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Ch. 2 Minerals
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Ch. 2 Minerals

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Earth Science High School 9th Grade

Earth Science High School 9th Grade

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  • 1. Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens 
  • 2. Chapter 2
    • Goals for today:
    • 1. Describe the atom model theory.
    • 2. Explain Ions and Isotopes
    • 3. Compare and contrast states of matter
    • 4. Describe how chemical bonds form.
    • 5. Learn to love jawbreakers.
    Minerals
  • 3. 2.1 Matter  Gas properties…  Liquid  Solid Youtube States of Matter
  • 4. 2.1 Matter  Elements are the b asic building blocks of minerals.  Over 100 elements are known. Elements and the Periodic Table
  • 5. 2.1 Matter  Smallest particles of matter (or an element)
    • n eutrons , which have neutral electrical charges
     The nucleus is the central part of an atom and contains
    • protons , which have positive electrical charges
    Atoms
  • 6. 2.1 Matter  Energy levels , or shells
    • surround the nucleus (hecka fast)
    • contain electrons —negatively charged particles
     The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms
  • 7. Model of an Atom
  • 8. 2.1 Matter  Many isotopes are radioactive and emit energy and particles.  Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons but varying numbers of neutrons.  Have different mass numbers: the sum of the neutrons plus protons  The mass number is the number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom. Isotopes
  • 9. 2.1 Matter
    • A compound consists of two or more elements that are chemically combined in specific proportions.
     When an atom’s outermost energy level does not contain the maximum number of electrons, the atom is likely to form a chemical bond with one or more atoms.
    • An ion is an atom that gains or loses electrons.
    Why Atoms Bond
  • 10. 2.1 Matter 1. Ionic bonds form between positive and negative ions. 2. Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. 3. Metallic bonds form when metal ions share electrons. Types of Chemical Bonds
  • 11.
    • Bohr’s Model
    • Ionic and Covalent bonds
  • 12. Carbon Atom
  • 13. Agenda for today (8-19-10)
    • Starter
    • Vocabulary quiz (to be turned in)
    • Homework discussion
    • Homework
    • Vocabulary 2.2
    • 2.2 Minerals
    • Read
    • Lab #1: Examining the properties of Minerals
  • 14. Quiz 2.1 (to be turned in) complete sentences not necessary
    • What particles make up an atom?
    • What are the electrical charge of each of those particles (from #1)?
    • What is a substance composed of 2 or more elements combined?
    • Draw a model of an atom, and label it’s 4 parts.
    • What is the nucleus of an atom made up of?
  • 15. Vocabulary 2.2 (Cornell)
    • Mineral
    • Silicate
    • Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
    • 5 characteristics of minerals (pg. 45)
  • 16. Journal #9 (Date)
    • 1. We have studied atoms, elements, minerals,…what do you think is the next larger THING we will be studying?
    • 2. Every little grain or sand has a story, imagine you are a grain of sand. Describe (short) how you (that grain of sand) got between the toes of a CHS freshman. :0)
  • 17. Agenda for today (date)
    • Review properties of minerals
    • Prepare for mineral lab
    • Desribe the unique properties of some minerals.
    • General review (quiz on Wednesday).
  • 18. 2.2 Minerals 1. Naturally occurring 2. Solid substance 3. Orderly crystalline structure 4. Definite chemical composition 5. Generally considered inorganic Characteristics of a Mineral
  • 19. 2.2 Minerals 1. Crystallization from magma 2. Precipitation 3. Pressure and temperature 4. Hydrothermal solutions How Minerals Form
  • 20. Minerals Formed as a Result of Crystallization of Magma
  • 21. 2.2 Minerals  Can be classified based on their composition 1. Silicates
    • Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure called the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This silicon-oxygen tetrahedron provides the framework of every silicate mineral.
    Mineral Groups
  • 22. The Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron
  • 23. Silicon-Oxygen Chains, Sheets, and Three-Dimensional Networks
  • 24. Sulfides
  • 25. Native Copper
  • 26. Mineral Lab Activity A number Ex: #23
  • 27. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Small amounts of different elements can give the same mineral different colors. Color
  • 28. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Streak is the color of a mineral in its powdered form. Streak
  • 29. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Luster is used to describe how light is reflected from the surface of a mineral. Luster
  • 30. Pyrite (Fool’s Gold) Displays Metallic Luster.
  • 31. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Crystal form is the visible expression of a mineral’s internal arrangement of atoms. Crystal Form
  • 32. Quartz Often Exhibits Good Crystal Form.
  • 33. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a mineral to being scratched.  Mohs scale consists of 10 minerals arranged from 10 (hardest) to 1 (softest). Hardness
  • 34. Mohs Scale of Hardness
  • 35. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to cleave, or break, along flat, even surfaces. Cleavage
  • 36. Mica Has Cleavage in One Direction
  • 37. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Minerals that do not show cleavage when broken are said to fracture.  Fracture — the uneven breakage of a mineral Fracture
  • 38. 2.3 Check for understanding (Can you answer these?)
    • Describe what properties can be used to identify minerals.
    • Explain how density can be used to identify minerals.
    • Use color, luster, cleavage/fracture, and Mohs scale (hardness) to classify minerals.
    • List other distinctive properties of minerals.
  • 39. Conchoidal Fracture
  • 40. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Density is a property of all matter that is the ratio of an object’s mass to its volume. Density
  • 41. 2.3 Properties of Minerals  Some minerals can be recognized by other distinctive properties. Distinctive Properties of Minerals
  • 42. Mineral Lab Activity A number Ex: #23
  • 43. On line Mineral Identification Lab
    • http://facweb.bhc.edu/academics/science/harwoodr/geol101/labs/minerals/Min01.htm