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27 september 2010- 2 copernicus institute






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  • This is influenced by factors such as the crop selection, farming techniques, agricultural yields and the development of new technologies
  • Increase agricultural knowledge, food crop area, or income
  • Try to stimulate the local use of Jatropha oil (for cooking and lighting), with sufficient technical know-how
  • Avoid regions with high land pressureCheck land pressure before starting to promote Jatropha in a village Land may be unoccupied, but not unused

27 september 2010- 2 copernicus institute Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Jatropha Frame of Reference and Gaps Ir. Janske van Eijck 27 th September 2010, Moshi Tanzania
  • 2. Content
    • Project partners
    • Goal of the report
    • Agronomic aspects
    • Ecological aspects
    • Social aspects
    • Economic aspects
    • Questions/discussion
  • 3. Report
    • Jatropha Assessment
    • Agronomic, Social, Economic and Technical aspects
    • Facts from literature
    Ir. Janske van Eijck Dr. Edward Smeets Dr. Ir. Raymond Jongschaap Dr. Henny Romijn Dr. Ir. Annelies Balkema Commissioned by Agentschap NL in the framework of the Netherlands Program Sustainable Biomass
  • 4. Goal & Method
    • To check current literature on facts, including background details on data sources, thereby identifying knowledge gaps.
    • Reviewed:
    • 128 studies on Socio-Economic and Ecologic aspects
    • around 200 studies on agronomy aspects
    Scored studies on data source [scientific artile, NGO report, research institute, thesis etc.], region and aspects
  • 5.  
  • 6. Results
    • Socio-economic and ecological aspects
    • Data source
      • 59 journal articles
      • 31 research institute reports (FAO, ICRAF,..)
      • 20 MSc./PhD theses
    • Regional focus
      • 61 Sub Saharan Africa
      • 27 Asia
      • 4 Latin America
  • 7. Agronomy
    • … there still is little experience with jatropha in more intensive oil seed production systems
    • … still is a wild species, with no registered varieties for selected traits that are optimized for specific growth conditions and production systems
    • … is a pan-tropical species occurring in many different environments
    • … is a perennial species, so that agronomy measures do not directly provide results in the short term and effects on the long term are not known at all
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 8. Yield
    • Jongschaap 2009, South Africa
    • 1,286 kg/ha (4.5x3 m, 741 trees/ha)
    • 489 liter/ha
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 9. Agronomy
    • Use local seeds, or test seeds from foreign origin before using them at production system scale
    • Use seeds from mature (yellow) fruits that are stored as shortly as possible
    • Select germination and seedling period carefully to assure transplanting in the wet season
    • In poor soil media, supplements and rhizobacteria increase germination rate and seedling vigour
    Tips: Germination Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 10. Agronomy
    • Tips: Direct seeding, transplanting seedlings and cuttings
    • Preferred system for nurseries of 2-3 months
    • Seedlings should be raised in spacious (>2 L) containers to prevent reduction in root development
    • Direct seeding only under good soil moisture and high temperature conditions; use 2-4 seeds per planting hole, and thin to 1 tree per hole after establishment
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 11. Plant spacing Jatropha single trees in South Africa and in Indonesia Jatropha intercropping with onions and a jatropha nursery Jatropha hedges in Guatemala and Mali Jatropha monoculture in Guatemala and in China Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 12. pruning
    • Tips for pruning
    • Formative Pruning (FP) can be carried out when transplanted seedlings reach 30-60 cm height to induce branching
    • Additional FP can be carried out at the end of the 1st growing season and later seasons to arrive at a desired 30-35 branches at 1.20 meter height
    • Maintenance Pruning should be performed when the trees shed leaves and enter the dormancy period at the end of the growing season. MP should prune back maximally to the desired height of 1.20 m observed at the start of the growing season
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 13. Socio-economic aspects Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 14. Food security
    • Plantation model
    • Smallholder model
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps Availability of food relates to agricultural production of food crops. Access to food primarily refers people’s ability to afford and overcome barriers such as remoteness and social marginalization. Food prices and income level are the main factors related to access. Stability of food refers to events that may lead to populations losing access to food such as conflict, loss of resources, market failure, environmental degradation and disasters. Utilization of food refers to people’s ability to absorb the nutrients within the food.
  • 15. Food security
    • Plantation
    • Smallholder
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 16. Food security
    • Tips: To increase food security
    • Don’t convert (or promote to convert) food crops into Jatropha
    • Promote agricultural knowledge, by e.g. supporting a school vegetable garden or other extension services
    • Promote to plant Jatropha as an additional crop for farmers
    • Focus on land abundant regions, and marginal and degraded lands
    • Create favourable working hours to enable workers to keep working on their fields
    • Increase the income of the local population by paying sufficient high wages
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 17. Local prosperity
    • Poverty (purchasing power)
    • Local employment
    • Local economy
    • Skills
    • Attitude
    (Domestic) use of Jatropha products Production of Jatropha seeds and oil Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 18.
    • Tips: To increase local prosperity
      • Outgrower
    • Avoid large shares of profits paid to middlemen by transparency and/or fixed prices
    • The performance of small farmers can be improved by:
    • compensating good performing farmers for assisting other farmers in their area
    • offer the sowing of intercrops between the Jatropha rows
    • allow technical advisors to give more time to small farmers (reduced amount of land)
    • increase coordination with other institutions that also give technical assistance or credit
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 19. Local prosperity
    • Tips: To increase local prosperity
    • Plantation
    • Pay higher wages than minimum wage
    • Try to minimize import, purchase equipment and materials as much local or in the country as possible
    • Contribute to infrastructure developments
    • Provide training and education to employees to improve capacity building, higher skilled jobs for local population create more local prosperity.
    • Think of an exit strategy in advance, to avoid problems with trust of the local population
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 20. Labour conditions
    • Tips: To improve working and labour conditions
    • Do not make a distinction between permanent staff and casual labourers.
    • Avoid direct contact with Jatropha oil until research has excluded harmful skin impacts
    • Monitor management plans, incl recordkeeping of accidents, supply of sufficient amount of safety gear etc.
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 21. Land issues
    • Tips: To minimize impacts on land availability and land access
    • Be aware of customary land laws and informal processes
    • Be very transparent in land acquisitions processes, use an external mediator to guide the process
    • Involve communities in the decision making process
    • Make promises tangible in written letters, with signatures of leaders and other witnesses, this helps to reduce miscommunications
    • Look at alternative business models where the community is a business partner and land rights do not have to be transferred.
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 22. Gender issues
    • Tips: To address gender related issues
    • Create middle and high skilled jobs for women (not only low skilled)
    • Create suitable working hours (e.g. until 15:00) so women can tend their plots after working hours
    • The availability of Jatropha oil for energy services (cooking, lighting, milling etc.) reduces women’s household tasks (also see Section )
    • Consult vulnerable groups to determine their access to land.
    • Involve women’s associations in Jatropha cultivation
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 23. GHG
    • Tips for practitioners:
    • Be aware of land use changes and the initial carbon debt created, this can be a serious threat to the CO 2 balance of your project!
    • Be aware of the trade-off for fertiliser use (improved yield but also increase in environmental impacts)
    • Be aware of the energy content of the by-products and the large energy use in transesterfication, consider local use of by products and the use pure plant oil instead of biodiesel use overseas.
    • Please note that none of the data referred to in this sections is UNFCC approved.
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 24. Biodiversity
    • Tips: To minimize impacts on biodiversity
    • Perform a baseline study and/or EIA (Environmental Impact Analysis)
    • Do not convert high biodiversity areas to Jatropha
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 25. Economic feasibility
    • Suggestions/tips for practitioners:
    • For the time being, Jatropha cultivation is best undertaken as a hedge crop in reasonably fertile conditions, where it will not compete substantially with alternative uses of required resources.
    • Currently, Jatropha should be promoted as a supplementary income opportunity, not as an alternative cash crop.
    • Investors in large monoplantations and intercropping schemes should be aware of high failure risks on account of low profitability (depending on e.g. land prizes).
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 26. Economic feasibility
    • Suggestions/tips for practitioners:
    • From the profitability point of view, projects should emphasize SVO applications rather than the production of biodiesel
    • Projects should attempt to develop productive uses for Jatropha by-products.
    Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 27. Knowledge gaps Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 28. Knowledge gaps Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 29. Knowledge gaps Agronomy – Social – Ecologic – Economic - Gaps
  • 30. End
    • Questions / discussion