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Unit 5 pt.1

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Earth Science Oceanography Part 1

Earth Science Oceanography Part 1

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  • Who is Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Makes no sense without caption in book
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 15 Ocean Water and Ocean Life Starter #13 What processes INCREASE the salinity of sea water? What processes DECREASE the salinity of sea water? E.C. What image is on today’s blog?
    • 2. Ch. 15: Ocean Water and Ocean Life
      • Starter #13
      • What processes INCREASE the salinity of sea water?
      • What processes DECREASE the salinity of sea water?
      • E.C. What image is on today’s blog?
    • 3. Natural Processes Affecting Salinity
    • 4. Lecture Notes Outline (Cornell) 15.1 Composition of Seawater (p. 422-427) I. Introduction 1. Ocean ‘conquering the land’ 2. 3.5% ‘dissolved minerals’ II. Salinity 1. PPT 2. Sodium chloride (table salt) A. Sources of Salt 1. 2. What %? What... How?
    • 5. Lecture Notes Outline (Cornell)
      • 15.1 Composition of Seawater (p. 422-427)
      • Ocean Temperature Variation
          • 1. Depth
        • Thermocline
      • Ocean Density Variation
      • 1. Pycnocline
      • 2.
      • Ocean Layering
      ? ? ?
    • 6. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  Salinity is the total amount of solid material dissolved in water.
        •  1. Because the proportion of dissolved substances in seawater is such a small number, oceanographers typically express salinity in parts per thousands. PPT
        •  2. Most of the salt in seawater is sodium chloride, common table salt.
      II. Salinity
    • 7. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  A. Sources of Sea Salt • Chemical weathering of rocks on the continents is one source of elements found in seawater. • The second major source of elements found in seawater is from Earth’s interior . Salinity
    • 8. Salts in Seawater
    • 9. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  Processes Affecting Salinity • Processes that decrease salinity : • Processes that increase salinity : - Precipitation - Runoff from land - Icebergs melting - Sea ice melting - Evaporation - Formation of sea ice Salinity
    • 10. Natural Processes Affecting Salinity
    • 11. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  The ocean’s surface water temperature varies with the amount of solar radiation received, which is primarily a function of latitude. • The thermocline is the layer of ocean water between about 300 meters and 1000 meters where there is a rapid change of temperature with depth.  Temperature Variation with Depth • The thermocline is a very important structure because it creates a barrier to marine life. Ocean Temperature Variation
    • 12. Variations in Ocean Surface Temperature
    • 13. Variations in Ocean Water Temperature
    • 14. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  Density is defined as mass per unit volume. It can be thought of as a measure of how heavy something is for its size. • Seawater density is influenced by two main factors: salinity and temperature.  Factors Affecting Seawater Density Ocean Density Variation
    • 15. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  Density Variation with Depth • The pycnocline is the layer of ocean water between about 300 meters and 1000 meters where there is a rapid change of density with depth. Ocean Density Variation
    • 16. Variations in Ocean Water Density
    • 17. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  Oceanographers generally recognize a three-layered structure in most parts of the open ocean: a shallow surface mixed zone, a transition zone, and a deep zone.  Surface Zone • Sun-warmed zone • Zone of mixing • Shallow (300 to 450 meters) Ocean Layering
    • 18. 15.1 The Composition of Seawater  Transition Zone  Deep Zone • Constant high-density water • Temperatures are just a few degrees above freezing. • Sunlight never reaches this zone. • Thermocline and pycnocline • Between surface layer and deep zone Ocean Layering
    • 19. Ocean Zones
    • 20. 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life  Marine organisms can be classified according to where they live and how they move.  Plankton • Plankton include all organisms—algae, animals, and bacteria—that drift with ocean currents. • Phytoplankton are algal plankton, which are the most important community of primary producers in the ocean. • Zooplankton are animal plankton. Classification of Marine Organisms
    • 21. Plankton
    • 22. 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life  Nekton  Benthos • Nekton include all animals capable of moving independently of the ocean currents, by swimming or other means of propulsion. • Benthos describes organisms living on or in the ocean bottom. Classification of Marine Organisms
    • 23. Nekton
    • 24. Benthos
    • 25. 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life  Three factors are used to divide the ocean into distinct marine life zones: the availability of sunlight, the distance from shore, and the water depth.  Availability of Sunlight • The photic zone is the upper part of the ocean into which sunlight penetrates. Marine Life Zones
    • 26. 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life  Distance from Shore • The intertidal zone is the strip of land where the land and ocean meet and overlap, or the zone between high and low tides. • The neritic zone is the marine-life zone that extends from the low-tide line out to the shelf break. • The oceanic zone is the marine-life zone beyond the continental shelf. Marine Life Zones