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 (Bos et al. 2010) 2010 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? ? 4 (Schut et al. 2010a) 2010 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 (Habib-Mintz 2010) 2010 SSA Tanzania ? ? ? ? ? ? 6 (Moers 2010) 2010 LA Honduras ? ? ? ? 7 (FAO 2010) 2010 SSA Tanzania ? ? 8 (Behera et al. 2010) 2010 A India ? ? 9 (Prueksakorn et al. 2010) 2010 A Thailand ? ? 10 (Arvidsson et al. 2010) 2010 A India, Germany ? ? 11 (Gmünder et al. 2010) 2010 A India ? ? ? 12 (Wiskerke et al. 2010) 2010 SSA Tanzania ? ? 13 (Sheng Goh and Teong Lee 2010) 2010 A South East Asia ? ? 14 (Achten et al. 2010b) 2010 all ? ? ? ? 15 (Ariza-Montobbio and Lele 2010) 2010 A India ? ? ? ? ? 16 (Achten et al. 2010a) 2010 all ? ? 17 (Froger et al. 2010) 2010 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? 18 (van Eijck et al. 2010) 2010 SSA EA ? ? 19 (Finco and Doppler 2010) 2010 LA Brazil ? ? ? ? 20 (Salfrais 2010) 2010 SSA Mali ? ? ? ? 21 (Hooijkaas 2010) 2010 SSA Tanzania ? ? ? 22 (Nygaard 2010) MFP 2010 SSA Mali ? ? ? 23 (Trabucco et al. 2010) 2010 LA, EA ? ? 24 (Li et al. 2010a) 2010 all ? 25 (Wahl et al. 2009) 2009 SSA Tanzania ? ? ? ? 26 (Estrin 2009) 2009 A India ? ? ? ? 27 (Mulugetta 2009) 2009 SSA ? ? 28 (Rossi 2009) 2009 SSA Tanzania ? ? 29 (FACT foundation 2009) 2009 all ? ? ? 30 (Janssen 2009) 2009 n.a. ? ? 31 (Mujeyi 2009) 2009/7 SSA Zimbabwe ? ? ? 32 (Nielsen and de Jongh 2009) 2009 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? ? ? 33 (Ariza-Montobbio 2009) 2009 A India ? ? ? 34 (Ribeiro and Matavel 2009) 2009 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? ? 35 (Jatropha Alliance 2009) 2009 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? 36 (van Eijck 2009) 2009 SSA Tanzania ? ? ? ? ? 37 (Practical Action Consulting 2009) 2009 all Cambodia, India, Guatemala, Thailand? ? ? 38 (Arndt et al. 2009) 2009 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? 39 (Bijman et al. 2009) 2009 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? 40 (Peters 2009) 2009 SSA Mozambique ? ? ? ? ? ? 41 (GTZ 2009) 2009 SSA Kenya ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 42 (Puente-Rodríguez 2009) 2009 LA Honduras ? ? ? ? 43 (Bindraban et al. 2009) 2009 all ? ? ? 44 (Moraa et al. 2009) 2009 SSA Kenya ? ? ?
    • 6. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Results Socio-economic and ecological aspects • Data source – 59 journal articles – 31 research institute reports (FAO, ICRAF,..) – 20 MSc./PhD theses • Regional focus – 61 Sub Saharan Africa – 27 Asia – 4 Latin America
    • 7. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Agronomy • …there still is little experience with jatropha in more intensive oil seed production systems • …still is a wild species, with no registered varieties for selected traits that are optimized for specific growth conditions and production systems • …is a pan-tropical species occurring in many different environments • …is a perennial species, so that agronomy measures do not directly provide results in the short term and effects on the long term are not known at all Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 8. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Yield 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Altitude (m) Reportedproductivity(gtree-1 ) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Reportedproductivity(kgha-1 ) Jongschaap 2009, South Africa •1,286 kg/ha (4.5x3 m, 741 trees/ha) •489 liter/ha Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 9. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Agronomy • Use local seeds, or test seeds from foreign origin before using them at production system scale • Use seeds from mature (yellow) fruits that are stored as shortly as possible • Select germination and seedling period carefully to assure transplanting in the wet season • In poor soil media, supplements and rhizobacteria increase germination rate and seedling vigour Tips: Germination Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 10. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Agronomy Tips: Direct seeding, transplanting seedlings and cuttings • Preferred system for nurseries of 2-3 months • Seedlings should be raised in spacious (>2 L) containers to prevent reduction in root development • Direct seeding only under good soil moisture and high temperature conditions; use 2-4 seeds per planting hole, and thin to 1 tree per hole after establishment Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 11. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Plant spacing Jatropha single trees in South Africa and in Indonesia Jatropha intercropping with onions and a jatropha nursery Jatropha hedges in Guatemala and Mali Jatropha monoculture in Guatemala and in China Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 12. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation pruning Tips for pruning • Formative Pruning (FP) can be carried out when transplanted seedlings reach 30-60 cm height to induce branching • Additional FP can be carried out at the end of the 1st growing season and later seasons to arrive at a desired 30- 35 branches at 1.20 meter height • Maintenance Pruning should be performed when the trees shed leaves and enter the dormancy period at the end of the growing season. MP should prune back maximally to the desired height of 1.20 m observed at the start of the growing season Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 13. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Socio-economic aspects Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 14. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Food security Availability of food relates to agricultural production of food crops. Access to food primarily refers people’s ability to afford and overcome barriers such as remoteness and social marginalization. Food prices and income level are the main factors related to access. Stability of food refers to events that may lead to populations losing access to food such as conflict, loss of resources, market failure, environmental degradation and disasters. Utilization of food refers to people’s ability to absorb the nutrients within the food. •Plantation model •Smallholder model Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 15. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Food security Study Positive Neutral Negative Source of data (FAO 2010) X Country data Tz (Practical Action Consulting 2009) X 15 case studies (Puente-Rodríguez 2009) X Honduras (Gordon-Maclean et al. 2008) X Tanzania (van Eijck 2009) X (Mitchell 2008) X 74 Jatropha farmers Tz (Loos 2008) X 248 households in Tz (Ariza-Montobbio 2009) (Ariza- Montobbio and Lele 2010) X 49 plots, India (Altenburg et al. 2009) X X 13 case studies India (Finco and Doppler 2010) X 17 Jatropha farmers in Brazil Study Positive Neutral Negative Source of data (Gordon-Maclean et al. 2008) X (Schut et al. 2010b) X (Peters 2009) X •Plantation •Smallholder Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 16. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Food security Tips: To increase food security  Don’t convert (or promote to convert) food crops into Jatropha  Promote agricultural knowledge, by e.g. supporting a school vegetable garden or other extension services  Promote to plant Jatropha as an additional crop for farmers  Focus on land abundant regions, and marginal and degraded lands  Create favourable working hours to enable workers to keep working on their fields  Increase the income of the local population by paying sufficient high wages Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 17. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Local prosperity • Poverty (purchasing power) • Local employment • Local economy • Skills • Attitude (Domestic) use of Jatropha products Production of Jatropha seeds and oil Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 18. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Tips: To increase local prosperity Outgrower Avoid large shares of profits paid to middlemen by transparency and/or fixed prices The performance of small farmers can be improved by: compensating good performing farmers for assisting other farmers in their area offer the sowing of intercrops between the Jatropha rows allow technical advisors to give more time to small farmers (reduced amount of land) increase coordination with other institutions that also give technical assistance or credit Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 19. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Local prosperity Tips: To increase local prosperity Plantation •Pay higher wages than minimum wage Try to minimize import, purchase equipment and materials as much local or in the country as possible Contribute to infrastructure developments Provide training and education to employees to improve capacity building, higher skilled jobs for local population create more local prosperity. Think of an exit strategy in advance, to avoid problems with trust of the local population Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 20. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Labour conditions Tips: To improve working and labour conditions Do not make a distinction between permanent staff and casual labourers. Avoid direct contact with Jatropha oil until research has excluded harmful skin impacts Monitor management plans, incl recordkeeping of accidents, supply of sufficient amount of safety gear etc. Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 21. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Land issues Tips: To minimize impacts on land availability and land access Be aware of customary land laws and informal processes Be very transparent in land acquisitions processes, use an external mediator to guide the process Involve communities in the decision making process Make promises tangible in written letters, with signatures of leaders and other witnesses, this helps to reduce miscommunications Look at alternative business models where the community is a business partner and land rights do not have to be transferred. Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 22. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Gender issues Tips: To address gender related issues Create middle and high skilled jobs for women (not only low skilled) Create suitable working hours (e.g. until 15:00) so women can tend their plots after working hours The availability of Jatropha oil for energy services (cooking, lighting, milling etc.) reduces women’s household tasks (also see Section ) Consult vulnerable groups to determine their access to land. Involve women’s associations in Jatropha cultivation Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 23. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation GHG Tips for practitioners: Be aware of land use changes and the initial carbon debt created, this can be a serious threat to the CO2 balance of your project! Be aware of the trade-off for fertiliser use (improved yield but also increase in environmental impacts) Be aware of the energy content of the by-products and the large energy use in transesterfication, consider local use of by products and the use pure plant oil instead of biodiesel use overseas. Please note that none of the data referred to in this sections is UNFCC approved. Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 24. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Biodiversity Tips: To minimize impacts on biodiversity Perform a baseline study and/or EIA (Environmental Impact Analysis) Do not convert high biodiversity areas to Jatropha Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 25. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Economic feasibility Suggestions/tips for practitioners: •For the time being, Jatropha cultivation is best undertaken as a hedge crop in reasonably fertile conditions, where it will not compete substantially with alternative uses of required resources. •Currently, Jatropha should be promoted as a supplementary income opportunity, not as an alternative cash crop. •Investors in large monoplantations and intercropping schemes should be aware of high failure risks on account of low profitability (depending on e.g. land prizes). Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 26. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Economic feasibility Suggestions/tips for practitioners: •From the profitability point of view, projects should emphasize SVO applications rather than the production of biodiesel •Projects should attempt to develop productive uses for Jatropha by-products. Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 27. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Knowledge gaps Aspect Literature Smallholder Plantation Agronomy Yields √ √ Germination √ Propagation √ Food security √ Food availability √ √ Food access √ √ √ Food stability Food utilization Local prosperity √ Local usage √ Local employment √ Local economy √ Skills √ √ Attitude √ √ √ Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 28. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Knowledge gaps Aspect Literature Smallholder Plantation Labour working conditions √ √ √ Wages and other benefits √ √ Child labour √ Discrimination Safety √ Freedom of trade union org. Education √ Land rights √ land availability √ √ Land access √ √ √ Gender √ Employment √ √ √ Access to energy √ √ Land availability √ √ Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 29. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation Knowledge gaps Aspect Literature Smallholder Plantation LCA √ Energy content √ Land use changes √ Use of byproducts (energy b) √ Transesterification √ √ Transport √ √ Biodiversity √ Previous land use √ √ Intensity of production Economic feasibility √ Labour requirement √ √ yield √ √ Use of seedcake as fuel or fer. √ Market prospects √ Organisational √ Business models √ √ √ Policy √ Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
    • 30. Copernicus Institute Research Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation End • Questions / discussion J.A.J.vanEijck@uu.nl