Understanding Issues Driving Development Evaluation 了解推动发展评价的问题


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Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 9, 2008

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  • Understanding Issues Driving Development Evaluation 了解推动发展评价的问题

    1. 1. Understanding Issues Driving Development Evaluation 了解推动发展评价的问题 Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 9, 2008 Ray C. Rist
    2. 2. <ul><li>Ray C. Rist </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge & Evaluation Capacity Development Advisor, Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>President International Development Evaluation Association (IDEAS) </li></ul><ul><li>rrist@worldbank.org; </li></ul><ul><li>www.worldbank.org/ieg </li></ul>Dadang Solihin Indonesia Delegation Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training
    3. 3. Introduction 导言 <ul><li>Evaluation in Developed Countries and Developing Countries: An Overview </li></ul><ul><li>发达国家与发展中国家评价概览 </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Development Issues: What Are the Evaluation Implications? </li></ul><ul><li>新出现的发展问题:评价的意义是什么? </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    4. 4. Evaluation in OECD Developed Countries 经合组织发达国家的评价 <ul><li>Large majority of the 30 OECD countries now have mature M&E systems </li></ul><ul><li>30 个经合组织国家中大多数现在都具备成熟的监测与评价系统 </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the earliest adopters had: 许多最早的采纳国有 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>democratic political systems 民主的政治体制 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strong empirical traditions 强大的实证传统 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>civil servants trained in the social science 公务员受过社会科学培训 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient administrative systems and institutions 高效的行政管理系统和制度 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    5. 5. Evaluation Culture: 9 Criteria 评价文化: 9 项准则 <ul><li>Evaluation takes place in many policy domains </li></ul><ul><li>评价出现在许多政策领域 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators specializing in different disciplines who have mastered methods and conduct disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>专门研究不同专业的评价者,他们精通方法,行为纪律良好 </li></ul><ul><li>National discourse on evaluation adjusted to the specific national environment </li></ul><ul><li>适应具体国家环境的国家评价论述 </li></ul><ul><li>(continued on next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>(转下页) </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    6. 6. Evaluation Culture: 9 Criteria (cont.) 评价文化: 9 项准则(续) <ul><li>There is a profession with societies or frequent attendance at meetings of international societies for discussion of norms and ethics of the profession </li></ul><ul><li>频繁出席国际协会关于规范与道德的讨论会议 </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional arrangements in government for conducting evaluations and disseminating to decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>政府为开展评价和向决策者传播做出机构安排 </li></ul><ul><li>(continued on next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>(转下页) </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    7. 7. Evaluation Culture: 9 Criteria (cont.) 评价文化: 9 项准则(续) <ul><li>Institutional arrangements present in legislative body for conducting evaluations and disseminating to decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>立法机关有进行评价与向决策者传播信息的机构安排 </li></ul><ul><li>Element of Pluralism within policy domains exists </li></ul><ul><li>存在政策领域的多元性元素 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation activities take place within Supreme Audit Institution </li></ul><ul><li>评价活动在最高审计机构里进行 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on program or policy outcomes as well as input/output or technical production </li></ul><ul><li>注重计划或政策结果和投入 / 产出或者技术生产 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    8. 8. Evaluation Culture: (cont.) <ul><li>The OECD countries have developed evaluation cultures and M&E systems in response to varying degrees of internal and external pressures. For example, France, Germany, and the Netherlands developed such a culture in response to both strong internal and external (mostly EU-related and to some extent World Bank) pressures, while countries such as Australia, Canada, Korea, and the United States were motivated mostly by strong internal pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly, the pioneering OECD countries were motivated to adopt evaluation cultures mostly because of strong internal pressures, such as, domestic planning, programming and budgeting imperatives for new socio-economic spending programs, as well as parliamentary oversight. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    9. 9. Evaluation Culture: (cont.) <ul><li>Early pioneering countries had in common: democratic political systems; strong empirical traditions; civil servants trained in the social sciences (as opposed to strict legal training); and efficient administrative systems and institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries with high levels of expenditure on education, health, and social welfare also adopted evaluation mechanisms that then spilled over into other areas of public policy. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    10. 10. Evaluation Culture: (cont.) <ul><li>The pioneering OECD countries were also instrumental in spreading the evaluation culture to other countries by disseminating evaluation ideas and information, and launching evaluation organizations, training institutes, networks, and consulting firms. </li></ul><ul><li>By contrast, many of the latecomer OECD countries (Italy, Ireland and Spain) tended to respond to evaluation issues primarily because of strong external pressures, primarily EU membership requirements, including access to EU structural development funds. They were also heavily influenced by the evaluation culture of the pioneers, as well as the evaluation culture, which has taken root in the international organizations with which their countries interact. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    11. 11. Approaches 方法 <ul><li>Whole-of-Government </li></ul><ul><li>整个政府 </li></ul><ul><li>Enclave </li></ul><ul><li>孤立点 </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><li>混合的 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    12. 12. Whole-of-Government Approach 整个政府的方法 <ul><li>Adopted in some early M&E pioneer countries </li></ul><ul><li>被一些早期的监测与评价先驱国家采用 </li></ul><ul><li>Broad-based, comprehensive M&E at all levels of government </li></ul><ul><li>在政府所有层次上进行基础广泛、全面的监测与评价 </li></ul><ul><li>Millennium Development Goals have created impetus in many developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>千年发展目标在许多发展中国家形成了推动力 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging in countries where different ministries are at different stages </li></ul><ul><li>对于不同部门处于不同阶段的国家来说具有挑战性 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    13. 13. Whole-of-Government Approach (cont.) <ul><li>Oftentimes different ministries are at different stages in their ability to take on the establishment of an evaluation system. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole-of-government strategy, then, may not be able to move all ministries in tandem; there may be a need for sequencing among ministries in developing these systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many times, innovations at one level will filter horizontally and vertically to within other levels in the government. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    14. 14. Enclave Approach 孤立点的方法 <ul><li>Focused on one part or sector of the government (one ministry or cabinet) </li></ul><ul><li>把重点放在政府的一个部分或部门(一个部门或内阁) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>战略 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>begin with local, state, or regional governmental level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>从地方、州或地区政府层次上开始进行 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>piloting evaluation systems in a few key ministries or agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>在一些关键的部门或机构里试验评价系统 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    15. 15. Enclave Approach (cont.) <ul><li>For example, the approach might focus on one ministry or cabinet of the government as has been done in Mexico, Jordan, and Kyrgyz. </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries, especially developing countries, may not yet be in a position to adopt such sweeping change in a comprehensive fashion. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    16. 16. Mixed Approach 混合方法 <ul><li>Blended whole-of-government and enclave </li></ul><ul><li>将整个政府的方法与孤立点的方法结合起来 </li></ul><ul><li>Some areas have comprehensive approach; others more sporadic attention </li></ul><ul><li>一些地区需要全面的方法;其它一些地区则需要更加零散性的注意力 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    17. 17. Mixed Approach (cont.) <ul><li>A number of factors contributed to the adoption of an evaluation culture in the pioneering countries in particular. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the earliest adopters of evaluation systems were predisposed to do so because they had democratic political systems, strong empirical traditions, civil servants trained in the social sciences (as opposed to strict legal training), and efficient administrative systems and institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, building evaluation systems is primarily a political activity with associated technical dimensions. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    18. 18. Mixed Approach (cont.) <ul><li>Countries with high levels of expenditure on education, health, and social welfare also adopted evaluation mechanisms, which then spilled over into other areas of public policy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is involved is a complex mixture of institutional preconditions, political culture, exposure to intellectual traditions, as well as sectoral concerns dominating the political discussion…” [1] </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Jan-Eric Furubo, Ray C. Rist, and Rolf Sandahl, editors International Atlas of Evaluation , (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002) p. 16. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    19. 19. Evaluation in Developing Countries 发展中国家的评价 <ul><li>Face challenges similar and different from developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>面临和发达国家相似和不同的挑战 </li></ul><ul><li>Weak political will may slow progress </li></ul><ul><li>薄弱的政治决心可能会减缓进展 </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in inter-ministerial cooperation and coordination can impede progress toward strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>部委间合作和协调的困难会妨碍向战略规划的进展 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    20. 20. Evaluation in Developing Countries (cont.) <ul><li>Internal Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>can be defined as “Evaluation of a development intervention conducted by a unit or individuals reporting to the management of the donor, partner, or implementing organization.” </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    21. 21. Evaluation in Developing Countries (cont.) <ul><li>External evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>is the “Evaluation of a development intervention conducted by entities and/or individuals outside the donor, partner and implementing organization.” External stakeholders can see internal evaluators as less credible. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal evaluators, on the other hand, have the advantage of knowing and understanding the internal organizational workings. </li></ul><ul><li>Just because an evaluation is conducted by a unit external to the organization does not guarantee it is independent and credible. External consultants, for example, may have prior program ties. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    22. 22. Evaluation in Developing Countries (cont.) <ul><li>Participatory evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>is an “evaluation method in which representatives of agencies and stakeholders (including beneficiaries) work together in designing, carrying out and interpreting an evaluation.” (OECD Glossary definitions). </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory evaluation differs from internal and external evaluation in some fundamental ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory evaluation represents a further and more radical step away from the model of independent evaluation… [it] is a form of evaluation where the distinction between experts and layperson, researcher and researched, is deemphasized and redefined…evaluators…[act as] mainly facilitators and instructors helping others to make the assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the distinction between participatory evaluation and participatory methods; the latter may be used in internal and external evaluations. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently development evaluation has had a greater emphasis on participatory evaluations. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    23. 23. Evaluating Systems in Developing Countries 发展中国家的评价系统 <ul><li>New evaluation systems need: </li></ul><ul><li>新的评价系统需要: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly placed champions willing to assume political risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>位居要职的支持者愿意承担政治风险 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>credible institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>可靠的机构 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foundation for evaluation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>评价的基础 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>basic statistical systems and data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>基础的统计系统与数据 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appropriate quality and quantity of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>适当的数据质量与数量 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>baseline data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>基线数据 </li></ul></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    24. 24. Capacity Development for Evaluation 评价的能力发展 <ul><li>Developing Countries: </li></ul><ul><li>发展中国家: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need technical and social science-based evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>需要基于技术和社会科学的评价 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development organizations creating development networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>发展组织建立发展网络 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    25. 25. Other Problems for Evaluation in Developing Countries 发展中国家评价的其它问题 <ul><li>Two budget systems: </li></ul><ul><li>两个预算系统: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recurrent expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>经常性开支 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capital/investment expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>资本 / 投资支出 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whole-of-Government approach may be too difficult at outset </li></ul><ul><li>整个政府的方法在一开始可能过于困难 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    26. 26. Other Problems for Evaluation in Developing Countries (cont.) <ul><li>Until recently, Egypt had the Ministry of Finance overseeing the recurrent budget and the Ministry of Planning overseeing the capital budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating these budgets within one ministry has made it easier for the government to consider a broad-based evaluation system to ensure that the country’s goals and objectives are met. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    27. 27. Other Problems for Evaluation in Developing Countries (cont.) <ul><li>Until recently, Egypt had the Ministry of Finance overseeing the recurrent budget and the Ministry of Planning overseeing the capital budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating these budgets within one ministry has made it easier for the government to consider a broad-based evaluation system to ensure that the country’s goals and objectives are met. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    28. 28. Other Problems for Evaluation in Developing Countries (cont.) <ul><li>Given the particular difficulties of establishing evaluation systems in developing countries, adopting an enclave or partial approach, by which a few ministries or departments first pilot and adopt evaluation systems, may be preferable to a whole of government approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to institute a whole-of-government approach toward evaluation – as in Australia, Canada and the United States—may be too ambitious for developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in the Kyrgyz Republic, a World Bank 2002 readiness assessment recommended that the Ministry of Health – where some evaluation capacity already exists—be supported as a potential model for eventual government-wide implementation of an evaluation system. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    29. 29. Patton ’ s Recent Trends 巴顿的最近趋势 <ul><li>Evaluation as a global profession </li></ul><ul><li>作为一种全球职业的评价 </li></ul><ul><li>Studies to streams (Rist) </li></ul><ul><li>对趋势的研究(瑞斯特) </li></ul><ul><li>New complexity in evaluation (command and control ) </li></ul><ul><li>评价的新复杂性(命令与控制) </li></ul><ul><li>Move to more formative-like situations </li></ul><ul><li>朝着更加局部化的形势发展 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    30. 30. Changes in Response to Emerging Issues 随着新出现的问题发生的变化 <ul><li>Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>全球化 </li></ul><ul><li>Growing incidence of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>冲突的发生率增加 </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism and money laundering </li></ul><ul><li>恐怖主义和洗钱 </li></ul><ul><li>Widening gap between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>贫富差距加大 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    31. 31. Changes in Response to Emerging Issues (cont.) <ul><li>More development players </li></ul><ul><li>更多的发展参与者 </li></ul><ul><li>Drive toward debt reduction </li></ul><ul><li>努力减少债务 </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on improved governance </li></ul><ul><li>把重点放在改进治理上面 </li></ul><ul><li>Drive toward comprehensive, coordinated, participatory development with results </li></ul><ul><li>努力实现全面的、协调的、参与性的发展并带来成果 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    32. 32. Changes in Response to Emerging Issues (cont.) <ul><li>Many of the new trends and issues in development assistance involve multiple bilateral and multilateral development partners. </li></ul><ul><li>This calls into play the increasing need for conducting joint international evaluations. </li></ul><ul><li>Such joint evaluations can be conducted at the project, country, sector, or process level. </li></ul><ul><li>There may be efficiencies of cost and scale, as well as harmonization of evaluation methods that can be captured in doing joint evaluations. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    33. 33. Items at Top of International Development Agenda 国际发展议程重点项目 <ul><li>Thirteen items at top of development agenda </li></ul><ul><li>13 个发展议程上的重点项目 </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) </li></ul><ul><li>从千年发展目标开始 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    34. 34. Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 千年发展目标( MDG ) <ul><li>Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 消除极端贫困与饥饿 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve universal primary education 实现普及初等教育 </li></ul><ul><li>Promote gender equality and empower women 促进性别平等并授权妇女 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce child mortality 减少儿童死亡率 </li></ul><ul><li>Improve maternal health 改进母亲健康 </li></ul><ul><li>Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria, and other diseases 抗击艾滋病、疟疾和其它疾病 </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure environmental sustainability 确保环境的可持续性 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a global partnership for development 为发展开发全球合作伙伴关系 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    35. 35. MDG ’ s and M&E 千年发展目标和监测与评价 <ul><li>Driving developing countries to build evaluation capacity and systems </li></ul><ul><li>推动发展中国家建设评价能力与系统 </li></ul><ul><li>Development organizations called upon to provide technical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>呼吁捐助方提供技术援助 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    36. 36. MDG ’ s and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>The MDGs are driving developing countries to build evaluation capacity and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Donors are being called upon to provide technical assistance and financing for these evaluation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>As we saw earlier, many developing countries are in the early stages of building evaluation systems, and are slowly working their way towards the construction of results-based systems which will help in determining whether or not the MDGs are being achieved. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    37. 37. MDG ’ s and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>Assessing success towards meeting the MDGs will require the development and effective use of evaluation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluation system will in turn need to be integrated into the policy arena of the MDGs so that it is clear to all why it is important to collect the data, how the information will be used to inform the efforts of the government and civil society to achieve the MDGs….” </li></ul><ul><li>The 2004 Global Monitoring Report focuses on how the world is doing in implementing the policies and actions for achieving the MDGs and related development outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a framework for accountability in global development policy. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    38. 38. MDG ’ s and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>The report highlights several priorities for strengthening the monitoring exercise. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening the underlying development statistics, including timely implementation of the action plan agreed among international statistical agencies… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting research on the determinants of the MDGs, on critical issues such as effectiveness of aid, and on development of more robust metrics for key policy areas such as governance and for the impact on developing countries of rich country policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepening collaboration with partner agencies in this work, building on respective comparative advantage and ensuring that the approach to monitoring and evaluation is coherent across agencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMF and World Bank. Global Monitoring Report 2004 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    39. 39. Monterrey Consensus 蒙特雷共识 <ul><li>Financing for development 为发展提供资金 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2002 — 170 countries, 50 heads of state 2002 年三月—— 170 个国家, 50 名国家首脑 </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized the need for greater financial assistance to raise standards of the poorest countries </li></ul><ul><li>认可为提高最贫穷国家标准所需更大的金融援助 </li></ul><ul><li>Did NOT set any firm goals </li></ul><ul><li>没有设立任何坚决的目标 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    40. 40. Monterrey Consensus and M&E 蒙特雷共识和监测与评价 <ul><li>Stressed mutual responsibilities in the quest for MDGs </li></ul><ul><li>强调在达成千年发展目标方面共同的责任 </li></ul><ul><li>Called on developing countries to improve their policies and governance </li></ul><ul><li>呼吁发展中国家提高其政策和治理 </li></ul><ul><li>Asked developed countries to step up their support - open markets, more, better aid </li></ul><ul><li>要求发达国家加大其支持——开放市场,更多更好的援助 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    41. 41. Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness 援助成效的巴黎宣言 <ul><li>Agreement to increase efforts for managing aid to developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>同意加强对发展国家援助的管理 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2005 — more than100 ministers, heads of agencies and other senior officials </li></ul><ul><li>2005 年三月—— 100 多位部长,机构领导和其他高级官员 </li></ul><ul><li>Monitorable actions and indicators to track progress towards effective aid </li></ul><ul><li>可追溯有效援助进展的可监测的行动和指标 </li></ul><ul><li>Five key principles 五个关键原则 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ownership, alignment, harmonization, managing for results, and mutual accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>所有权,结盟,和谐,管理结果,互相问责 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    42. 42. Paris Declaration and M&E 援助成效的巴黎宣言和监测与评价 <ul><li>2007 survey found 2007 年的调查发现 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased awareness and promoted dialogue to improve delivery of aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>意识增强,加强了有关改善援助提供的对话 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost of aid high, slow pace to change development organization attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>援助成本高,改变发展机构态度的步伐缓慢 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to strengthen development strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>需要加强发展战略 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change involves new costs 改变包换新的成本 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should use performance assessment frameworks and results-oriented reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>应该使用绩效评估框架和以结果为导向的报告 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need more monitoring systems 需要更多的监测系统 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    43. 43. Debt Initiative for HIPC 重债穷国减债计划 <ul><li>Proposed in 1996 by World Bank and IMF </li></ul><ul><li>由世界银行和国际货币基金组织于 1996 年提出 </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to reduce external debt to sustainable levels for countries that pursue economic and social policy reform </li></ul><ul><li>旨在使追求经济和社会政策改革的国家外部债务减少到可持续的水平 </li></ul><ul><li>Endorsed by 180 countries, 27 countries receiving HIPC (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>得到 180 个国家的通过, 27 个国家接受了重债穷国减债计划 2006 年) </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to larger comprehensive national poverty reduction strategies </li></ul><ul><li>与更大范围的全面的国家减贫战略联系在一起 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    44. 44. Debt Initiative for HIPC (cont.) <ul><li>The Initiative is designed to reduce debts to sustainable levels for poor countries that pursue economic and social policy reforms. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used specifically in cases where traditional debt relief mechanisms will not be enough to help countries exit from the rescheduling process. Therefore, HIPC will reduce debt stock, lower debt service payments, and boost social spending. </li></ul><ul><li>External debt servicing for HIPC countries is expected to be cut by about $50 billion. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    45. 45. Debt Initiative for HIPC (cont.) <ul><li>HIPC is linked to the larger comprehensive national poverty reduction strategies. In 1999, the international development community agreed that National Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRSPs) should be the basis for concessional lending and debt relief. </li></ul><ul><li>These strategies include agreed-upon development goals over a three-year period; with a policy matrix and attendant set of measurable indicators, and a monitoring and evaluation system by which to measure progress. </li></ul><ul><li>As a condition for debt relief, recipient governments must be able to monitor, evaluate, and report on reform efforts and progress toward poverty reduction. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    46. 46. HIPC and M&E 重债穷国和监测与评价 <ul><li>Driving creation of evaluation capacity </li></ul><ul><li>推动形成评价能力 </li></ul><ul><li>Countries must commit to accountability and transparency through: monitoring, evaluation, and achievements </li></ul><ul><li>国家必须通过监测、评价和成就致力于责任机制和透明化 </li></ul><ul><li>Providing grants raises new issues and questions for evaluators </li></ul><ul><li>提供补助金为评价人员提出了新的问题 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    47. 47. HIPC and M&E 重债穷国和监测与评价 <ul><li>HIPC is also driving the creation of evaluation capacity and systems in developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries vying to become part of HIPC must commit to a process that involves accountability and transparency through monitoring, evaluation, and achievement of measurable results. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Uganda made progress in evaluation and qualified for enhanced HIPC relief. </li></ul><ul><li>In other cases, however, lack of capacity in evaluation has been a particular problem for participating HIPC countries, such as Albania, Madagascar, and Tanzania. </li></ul><ul><li>These countries will require technical assistance to develop their evaluation capacity. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    48. 48. HIPC and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>The HIPC initiative proposes that those countries with very high levels of debt distress be given concessional loans or grants. </li></ul><ul><li>This would help mitigate the risk future debt crises by preventing further indebtedness. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing grants raises new issues and questions for evaluators. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How would grant, (as opposed to loans which must be repaid) effectiveness be evaluated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to what criteria? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is likely that the evaluation criteria for grants would be less strict than for loans. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, this raises new challenges for development evaluators. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    49. 49. Emergence of New Actors 新参与者的出现 <ul><li>Large foundations: </li></ul><ul><li>大型基金会: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>比尔及梅林达 - 盖茨基金会 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ford Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>福特基金会 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buffet Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>巴菲特基金会 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soros Foundation/Open Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>索罗斯基金会 / 开放社会基金 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now a part of the dialogue over global/country/sector-wide projects, programs, and policies </li></ul><ul><li>现在是全球 / 国家 / 部门范围内的项目、计划和政策对话的一部分 </li></ul><ul><li>Must become part of the process to design and develop evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>必须成为设计和发展评价过程的一部分 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    50. 50. Emergence of New Actors (cont.) <ul><li>Foundations have emerged as important players in international development. </li></ul><ul><li>The US Council on Foundations counts 56,000 private and community foundations in the US, distributing $27.5 billion dollars annually. </li></ul><ul><li>The European Foundation Centre found some 25,000 foundations in nine EU countries spending over $50 billion annually. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soros Foundation/Open Society Institute network is another influential foundation player on the international development scene, with programs in more than 50 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>provide support for: education, media, public health, women, human rights, arts and culture, and social, economic, and legal reforms. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    51. 51. Emergence of New Actors (cont.) <ul><li>Indeed, a recent OECD study “... attempted a serious estimate of the amount of funds distributed by 15 of the largest philanthropic foundations with some international giving, for 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>The total was almost $4 billion dollars and the total international giving was about $2 billion dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>This represents about 4% of all development aid and is about one-half of the contributions attributed by the official Development Assistance Committee to …NGOs as a whole (a group which includes the foundations . </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    52. 52. Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction 冲突预防和冲突后的重建 <ul><li>Currently conflict affects over 1 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>目前冲突影响了 10 亿多人 </li></ul><ul><li>Most conflicts difficult to end </li></ul><ul><li>大多数冲突很难结束 </li></ul><ul><li>Global costs great </li></ul><ul><li>全球代价巨大 </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty a cause and consequence of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>贫困是冲突的一个原因与后果 </li></ul><ul><li>Post-conflict reconstruction requires coordination of large numbers of donors </li></ul><ul><li>冲突后的重建需要大量援助方的协调 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infrastructure, institution building, technical assistance, democracy & elections, NGOs and civil society, civilian police, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>基础设施、机构建设、技术援助、民主和选举、非政府组织和民间社会、非军事警察,等 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    53. 53. Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (cont.) <ul><li>Dealing with post-conflict reconstruction involves the coordination of large numbers of bilateral and multilateral donors. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, 60 donors were active in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 50 donors in the West Bank and Gaza, and 82 donors in Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilding after a conflict has placed renewed strains on aid coordination mechanisms to ensure that needs are met and that duplication and gaps in aid are avoided. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    54. 54. Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (cont.) <ul><li>Post-conflict reconstruction is not “business as usual.” It is not only about rebuilding infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction involves support for such activities as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>institution-building, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical assistance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>democracy and elections; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs and civil society; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>civilian police forces; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>budgetary start-up and recurrent costs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>debt relief; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>balance of payments; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>de-mining; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refugees and internally displaced people, children and youth; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gender; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants. </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    55. 55. Conflict Prevention 冲突的预防 <ul><li>Conflict analysis and sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>冲突分析与敏感性 </li></ul><ul><li>Greater emphasis on: </li></ul><ul><li>更加强调 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social, ethnic, and religious communities and relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>社会、种族和宗教社区与关系 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>governance and political institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>治理与政治机构 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>人权 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>安全 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic structures and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>经济结构与绩效 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the environment and natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>环境与自然资源 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>外部因素 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    56. 56. Post-Conflict Reconstruction and M&E 冲突后的重建与评价 <ul><li>New level of difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>新的困难程度 </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-sector programs funded by 50-80 bilateral and multilateral development organizations </li></ul><ul><li>由 50-80 个双边和多边发展机构资助的多部门计划 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators must examine the impact and donor coordination process </li></ul><ul><li>评价人员必须检查影响和援助方的协调进程 </li></ul><ul><li>Untraditional areas: </li></ul><ul><li>非传统领域: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>de-mining, demobilization, reintegration of ex-combatants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>清除地雷,复员,前战斗人员的重整 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ways to prevent conflicts from erupting </li></ul><ul><li>预防冲突爆发的方法 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    57. 57. Post-Conflict Reconstruction and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>Increasingly, bilateral and multilateral donors are looking at the economic causes and consequences of conflict, and are seeking ways to prevent conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict analysis and sensitivity to conflict are becoming key to donor programs. </li></ul><ul><li>As such, there is a greater emphasis now on: social, ethnic, and religious communities and relations; governance and political institutions; human rights; security; economic structures and performance; the environment and natural resources; and external factors. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    58. 58. Post-Conflict Reconstruction and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>Post-conflict reconstruction brings a new level of difficulty and scale to evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>These reconstruction programs are multi-sectoral programs that cost billions of dollars, and are funded by 50-80 bilateral and multilateral donors. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators must examine the impact that such heavily front-loaded development approaches have on post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators are challenged in new ways to examine a donor coordination process that brings together such a large and diverse group of supporters. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    59. 59. Post-Conflict Reconstruction and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>New projects and programs in untraditional areas of development assistance, such as de-mining and demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants, must also be evaluated. </li></ul><ul><li>So too, evaluators are now being required to evaluate new types of donor mechanisms and lending instruments, such as multilateral donor trust funds. </li></ul><ul><li>And evaluators must look at what is and can be done in the development context to actually prevent such conflicts from erupting. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    60. 60. Governance 治理 <ul><li>Governance programs seek to promote: </li></ul><ul><li>治理计划寻求促进: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anti-corruption, public expenditure management, civil service reform, judicial reform, administration, decentralization, e-government and public services delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>反腐败,公共开支管理,公务员改革,司法改革,行政管理,分权化,电子政务和公共事业的提供 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures of corruption: Transparency International (TI) “ Corruption Perception Index ” </li></ul><ul><li>腐败的衡量:透明国际( TI )的 “ 清廉指数 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Development organizations and evaluators can use these to measure aid effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>发展机构和评价者可以利用它们来衡量援助的有效性 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    61. 61. Governance (cont.) <ul><li>Results-based management is being used to identify and monitor the most vulnerable determinants and institutions in a country’s governance structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The data help to demystify and treat more objectively issues of governance that were previously obscured. </li></ul><ul><li>The data generated will also aid evaluators in compiling more quantitative research related to the lessons learned. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, evaluating investment climates and business environments will involve difficulty and thorny concepts (see section below on private sector development). </li></ul><ul><li>This is a new area that is evolving quickly and will require that evaluators address new developments and data in a timely fashion. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    62. 62. Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing 反洗钱和恐怖融资 <ul><li>Converting or transferring proceeds of criminal activity with the intent to conceal or disguise the origin of the property </li></ul><ul><li>对犯罪活动的收益进行兑换或转账,旨在隐藏或隐瞒财产的来源 </li></ul><ul><li>Serious and growing international problem </li></ul><ul><li>严肃和逐渐增长的国际问题 </li></ul><ul><li>The OECD ’ s Financial Action Task Force (FATF) on Money Laundering </li></ul><ul><li>经合组织反洗钱金融行动特别工作组 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation is a part of the FATF mandate carried out multilaterally, by peer review, and by mutual evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>监测和评价是反洗钱金融行动特别工作组通过同伴评议和共同评价多方开展的授权的一部分 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    63. 63. Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing (cont.) <ul><li>With an estimated US$1 trillion (or 2-5% of world gross domestic product) [ being laundered annually, this is a serious and growing international problem – affecting developing and developed countries alike. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization and the opening/easing of borders have facilitated transnational criminal activities and attendant illegal financial flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, global anti-money laundering initiatives have taken on new importance with the spread of terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>Money laundering can take an especially heavy toll on developing economies/ countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations General Assembly adopted the “Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime” in November 2000 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    64. 64. Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing (cont.) <ul><li>The OECD’s Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) was created in 1989 by the G-7, and is now comprised of 31 member countries and territories and two regional organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an intergovernmental, policy-making body aimed at developing and promoting national and international policies to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. </li></ul><ul><li>The FATF monitors members’ progress in implementing necessary measures, reviews money laundering and terrorist financing techniques and counter-measures, and promotes the adoption and implementation of appropriate measures globally. [ </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    65. 65. Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing (cont.) <ul><li>The FATF issued a set of forty recommendations, which serve as the international framework for anti-money laundering. </li></ul><ul><li>These recommendations have been updated over the years to account for new developments in anti-money laundering. </li></ul><ul><li>After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the FATF issued an additional eight special recommendations aimed at combating terrorist financing. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    66. 66. Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing (cont.) <ul><li>Monitoring and evaluation of implementation is a part of the FATF mandate, and is carried out multilaterally, by peer review, and by mutual evaluation. For example, the monitoring and evaluation process entails the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each member country is examined in turn by the FATF on the basis of an on-site visit conducted by a team of three or four selected experts in the legal, financial and law enforcement fields from other member governments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of the visit is to draw up a report assessing the extent to which the evaluated country has moved forward in implementing an effective system to counter money laundering and to highlight areas in which further progress may still be required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The FATF also has a series of measures to be taken in the event of non-compliance. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    67. 67. Worker ’ s Remittances 工人汇款 <ul><li>Definition: money sent by workers at a distance to someone at home </li></ul><ul><li>定义:在一定距离以外地方的工人向家里的某人汇过去的钱 </li></ul><ul><li>Rising trend: global remittance total greater than ODA assistance </li></ul><ul><li>上升趋势:全球汇款总额大于官方发展援助 </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be more stable than private capital flows </li></ul><ul><li>趋向于比私人资本流动更加稳定 </li></ul><ul><li>Strong impact on poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>对减贫有强烈影响 </li></ul><ul><li>Development organizations seeking to find ways to track these trends and capitalize on them </li></ul><ul><li>发展机构寻求寻找跟踪并利用这些趋势的方法 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators need ways to study the impact </li></ul><ul><li>评价者需要研究影响的方法 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    68. 68. Worker ’ s Remittances (cont.) <ul><li>Workers’ remittances have been rising dramatically, from $60 billion a year in 1998 to $80 billion a year in 2002 and an estimated $100 billion a year in 2003/4 – as compared with approximately $50-60 billion/year in ODA and $143 billion dollars in private capital flows in 2002. Remittances tend to be more stable than private capital flows. </li></ul><ul><li>Remittances through the banking system are also likely to rise, as restrictions on informal transfers increase . </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    69. 69. Worker ’ s Remittances (cont.) <ul><li>Global remittances have been found to have a strong impact of poverty reduction. “On average, a 10 percent increase in the share of international migrants in a country’s population will lead to a 1.9 percent decline in the share of people living in poverty ($1.00/person/day).” </li></ul><ul><li>Global remittances help to fund local consumption in housing, agriculture, industry, and in the creation of new SMEs in the recipient country. </li></ul><ul><li>Donor countries and organizations are cognizant of these trends and are now seeking to find ways of capitalizing on these flows for investment purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>A recent G-8 Summit Plan called on members and developing country governments to: </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    70. 70. Worker ’ s Remittances (cont.) <ul><li>Facilitate remittance flows from communities overseas to help families and small entrepreneurs[businesses], including by: encouraging the reduction of the cost of remittance transfers, and the creation of local development funds for productive investments; improving access by remittance recipients to financial services; and enhancing coordination . </li></ul><ul><li>G-8 countries also called on multilateral donor organizations and developing countries to do further work to improve data on remittances flows, in an attempt to capture informal, private flows. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the G-8 called for the promotion of “…better coherence and coordination of international organizations that are working to enhance remittance services and heighten the developmental impact of remittance receipts in developing countries.” </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    71. 71. Worker ’ s Remittances (cont.) <ul><li>Tracking global remittances and funneling them to new types of investments and funds will again pose new questions and issues for evaluators. </li></ul><ul><li>As development practitioners have not yet devised ways in which remittances can be captured and leveraged for poverty reduction, evaluators will watch this area with great interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation data, design, methodology, and implementation issues for studying the impact of remittances on developing countries have yet to be fully thought through and tested. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    72. 72. Gender 性别 <ul><li>Gender: socially constructed roles ascribe to females and males </li></ul><ul><li>性别:属于女性和男性的社会角色 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis: access and control men and women have over resources and systematic way to determine needs, preferences, and impact </li></ul><ul><li>性别分析:男人和女人对资源的使用权与控制权以及决定需求、选择权和影响的系统方法 </li></ul><ul><li>Trend from WID — to Gender and Development — to Gender Mainstreaming </li></ul><ul><li>从妇女参与发展( WID )到社会性别与发展( GAD )到性别主流化 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    73. 73. Gender (cont.) <ul><li>Gender analysis takes into account how factors of class, race, ethnicity or other factors interact with gender to produce discriminatory results. Gender analysis has traditionally been directed towards women because of the gender gap. </li></ul><ul><li>That is the gap between men and women in terms of how they benefit from education, employment, services, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Women comprise half of the world’s population, and play a key role in economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet their full potential to participate in socio-economic development has yet to be realized. Indeed, women and children still comprise the majority of the world’s poor. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    74. 74. Gender (cont.) <ul><li>Women produce half the food in some parts of the developing world, bear most of the responsibility for household food security, and make up a quarter of the workforce in industry and a third in services… Yet, because of more limited access to education and other opportunities, women’s productivity relative to that of men remains low. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving women’s productivity can contribute to growth, efficiency and poverty reduction- key development goals everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s access to education, health, financial/credit services, and land is still limited in many developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is also an important part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), e.g. to promote gender equality and empower women, improve maternal health, and so on. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    75. 75. Gender (cont.) <ul><li>Recent trends regarding the role of women in development have evolved away from the traditional “Women in Development” (WID) approach to Gender and Development (GAD), and now to a more comprehensive “Gender Mainstreaming” approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The early WID strategy regarding gender focused on women as a special target or interest group of beneficiaries in projects, programs, and policies. </li></ul><ul><li>WID recognizes the women are active, if often unacknowledged, participants in the development process, providing a critical contribution to economic growth…as an untapped resource, women must be brought into the development process </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    76. 76. Gender (cont.) <ul><li>The Gender and Development (GAD) approach focuses on social, economic, political, and cultural forces that determine how men and women participate in, benefit from, and control project resources and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>It highlights women and men’s often different needs and preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach shifts the focus of women as a group to the socially determined relations between men and women. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    77. 77. Gender (cont.) <ul><li>Progress in gender equality and the empowerment of women is embodied in the MDGs, including specific goals, targets, and indicators for measuring and evaluating progress. OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) has also produced a number of key and auxiliary guiding questions to assist managers in the evaluation of development activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the project succeeded in promoting equal opportunities and benefits for men and women? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have women and men been disadvantaged or advantaged by the project? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the project been effective in integrating gender into the development activity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender budgeting is another way of implementing and assessing how much of the national budget may benefit men and women. </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    78. 78. Gender and M&E 性别和监测与评价 <ul><li>Progress in gender equality and empowerment of women included in the MDGs </li></ul><ul><li>千年发展目标里包括的性别平等和妇女授权的进展 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specific goals, targets, indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>具体目标、目的和指标 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OECD ’ s DAC outlines guiding questions </li></ul><ul><li>经合组织的发展援助委员会概述了指导性问题 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender budgeting </li></ul><ul><li>性别预算 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    79. 79. PSD and Investment Climate 私营部门的发展( PSD )和投资气候 <ul><li>Many issues within private sector development (PSD) and investment climate in poverty reduction </li></ul><ul><li>私营部门的发展( PSD )和减贫投资气候存在许多问题 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poverty reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>减贫 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>私有化 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private participation in infrastructure services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>基础设施服务的私有参与 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creation of micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises (SME) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>微型和中小型企业( SME )的建立 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support for micro and SME finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>对微型和中小型企业筹资的支持 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulating entrepreneurship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>促进企业家精神 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    80. 80. PSD and Investment Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Private sector or foreign direct investment has become increasingly important in reducing poverty in the developing world. In 1990, private sector investment in developing countries was about $30 billion a year, while development assistance amounted to about $60 billion – or twice that of the private sector. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1997, private sector investment in developing countries had reached $300 billion, while development assistance had fallen to $50 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>It has gone from half of the size of development assistance to six times the size in the space of less than ten years. While still sizeable, private sector investment has declined somewhat. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, official development assistance totalled about $50-55 billion; private sector investment in developing countries was $160 billion. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    81. 81. PSD and Investment Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Privatization of state-owned enterprises was a particularly strong theme in the 1990s, as many countries sought to move from socialist to market-oriented economies. </li></ul><ul><li>It is still a major force in many countries, where the state continues to own and operate many economic assets. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100 countries, on every continent, have privatized some or most of their state-owned companies, in every conceivable sector of infrastructure, manufacturing and services… an estimated 75,000 medium and large-sized firms have been divested around the world, along with hundreds of thousands of small business units... </li></ul><ul><li>Total generated proceeds are estimated at more than US$735 billion. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    82. 82. PSD and Investment Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Privatization is controversial in many respects; there are downsides and tradeoffs. The debate over if and when, and how best to go about privatization continues. It is not a panacea for economic ills, but has proved to be a useful tool in promoting net welfare gains and improved services for the economy and society. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a potentially large role for private participation in infrastructure , especially in developing countries. Traditionally, the public sector delivered infrastructure and related services for electricity, energy, telecommunications, transport, and water and sewerage in most developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Government monopolies provided such services from the 1950s until the 1990s. Progress was slow, and in the 1990s, many governments began to look to the private sector to play a larger role in financing, building, owing and/or operating infrastructure. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    83. 83. PSD and Investment Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Public-private partnerships aimed at facilitating the provision of infrastructure services are becoming increasingly important in many developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Microenterprise development and micro-credit are a related area of high interest in the development community. </li></ul><ul><li>Microenterprise development targets traditionally very small, self-employed, entrepreneurs , and/or family-owned businesses (including those started/owned by women) that do not have access to formal credit institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 500 million poor people are engaged in profitable microenterprise activities with the support of micro-credit provided by the development agencies and NGOs. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    84. 84. PSD and Investment Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Demand for microenterprise development and credit is very high. Over one billion poor people still lack access to these and other financial services necessary to create microenterprises. </li></ul><ul><li>The Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) , a consortium of 28 public and private development agencies, was created to address the financial services needs of the poor and serve as a global resource center for microenterprise development. [ </li></ul><ul><li>CGAP also conducts assessments and evaluations, and has published many evaluation studies of microenterprise development. [ </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    85. 85. PSD and Investment Climate (cont.) <ul><li>Microenterprise development and credit have done much to improve socio-economic conditions in poor countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Microfinance is a proven, effective tool in the fight against poverty. The poor have displayed a capability to repay loans, pay the real cost of loans, and generate savings that are reinvested in their business. </li></ul><ul><li>Income earned through microenterprises enables families to increase their spending on education, health care, and improved nutrition </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    86. 86. PSD, Investment, and M&E 私营部门的发展,投资以及监测与评价 <ul><li>Evaluate using four possible indicators: </li></ul><ul><li>使用四种可能的指标评价: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>business performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>企业绩效 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>经济可持续性 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>环境效果 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private sector development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>私营部门的发展 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doing Business Database: objective measures of business regulations and their reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>制作商业数据库:对商业规章制度及其强化效果的客观衡量 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    87. 87. PSD, Investment, and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>A recent World Development Report (2005 ) highlighted investment climate surveys and business environment and firm performance surveys, which can determine how governments can create better investment climates for firms of all types  from farmers and micro-entrepreneurs to local manufacturing companies and multinationals. </li></ul><ul><li>The surveys covered 26,000 firms in 53 developing countries, and 3000 micro and informal enterprises in 11 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>These surveys allow for the comparison of existing conditions and the benchmarking of conditions to monitor changes over time. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey instrument is composed of a core set of questions and several modules that can be used to explore in greater depth specific aspects of the investment climate and its links to firm-level productivity. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    88. 88. PSD, Investment, and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>Questions can be categorized into three distinct groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>those generating information for the profiling of businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>those used for the profiling of the investment climate in which businesses operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>those generating indicators of firm performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicators used were: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>policy uncertainty (major constraint, unpredictable interpretation of regulations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corruption (major constraint, report bribes are paid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>courts (major constraint, lack confidence courts uphold property rights) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crime (major constraint, report losses from crime, average loss from crime as percentage of sales). </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    89. 89. PSD, Investment, and M&E (cont.) <ul><li>Other sources of investment climate indicators included: the business risk service; country credit ratings (Euromoney Institutional Investor); country risk indicators (World Markets Research Center); Country Risk Service (Economist Intelligence Unit); Global Competitiveness Report (World Economic Forum), and so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral development banks, international financial institutions, donors, and the private sector are all involved in such surveys, providing valuable information and advice. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also ongoing and periodic assessments and evaluations of investment climates in countries around the world. One notable example is the “Doing Business Database,” which provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement. Indicators are comparable across 145 economies. They indicate the regulatory costs of business and can be used to analyze specific regulations that enhance or constrain investment, productivity and growth. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    90. 90. Environmental and Social Sustainability 环境和社会可持续性 <ul><li>Corporate social responsibility (CSR): actively taking into account the economic, environmental and social impacts, and consequences of business activities </li></ul><ul><li>企业社会责任( CSR ):积极地考虑到经济、环境和社会影响及商业活动的后果 </li></ul><ul><li>Equator Principles (2003): </li></ul><ul><li>赤道原则( 2003 ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common baseline and framework, and standards for financing activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>共同基线与框架,以及融资活动的标准 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outline ways to determine, assess, and manage risk (environmental and social) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>概述决定、评价和管理(环境和社会)风险的方法 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commitment to socially responsible financing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>致力于对社会负责的融资 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    91. 91. Environmental and Social Sustainability (cont.) <ul><li>Private sector companies, organizations, and governments are looking at new ways of ensuring that business activities and services do not harm the economy, society, and environment in the countries and sectors in which they operate. For example, the British government has adopted various policies and legislation to encourage corporate social responsibility in general, and environmental and social sustainability in particular. </li></ul><ul><li>The Government sees CSR as the business contribution to our sustainable development goals. Essentially it is about how business takes account of its economic, social and environmental impacts in the way it operates—maximizing the benefits and minimizing the downsides…The Government’s approach is to encourage and incentivise the adoption and reporting of CSR through best practice guidance, and, where appropriate, intelligent regulation and fiscal incentives . </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    92. 92. Environmental and Social Sustainability (cont.) <ul><li>The International Finance Corporation (IFC), the private sector arm of the World Bank Group, and some 20 (and growing) leading commercial banks (in Europe, North America, Japan and Australia) have voluntary adopted common environmental and social standards in their financing of projects around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The institutions are seeking to ensure that the projects they finance are developed in a socially responsible manner and reflect sound environmental management practices. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    93. 93. Environmental and Social Sustainability (cont.) <ul><li>The Equator Principles are intended to serve as a common baseline and framework for the implementation of individual, internal environmental, and social procedures and standards for project financing activities across all industry sectors globally. </li></ul><ul><li>In adopting these principles, the institutions undertake to review carefully all proposals for which their customers request project financing. They pledge to not provide loans directly to projects where the borrower will not, or is unable, to comply with their environmental and social policies and processes. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    94. 94. Environmental and Social Sustainability and M&E 环境和社会可持续性以及监测与评价 <ul><li>Standards cover: </li></ul><ul><li>标准涵盖: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>环境 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health and safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>健康与安全 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indigenous peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>土著人民 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural habitats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>自然栖息地 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resettlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>重新定居 </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    95. 95. Global Public Goods 全球公共产品 <ul><li>Goods that are there for all to consume </li></ul><ul><li>能够让所有人消费的产品 </li></ul><ul><li>Goods where consumption by one person does not reduce the amount for others </li></ul><ul><li>一个人的消费不会减少其他人的数量的产品 </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of global public goods is largely absent </li></ul><ul><li>在很大程度上缺少全球公共产品的评价 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack clear objectives and verifiable performance indicators </li></ul><ul><li>缺乏明确目标和可检验的绩效指标 </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    96. 96. Global Public Goods (cont.) <ul><li>Examples of global public goods include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clean environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>h ealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>property rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peace and security </li></ul></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    97. 97. Global Public Goods (cont.) <ul><li>At the global level, evaluation is …largely absent. Collaborative programs designed to deliver global public goods are not subjected to independent appraisal and, as a result, often lack clear objectives and verifiable performance indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the impact of developed country policies on poor countries is not assessed systematically even though aid, debt, foreign investment, pollution, migration patterns, and intellectual property regimes are shaped by the decisions of developed country governments. [ </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    98. 98. Global Public Goods (cont.) <ul><li>HIV/AIDS is another example of a global public good that is at the top of many international agendas. In this context, the impact of globalization on the poor has yet to be assessed. In short, development evaluation needs to become “…more indigenous, more global and more transnational.” </li></ul><ul><li>Within a few years, there will be very likely be new issues which push the bounds of current thinking about international development and development evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>This highlights the notion that we would like to emphasize, that development and evaluation are a continuous learning exercise. </li></ul>www.dadangsolihin.com
    99. 99. Thank you! 谢谢!
    100. 100. <ul><li>Beside working as Assistant Professor at Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, he also active as Associate Professor at University of Darma Persada, Jakarta, Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>He got various training around the globe, included Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training (2008) , Public Officials Capacity Building Training Program for Government Innovation, Seoul –Korea (2007), Advanced International Training Programme of Information Technology Management, at Karlstad City, Sweden (2005); the Training Seminar on Land Use and Management, Taiwan (2004); Developing Multimedia Applications for Managers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2003); Applied Policy Development Training, Vancouver, Canada (2002); Local Government Administration Training Course, Hiroshima, Japan (2001); and Regional Development and Planning Training Course, Sapporo, Japan (1999). He published more than five books regarding local autonomous. </li></ul><ul><li>You can reach Dadang Solihin by email at [email_address] or by his mobile at +62812 932 2202 </li></ul>Dadang Solihin currently is Director for Regional D evelopment Performance Evaluation at Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas). He holds MA degree in Economics from University of Colorado, USA. His previous post is Director for System and Reporting of Development Performance Evaluation at Bappenas. Dadang Solihin’s Profile www.dadangsolihin.com