Unit 5 pt.2


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Earth Science Oceanography Part 2

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  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Unit 5 pt.2

    1. 1. Marine Life Zones
    2. 2. 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life  Water Depth • The pelagic zone is open zone of any depth. Animals in this zone swim or float freely. • The benthic zone is the marine-life zone that includes any sea-bottom surface regardless of its distance from shore. • The abyssal zone is a subdivision of the benthic zone characterized by extremely high pressures, low temperatures, low oxygen, few nutrients, and no sunlight. Marine Life Zones
    3. 3. 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life  Hydrothermal Vents • Here seawater seeps into the ocean floor through cracks in the crust. • At some vents, water temperatures of 100 o C or higher support communities of organisms found nowhere else in the world. Marine Life Zones
    4. 4. Hydrothermal Vents
    5. 5. Tube Worms Found Along Hydrothermal Vents
    6. 6. 15.3 Oceanic Productivity  Primary productivity is the production of organic compounds from inorganic substances through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.  Photosynthesis is the use of light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into energy-rich glucose molecules.  Chemosynthesis is the process by which certain microorganisms create organic molecules from inorganic nutrients using chemical energy. Primary Productivity
    7. 7. Productivity in the Barents Sea
    8. 8. 15.3 Oceanic Productivity  Productivity in Polar Oceans • The low availability of solar energy limits photosynthetic productivity in polar areas.  Productivity in Tropical Oceans • Productivity in tropical regions is limited by the lack of nutrients. Primary Productivity
    9. 9. Water Layers in the Tropics
    10. 10. 15.3 Oceanic Productivity  Productivity in Temperate Oceans • In temperate regions, which are found at mid-latitudes, a combination of these two limiting factors, sunlight and nutrient supply, controls productivity. • Winter - Days are short and sun angle is low. - Low productivity Primary Productivity
    11. 11. Productivity in Northern Hemisphere, Temperate Oceans
    12. 12. 15.3 Oceanic Productivity  Productivity in Temperate Oceans • Summer - Phytoplankton population remains relatively low. - Strong thermocline develops so surface nutrients are not replaced from below. - Productivity is limited. • Spring - Spring bloom of phytoplankton is quickly depleted. Primary Productivity
    13. 13. 15.3 Oceanic Productivity  Trophic Levels • A trophic level is a nourishment level in a food chain. Plant and algae producers constitute the lowest level, followed by herbivores and a series of carnivores at progressively higher levels. • The transfer of energy between trophic levels is very inefficient.  Transfer Efficiency Oceanic Feeding Relationships
    14. 14. 15.3 Oceanic Productivity  Food Chains and Food Webs • A food chain is a sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred, starting with the primary producer. • Animals that feed through a food web rather than a food chain are more likely to survive because they have alternative foods to eat should one of their food sources diminish or disappear. • A food web is a group of interrelated food chains. Oceanic Feeding Relationships
    15. 15. Food Chains and Webs
    16. 16. The Dynamic Ocean 16.1 <ul><li>Surface Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deep Ocean Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Latitudes (starting point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveyor Belt Model </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another.  Surface Currents • Surface currents are movements of water that flow horizontally in the upper part of the ocean’s surface. • Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across its surface. Surface Circulation
    18. 18. Ocean Surface Currents
    19. 19. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  Gyres • Gyres are huge circular-moving current systems that dominate the surfaces of the oceans. • The Coriolis effect is the deflection of currents away from their original course as a result of Earth’s rotation. Surface Circulation
    20. 20. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  Ocean Currents and Climate • When currents from low-latitude regions move into higher latitudes, they transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas on Earth. • As cold water currents travel toward the equator, they help moderate the warm temperatures of adjacent land areas. Surface Circulation
    21. 21. False-Colored Satellite Image of the Gulf Stream
    22. 22. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  Upwelling • Upwelling is the rise of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water. • Upwelling brings greater concentrations of dissolved nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, to the ocean surface. Surface Circulation
    23. 23. Effects of Upwelling
    24. 24. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  Density Currents • Density currents are vertical currents of ocean water that result from density differences among water masses. • An increase in seawater density can be caused by a decrease in temperature or an increase in salinity. Deep-Ocean Circulation
    25. 25. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  High Latitudes • Most water involved in deep-ocean currents begins in high latitudes at the surface.  Evaporation • Density currents can also result from increased salinity of ocean water due to evaporation. Deep-Ocean Circulation
    26. 26. 16.1 The Composition of Seawater  A Conveyor Belt • In a simplified model, ocean circulation is similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the Atlantic Ocean, through the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and back again. Deep-Ocean Circulation
    27. 27. Conveyor Belt Model
    28. 28. Cross Section of the Arctic Ocean