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Selecting Designs for Cause and Effect, Normative, and Descriptive  Evaluation Questions 因果性、规范性和描述性评价问题的设计
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Selecting Designs for Cause and Effect, Normative, and Descriptive Evaluation Questions 因果性、规范性和描述性评价问题的设计

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Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 13, 2008

Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 13, 2008

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Selecting Designs for Cause and Effect, Normative, and Descriptive  Evaluation Questions 因果性、规范性和描述性评价问题的设计 Selecting Designs for Cause and Effect, Normative, and Descriptive Evaluation Questions 因果性、规范性和描述性评价问题的设计 Presentation Transcript

  • Selecting Designs for Cause and Effect, Normative, and Descriptive Evaluation Questions 因果性、规范性和描述性评价问题的设计 Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 13, 2008 Ray C. Rist
    • Ray C. Rist
    • Knowledge & Evaluation Capacity Development Advisor, Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank
    • President International Development Evaluation Association (IDEAS)
    • rrist@worldbank.org;
    • www.worldbank.org/ieg
    Dadang Solihin Indonesia Delegation Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training
  • Introduction 引言
    • Connecting Questions to Design
    • 将评价问题和设计联系起来
    • Experimental Design for Cause and Effect Questions
    • 因果关系问题的实验设计
    • Quasi-experimental Designs and Threats to Validity for Cause and Effect Questions
    • 因果关系问题的准实验设计及对其正确性的威胁
    • Designs for Descriptive Questions
    • 描述性问题的设计
    • Designs for Normative Questions
    • 规范性问题的设计
    • The Gold Standard Debated
    • 对黄金标准的讨论
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Elephants in the Village 村庄里的大象 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Connecting Questions to Design 将评价问题和设计联系起来
    • Design is the plan to answer evaluation questions
    • 设计就是对评价问题的回答
    • Each question needs an appropriate design
    • 每个问题都需要一个恰当的设计
    • Avoid the “method in search of an application” technique
    • 避免“有方法但不知怎么应用”
    • No one best design
    • 没有最好的设计
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Evaluation Design 评价设计
    • The total process of specifying a plan for:
    • 详细制定一个计划的全过程,这个计划目的在于:
      • collecting data
      • 收集数据
      • analyzing data
      • 分析数据
      • reporting results
      • 汇报结果
      • getting the results used
      • 应用结果
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Design Process 设计过程 www.dadangsolihin.com Questions 问题 Designs 设计 Methods 方法 Reporting 报告 Analysis 分析
  • Approach to Development Evaluation 发展评价的方法 Focus the Evaluation 把重点放在评价上面 ▪ Purpose 目的 ▪ Terms of Reference 受权调查范围 ▪ Program logic model 计划的逻辑模型 ▪ Program outcome model 计划的成果模型 ▪ Specification of evaluation questions 评价问题的说明 ▪ Identification of stakeholders 利益相关者的确定
    • Design & Methodology
    • 设计与方法
    • ▪ Evaluation questions 评价问题
    • ▪ Data collection design 数据收集设计
    • ▪ Measurement strategy 测量战略
    • ▪ Sampling strategy 取样战略
    • ▪ Data Collection strategy 数据收集战略
    • ▪ Develop data collection instruments 制定数据收集工具
    • Involve stakeholders 让利益相关者参与进来
    Gather & Analyze Data 收集和分析数据 ▪ Gather data according to protocols 根据协议收集数据 ▪ Prepare data for analysis 为分析准备数据 ▪ Analyze data 分析数据 Report Findings 报告调查结果 ▪ Interpret the data 解释数据 ▪ Write report 撰写报告 ▪ Make recommendations 提出建议 Use Evaluation 使用评价 ▪ Communicate Findings 交流调查结果 ▪ Feed-back 反馈 ▪ Decision-making 决策 ▪ Action Plan 行动计划 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Design Matrix 设计矩阵
    • Another organizing tool to help plan an evaluation
    • 另一个帮助计划评价的组织工具
    • Organizes questions and the plans for collecting information to answer questions
    • 为回答问题组织收集信息的问题和计划
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Matrix Elements 矩阵要素
    • Design Matrix Planning Instrument for:
    • 设计矩阵计划工具用于 :
    • Major Issues Being Addressed
    • 解决的主要问题
    • Major Assumptions Being Made
    • 提出的主要假设
    • Questions
    • 问题
    • Sub-questions
    • 子问题
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Matrix Elements ( Cont.)
    • Type of Question
    • 问题类型
    • Design
    • 设计
    • Measures or Indicators
    • 测量或指标
    • Target or Standard
    • 目标或标准
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Matrix Elements ( Cont.)
    • The purpose of the matrix is to organize the evaluation purpose and questions and match what is to be evaluated with appropriate data collection techniques. Although there is no hard and fast rule, a design matrix usually includes the following elements:
    • Although each evaluation question is unique, data collection activities are designed to address more than one question and several activities may address a single question. The matrix incorporates known sources of information and planned sources. As you move from planning to implementation, sources can be expanded and clarified.
    • Beyond its immediate usefulness as a planning tool, the matrix can serve as a tool to promote collaboration between evaluators and program staff. During later stages of the evaluation, evaluators and program staff can review the matrix, update it and use it as a guide for implementing the evaluation.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Matrix Elements (page 2) 矩阵要素(第 2 页)
    • Data Sources
    • 数据来源
    • Sample
    • 样本
    • Data Collection Instrument
    • 数据收集工具
    • Data Analysis
    • 数据分析
    • Comments
    • 注释
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Connecting Questions to Design 将问题和设计联系起来 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Answering Descriptive Questions 回答描述性问题
    • Descriptive questions generally use non-experimental designs
    • 描述性问题一般采用非实验设计方法
    • Common designs for descriptive questions:
    • 描述性问题的常见设计方法:
      • one-shot
      • 单次研究设计
      • cross-sectional
      • 横断面研究
      • before-and-after
      • 前后对比研究
      • time series
      • 时间序列研究
      • Longitudinal
      • 跟踪研究
      • case studies
      • 案例研究
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • One-shot Designs 单次研究设计
    • receiving an intervention at one point in time, following the intervention
    • 在干预措施实施之后的某个时点,对干预措施的受施对象进行的一次考察
    • A look at a group Use to answer questions such as:
    • 用来回答诸如以下之类的问题:
      • How many women were trained?
      • 有多少妇女接受了培训?
      • How many participants received job counseling as well as vocational training?
      • 有多少参与者接受了工作咨询服务和职业培训?
      • How did you like the training?
      • 你对培训的看法如何?
      • How did you find out about the training?
      • 你认为培训效果如何?
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • One-shot 单次研究
    • Represented as:
      • X O 1
    • 用符号表示为 :
      • X O 1
    • There is one group receiving the treatment “X” and one observation “O”
    • 只有一个组接受了实验处理“ X” ,只进行了一个观察“ O”
    • There is no before treatment/ intervention measure
    • 在实验处理 / 干预措施之前没有进行测量
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Cross-sectional Designs 横断面研究设计
    • Also show a snapshot at one point in time
    • 同样也是反映出某一时点的情况
    • Also interested in sub-group responses
    • 同时也对分类组的反应感兴趣
    • Often used with survey method
    • 经常与调查方法一起使用
    • Subgroups may be:
    • 分类组可以按以下类别进行划分:
      • Age 年龄
      • Gender 性别
      • Income 收入
      • Education 教育背景
      • Ethnicity 民族
      • Amount of intervention received 接受的干预措施数量
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Cross-sectional 横断面研究
    • Evaluation question may focus on
    • 评价问题可以侧重于
      • participant satisfaction of services
      • 参与者对服务的满意度
      • why they did not use services
      • 为什么他们没有使用服务
      • find out current status of people from an intervention a few years ago
      • 明确人们在干预措施实施几年后的现状
    • 评价问题可以是:
      • Do participants with different levels of education have different views on the value of training?
      • 受教育水平不同的参与者对于培训的价值是否有不同的看法?
      • Did women receive different training services than their male counterparts?
      • 妇女接受的培训服务是否与男性的不同?
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Cross-sectional 横断面研究
    • Represented as:
    • 用符号表示为:
      • X O 1 O 2 O 3
    • The observation is made after the intervention “X” and responses of subgroups (“O 1 , O 2 , O 3 ” and so on) receiving the interventions are examined
    • 在干预措施“ X” 实施之后进行观察,并且检验接受干预措施的分类组(“ O 1 , O 2 , O 3 ” 等)的反应
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Before-and-after Designs 前后对比研究设计
    • Also called pre- and post-designs
    • 也称为“前后测”设计
    • Ask about group characteristics
    • 询问群体特征
    • There is no comparison group
    • 没有对照组
    • Evaluation questions:
    • 评价问题:
      • Did program participants increase their knowledge of parenting techniques?
      • 计划参与者是否增加了抚育孩子技能方面的知识?
      • What was the change in wages earned, two years after the training intervention?
      • 在实施培训干预措施的 2 年后,工资有什么变化?
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Before-and-after Designs 前后对比研究设计
    • Represented as:
    • 用符号表示为:
      • O 1 X O 2
    • observation, intervention, observation
    • 观察、干预、观察
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Time Series Designs 时间序列研究设计
    • Look for change over time
    • 找出随时间发生的变化情况
    • Purpose is to explore and describe changes over time – either after, or before and after the intervention
    • 目的在于探究并描述随时间发生的变化情况——或者是干预措施实施之后的变化,或者是实施前后的变化
    • Can be used to discern trends
    • 可以用来辨别趋势
    • Can be simple time series or cross-sectional
    • 可以是简单的时间序列或横断面
    • Often there are existing data that can be used
    • 经常有可以使用的现有数据
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Time Series 时间序列研究
    • Evaluation questions:
    • 评价问题:
      • What are the trends in child mortality rates before and after and over time for an intervention?
      • 儿童死亡率在干预措施实施前后的变化如何,其变化趋势如何?
      • What are the changes in participant attitudes over time towards women entrepreneurs?
      • 参与者对女性企业家的态度随时间发生了什么变化?
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Time Series 时间序列研究
    • Represented as:
    • 用符号表示为:
      • O 1 O 2 O 3 X O 4 O 5 O 6
    • Several (three shown above) observations are made prior to the intervention and again three more times after the intervention
    • 在干预措施实施之前进行了几次观察(如上所示 3 次),实施之后又进行了 3 次观察
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Longitudinal Study 跟踪研究
    • A type of time series design
    • 时间序列研究的一种
    • Repeated measures of the same variable are taken from the same people
    • 对同一人群的同一变量进行重复测量
    • Panel design is one type of longitudinal study where a small group of people is tracked at multiple points over time
    • 同样本设计是跟踪研究的一种,它对一组人在多个时点上进行跟踪
      • almost always use qualitative questions (open-ended survey questions, in-depth interviews, and observation)
      • 几乎总是使用定性问题(开放式调查问题、深入访谈和观察)
      • can give a more in-depth perspective
      • 能够得出更深入的观点
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Longitudinal 跟踪研究
    • Evaluation question:
    • 评价问题:
      • How did the allocation of social benefits effect families’ transition into and out of poverty?
      • 社会利益的分配是如何影响家庭转向贫困或脱离贫困的 ?
        • a study looking at Poland’s family allowance from 1993 to 1996
        • 一项考察波兰 1993-1996 年间家庭津贴的研究
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Case Study Design 案例研究设计
    • Descriptive case study
    • 描述性案例研究
    • In-depth information is collected over time to better understand the particular case or cases
    • 收集一段时间内的深入的信息以更好地理解特定案例
    • Useful for describing what implementation of the intervention looked like – and why things happened the way they did
    • 能够用于描述干预措施的实施情况,以及事情以这样的方式发生的原因
    • May be used to examine program extremes, or a typical intervention
    • 可以用来检验计划的极端情况,或检验一个典型的干预措施
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Case Study 案例研究
    • Represented as:
    • 用符号表示为:
      • O 1 O 2 O 3
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Answering Normative Questions 回答规范性问题
    • Similar to descriptive questions
    • 类似于描述性问题
    • Normative always assessed against a criterion:
    • 评价规范性总是要依据某一准则:
      • a specified desired or mandatory goal, target, or standard to be reached
      • 一项特定的预期的或强制性长期目标、具体目标、或者要达到的标准
    • Generally the same designs work for normative questions as descriptive questions
    • 一般规范性问题的设计与描述性问题的相同
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Answering Cause-Effect Questions 回答因果关系问题
    • Pose the greatest challenge
    • 提出了最大的挑战
    • Need a well thought out design
    • 需要一个精心思考的设计
    • Design attempts to rule out feasible explanations other than the intervention
    • 设计要力求排除干预措施之外的可能的解释因素
    • Internal validity: a design’s ability to rule out other explanations
    • 内部有效性:设计排除其它解释因素的能力
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Common Threats to Internal Validity 内部有效性的共同影响因素
    • History (events occurring at the same time)
    • 历史(在相同时间发生的事件)
    • Maturation of subjects (getting older changes the results)
    • 对象的成熟度(越成熟越会改变结果)
    • Testing (learning how to take the test)
    • 检验(了解如何进行检验)
    • Instrumentation (changes in data collection instruments or procedures)
    • 工具的使用(数据收集工具或程序的变化)
    • Selection bias (participants may be different to begin with)
    • 选择性偏倚(参与者可能与刚开始的不同)
    • Attrition (a specific group of people may drop out)
    • 人员损耗(一些人可能退出)
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Impact Designs “ 影响研究”设计
    • Can use experimental and quasi-experimental designs
    • 可以使用实验研究设计和准实验研究设计
    • Experimental sometimes called the “medical model”
    • 实验有时被称为“医疗模型”
      • randomly assign participants to a group, group does not know who is in the treatment or placebo group (“blind studies”)
      • 把参与者随机分配到一个组里,这个组里没人知道谁在治疗组里或在安慰剂组里(“双盲研究”)
      • some believe it is to withhold the “best” alternative from some participants
      • 有人认为这会从一些参与者中隐藏“最佳”的替代方法
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Controlling 控制
    • To reduce the possibility of believing we know something as true which is really not, need to control everything but the intervention, including:
    • 为了降低我们把事实上不真实的事情当成真实的可能性,须要控制干预措施以外的每个因素,包括:
      • the implementation of an intervention
      • 干预措施的实施
      • who receives it
      • 干预措施的受施对象
      • the environment in which it is delivered
      • 干预措施实施的环境
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Impact and Multi-site and Cluster Evaluations 影响评价、多点评价与聚类评价
    • Each site and the nature of the interventions may vary in different locations
    • 干预措施的每个实施地点和特点都随不同的当地条件而不同
    • Complexity may limit options for design
    • 复杂性可能限制设计方案的选择
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Design Elements 设计要素 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Design Elements for Impact Questions “ 影响问题”的设计要素
    • For evaluators doing traditional experimental evaluation:
    • 对于实施 传统的 / 实验研究评价的评价人员而言:
      • before-and-after measures 前后对比测量
      • comparison groups 对照组
      • random assignment to the comparison groups 随机分配对照组
    • For newer approaches (i.e. cluster, multi-site, and rapid assessment)
    • 对于新的方法(如聚类评价、多点评价和快速评价)
      • use of control variables 使用控制变量
      • use of natural variation 使用自然变化
      • causal tracing strategies 原因跟踪策略
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Before-and-After Measures 前后对比测量
    • Change is measured by comparing key measures after the intervention began against the measures taken before the intervention began
    • 通过比较干预措施实施之后的关键测量结果与实施之前的测量结果来测量变化情况
    • Before measure might be called the baseline
    • 干预措施实施的前测量可称为基线
    • Collecting baseline data might be called a baseline study
    • 收集基准数据可以称为基线研究
    • Change alone does not prove causality
    • 单独的变化不能证明因果关系
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Comparison Groups 对照组
    • Treatment group: group that received treatment
    • 治疗组:接受治疗的组
    • Control group: group that does not receive treatment
    • 控制组:没有接受治疗的组
    • If the intervention causes change those in treatment group show more change than the control group
    • 如果干预措施给治疗组中的人带来的变化比控制组的多
    • Again, alternative explanations must be ruled out before drawing conclusions
    • 再次地,在下结论之前必须排除其它解释因素
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Random Assignment 随机分配
    • Random: people, or things are placed in groups by chance
    • 随机:同组的人或事以相同的机率出现
    • Random assignment makes groups comparable
    • 随机分配使各组之间具有可比性
    • Not always an option but it is possible more often than you think
    • 未必总是使用随机分配,但它的使用可能比你想的更频繁
      • when not all participants can receive the intervention at once
      • 当并非所有参与者同时接受干预措施的时候
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Use of Control Variables 控制变量的使用
    • Random assignment impossible?
    • 随机分配不可能吗?
      • Rule out alternative explanations by statistically controlling for them:
      • 通过在统计上控制以下因素来排除其它解释因素:
        • prior performance or prevalence levels
        • 先前的绩效或发生率水平
        • socioeconomic status
        • 社会经济状况
        • prior soil quality
        • 先前的土壤质量
        • weather / climate
        • 天气 / 气候
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Use of Natural Variation 自然变化的使用
    • Inconsistent implementation? Turn it into an advantage
    • 实施情况前后不一致?把它转化成优势
    • Useful evidence includes:
    • 有用的证据包括:
      • less extensive implementation
      • 范围较小的实施
        • smaller (or no) impact
        • 影响较小(或没有)
      • better quality implementation
      • 质量更好的实施
        • more positive results and/or fewer negative impacts
        • 更积极的结果和 / 或更少的消极影响
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Causal Tracing Strategies 原因跟踪策略
    • Based on the general principles used in traditional experimental and quasi-experimental designs, but:
    • 基于传统实验设计和准实验设计中适用的通用原则,但:
      • can be used for rapid assessments
      • 可以用于快速评价
      • can be used without high-level statistical expertise
      • 可以在没有高水平统计专业知识的情况下使用
      • can be used on small scale interventions where numbers preclude statistical analysis 可以在不必进行统计分析的小范围的干预措施中使用
      • can be used for evaluations with a qualitative component
      • 可以用于包含定性内容的评价
      • involves the evaluator doing some detective work
      • 评价人员要做一些探测性工作
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Causal Tracing Strategies 原因跟踪策略
    • Ask yourself:
    • 问你自己:
      • What decisions are likely to be based on the evidence from this evaluation?
      • 哪些决策可能基于本次评价得出的证据?
      • How certain do I need to be about my conclusions?
      • 我的结论须要有多大的确定性?
      • What information can I feasibly collect?
      • 我可能收集到哪些信息?
      • What combination of information will give me the certainty I need?
      • 哪些信息将提供给我所需要的确定性?
    • Remember: this list is a menu of possible sources of evidence, not a strict checklist of requirements
    • 请记住:这是个可能的证据来源清单,不是严格的要求核查清单
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  • 9 Causal Tracing Evidence Sources 九种原因跟踪证据来源
    • Causal list inference
    • 原因清单推论
    • Modus operandi
    • 操作方法
    • Temporal precedence
    • 时间顺序
    • Constant conjunction
    • 固定联系
    • Contiguity of influence
    • 影响的连续性
    • Strength of association
    • 联合的优势
    • Biological gradient
    • 生理梯度
    • Coherence
    • 一致性
    • Analogy
    • 类推
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  • Types of Evaluation Designs for Impact 针对“影响评价”的设计类型 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Types 类型
    • Experimental design
    • 实验研究设计
    • Quasi-experimental design
    • 准实验研究设计
    • Correlational design
    • 相关研究设计
    • Case study design
    • 案例研究设计
    • Non-experimental design
    • 非实验研究设计
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  • Experimental Design 实验研究设计
    • Called the “true experiment”
    • 称为“真实验研究”
      • involves random assignment
      • 涉及随即分配
      • uses comparison groups
      • 使用对照组
      • often includes before-and-after measures
      • 经常包含前后对比测量
    • Considered the optimum approach but can be difficult to implement
    • 考虑使用最合适的途径,但实施困难
    • Drawback:
    • 缺点:
      • often small scale, less generalizable
      • 通常使用范围较小,可归纳性不强
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  • Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) 随机对照试验
    • Consider when:
    • 在以下情况下考虑使用:
      • you have a discrete, concrete intervention –
      • singular, well-defined
      • 你的干预措施是单一的、具体的——个别的、定义明确的
      • implementation can be standardized
      • 其实施可以被标准化
      • valid and reliable measures exist for the outcome to be tested
      • 对所要检验的成效存在有效且可靠的测量
      • random assignment is possible
      • 随即分配是可能的
      • random assignment is ethical
      • 随机分配合乎道德规范
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  • Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) 随机对照试验
    • NOT appropriate for:
    • 不适于:
      • complex, multi-dimensional and highly context-specific community interventions
      • 复杂的、涉及多领域的和具有高度情境特异性的社区干预措施
      • ethical constraints
      • 道德约束
    • NOT needed if:
    • 如果出现以下情况则不需要:
      • face validity is high
      • 表面效度高
      • observed changes are dramatic
      • 观察到的变化情况程度很剧烈
      • link between treatment and outcome is direct
      • 试验处理和成效之间的联系是直接的
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  • Quasi-experimental Design 准实验研究设计
    • The design is similar to true experimental design but:
    • 其设计与真实验研究设计相似,但:
      • no random assignment
      • 不进行随机分配
      • uses naturally-occurring comparison groups
      • 使用自然存在的对照组
      • requires more data to rule out alternative explanations
      • 需要更多的数据来排除其它解释因素
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  • Examples of Quasi-experimental Design 准实验研究设计示例
    • Before-and-after: good for descriptive questions
    • 前后对比:适用于描述性问题
    • Matched and non-equivalent comparison design
    • 匹配的和不对称的比较设计
    • Time series and interrupted time series design
    • 时间序列和间断时间序列设计
    • Correlational design using statistical controls
    • 使用统计控制进行相关性研究设计
    • Longitudinal design
    • 跟踪设计
    • Panel design
    • 同样本设计
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  • Cor r elational Design 相关研究设计
    • Often used when seeking to answer questions about relationships and associations
    • 经常在力求回答有关相关性和联系的问题的时候使用
    • Often used with already available data
    • 经常利用现有的数据
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  • Case Study Design 案例研究设计
    • Used when the researcher wants to gain an in-depth understanding of a process, event, or situation
    • 当研究人员想要获得对过程、事件或情况的深入了解的时候使用
    • Good to learn how something works or why something happens
    • 能够了解某些事情是如何起作用的,或者某些事情为什么会发生
    • Are often more practical than a national study
    • 通常比一个全国范围的研究更实际可行
    • Can consist of a single case or multiple cases
    • 可以包含单个案例或多个案例
    • Can use qualitative or quantitative methods to collect data
    • 可以使用定性或定量的方法来收集数据
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  • Key Points about Design 有关设计的关键点 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Key Points 关键点
    • There is no perfect design
    • 没有完美无缺的设计
    • Each design has strengths and weaknesses
    • 每种设计都有其优点和缺点
    • There are always trade-offs – time, costs, practicality
    • 通常要在时间、成本和可操作性上进行权衡
    • Acknowledge trade-offs and potential weaknesses
    • 要声明这种权衡考虑和潜在的缺点
    • Provide some assessment of their likely impact on your results and conclusions
    • 要对这些权衡和缺点对你的结果和结论可能产生的影响进行评价
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  • Thank you! 谢谢!
    • Beside working as Assistant Professor at Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, he also active as Associate Professor at University of Darma Persada, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    • He got various training around the globe, included Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training (2008) , Public Officials Capacity Building Training Program for Government Innovation, Seoul –Korea (2007), Advanced International Training Programme of Information Technology Management, at Karlstad City, Sweden (2005); the Training Seminar on Land Use and Management, Taiwan (2004); Developing Multimedia Applications for Managers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2003); Applied Policy Development Training, Vancouver, Canada (2002); Local Government Administration Training Course, Hiroshima, Japan (2001); and Regional Development and Planning Training Course, Sapporo, Japan (1999). He published more than five books regarding local autonomous.
    • You can reach Dadang Solihin by email at [email_address] or by his mobile at +62812 932 2202
    Dadang Solihin currently is Director for Regional D evelopment Performance Evaluation at Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas). He holds MA degree in Economics from University of Colorado, USA. His previous post is Director for System and Reporting of Development Performance Evaluation at Bappenas. Dadang Solihin’s Profile www.dadangsolihin.com