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Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 16, 2008

Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 16, 2008

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Presenting Results 成果展示 Presenting Results 成果展示 Presentation Transcript

  • Presenting Results 成果展示 Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 16, 2008 Ray C. Rist
    • Ray C. Rist
    • Knowledge & Evaluation Capacity Development Advisor, Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank
    • President International Development Evaluation Association (IDEAS)
    • rrist@worldbank.org;
    • www.worldbank.org/ieg
    Dadang Solihin Indonesia Delegation Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training
  • Introduction 介绍
    • Communication Basics
    • 交流的基础
    • Writing Evaluation Reports for Your Audience
    • 为你的受众撰写评价报告
    • Using Visual Information
    • 使用视觉信息
    • Making Oral Presentations
    • 进行口头报告
    • Peer-Review and Meta-evaluation
    • 同行评议以及广义评价
    www.dadangsolihin.com View slide
  • Purpose of Communicating 交流的目的
    • The goal is to communicate, not to impress
    • 目的是沟通,不是得出印象
    • Make it easy for your reader to get your point
    • 使你的读者能够容易地理解你的意思
    • Keep your purpose and audience in mind
    • 牢记你的目的和对象
    www.dadangsolihin.com View slide
  • Purpose of Communicating (Cont.)
    • An evaluation that is not used to inform decisions is of little value. As one designs an evaluation, it helps to begin with the end in mind: to provide usable information to stakeholders that lead to program improvements, funding decisions, accountability, and/or learning.
    • Therefore, it is essential that the results of an evaluation be communicated clearly, accurately, and appropriately for the audience to make use of the information.
    • A communication strategy is an essential ingredient in development evaluation.
    • It is helpful to involve the stakeholders in planning the evaluation as well as to engage them in developing a process for feedback and communication.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Choosing Words 选择语句
    • Use words that are:
    • 选择的语句应该:
    • Simple 简单
    • Active 主动
    • Positive 积极
    • Short and concise 简洁
    • Conversational 口语化
    • Familiar 熟悉的
    • Direct 直接
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Choosing Words (Cont.)
    • Choose your words and visuals wisely. The real meaning of you evaluation report is not in the words (or visuals) themselves but in the mind of the writer. If you want successful communication to occur, the words you use in the message must be the same in the minds of both the writer and the reader.
    • People interpret messages based upon their past experiences and perceptions. Different people can understand the same words or visuals differently. For this reason, you need to know as much as possible about your audience and communicate your report based upon what you know about their past experience and perceptions.
    • Try to put yourself in your audience’s place. How would you like to have this message given if you were in the audience? Did you explain everything clearly, or did you take too much for granted?
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Communication Strategy 交流策略
    • The point of doing an evaluation is so the results can inform:
    • 实施一项评价的重点是其结果能够为以下方面提供信息:
      • Policymaking 政策制订
      • program changes 项目改变
      • program replication 项目复制
    • May need multiple products to communicate
    • 可能需要多种产品进行交流
    • A communication strategy helps identify products you need and who for
    • 交流策略帮助确认你需要的产品以及报告对象
    • Develop a communication strategy before the evaluation
    • 在评价前开发一个交流策略
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Questions for Communication Strategy 交流策略的问题
    • Who will receive what information?
    • 谁会得到这些信息?
    • In what format?
    • 以什么样的形式
    • When?
    • 什么时间?
    • Who will prepare the information?
    • 谁来准备信息?
    • Who will deliver the information?
    • 谁来发布信息?
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Strategies for All Phases 所有阶段的策略
    • Before the evaluation
    • 评价之前
      • ensure everyone is on board
      • 每个人都需要准备好
    • During the evaluation
    • 评价中
      • ensure everyone is informed of progress
      • 保证每个人都知道进展
      • no surprises
      • 不能有意外
    • After the evaluation
    • 评价之后
      • disseminate results, make decisions
      • 传播结果,做出决定
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • What Kinds of Communication? 什么样的交流?
    • Informal 非正式
      • Phone
      • 电话
      • Email
      • 电子邮件
      • Faxes
      • 传真
      • Communications
      • 通信
    • Formal 正式
      • Briefings
      • 剪报
      • Presentations
      • 成果展示
      • Written reports
      • 书面报告
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Example of Checklist for Strategy 策略核查单举例 www.dadangsolihin.com Audience 报告对象 Product 成果 Responsible? 责任 Due Date 截至日期 Donor 捐助方 • formal report 正式报告 team leader 团队领导 6/1 Advisory board 顾问团 • oral briefing 口头阐述 member A 成员 A 6/1 Local stakeholders 当地的利益相关者 • executive summary 执行小结 • oral briefing 口头阐述 member B 成员 B 6/1 Program staff 项目成员 • copy of formal report 正式报告副本 • executive summary 执行小结 member C 成员 C 6/1 Local govt. officials 当地政府官员 • oral briefing 口头阐述 team leader 团队领导 6/5 Participants 成员 • oral briefing 口头阐述 team leader 团队领导 6/5 Dev. eval. Community 发展评价界 • article for publication 需要出版的文章 team leader 团队领导 8/1
    • You should develop your communication strategy before the evaluation to ensure that everyone is on board.
    • During the evaluation, you will need to make sure that all are informed of the progress of your evaluation.
    • You can use informal communications such as phone, email, faxes, and conversations during the evaluation.
    • For your final report, you will need to choose from more formal communications, such as briefings, presentations, and written reports.
    • Be sure to include a feedback process to bring stakeholders and evaluators together to discuss the findings, insights, alternative actions, and next steps. If you plan to use large group discussions, be sure to consider all the stakeholders connected with your program and identify challenges in communicating evaluation results to different stakeholders.
    Example of Checklist for Strategy (Cont.) www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Feedback 反馈
    • Set up a process to bring stakeholders and evaluator(s) together to discuss:
    • 制定一个程序将利益相关者和评价人员集中在一起来讨论:
      • Findings 发现
      • Insights 洞察
      • alternative actions 替代性行动
      • next steps 下一步
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Large Group Discussions 大规模讨论
    • Consider all the stakeholders connected with your program
    • 考虑所有的利益相关者都同你的项目有联系
    • Identify challenges in communicating evaluation results to different stakeholders
    • 确认不同的利益相关者在交流评价结果的时候遇到的挑战
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Innovative Communication Strategies 革新的交流策略
    • Consider communication tools that take less time to create:
    • 考虑可能的交流技巧,因此创造下面的这些所需时间减少:
      • small overview brochure “teaser” to build interest
      • 小的综述,以小册子的广告为形式让别人感兴趣
      • tri-fold brochure with key action steps for sustainability
      • 三重的小册子,重要的行动步骤在于保持可持续性
      • electronic videoconference
      • 视频会议
      • Web site with hyperlinks to documents
      • 有超链接到文本的网站
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Keys for Writing a Report 撰写报告的关键
    • Keep it simple 简单明了
    • Avoid acronyms 避免使用字母缩写
    • Provide enough information about your research methods so others can judge its credibility
    • 对研究方法的描述要足够详细,以便别人能够判断其可信性
    • Place technical information in an appendix
    • 目录中付上技术信息
    • Always provide the limitations of the study with cautions to interpretations
    • 总是要阐明研究的局限性,提醒读者要审慎对待报告中的解释说明
    • Organize around major themes or research questions
    • 围绕主要主题或研究问题来组织报告
    • (continued on next slide) 续下页
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Keys for Writing a Report (cont.) 撰写报告的关键(续)
    • Place major point up front. Lead each paragraph with your point
    • 把主要观点放在前面,每一段前面要有主题句
    • Leave time to revise, revise, and revise!
    • 留出时间来修改,修改,再修改!
    • Find a person to be a cold reader. Ideally, this should be a detail oriented person, who is looking to make sure every “i” is dotted and every “t” is crossed
    • 找一位冷静的读者,他最好是特别注意报告细节的人,能够仔细地阅读报告,确保每个字母“ i” 上的点和每个字母“ t” 上的一横都不被漏掉
    • Support conclusions and recommendations with evidence
    • 用证据来支撑结论和建议
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • The Executive Summary 执行小结
    • Provides a quick overview of the study:
    • 提供一个有关研究的摘要
      • Issues
      • 议题
      • Questions
      • 问题
      • Methods
      • 方法
      • Findings
      • 发现
      • Recommendations
      • 建议
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Executive Summary Format 执行小结的模式
    • The executive summary should be short; two pages are great, more than four are too much
    • 执行摘要应该简短,一页足可,超过四页就太多了
    • Set up with headings to the left so it is easy for readers to scan the report
    • 左边要有标题,这样读者能够容易地浏览报告
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Basic Components of the Executive Summary 执行小结的基本组成
    • Brief Overview or Introduction
    • 简短的概述或者介绍
    • Description of the Study
    • 对于研究的描述
    • Background
    • 背景
    • Major Findings
    • 主要的发现
    • Conclusions/Recommendations
    • 结论和建议
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Basic Components of the Executive Summary (Cont.)
    • Brief Overview or Introduction
    • Purpose of the study, situation or issue of concern
    • Grab your reader's attention.
    • Description of the Study
    • Major questions, brief statement about how the study was conducted.
    • Background
    • Provide enough information to place the study in context.
    • Major Findings:
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Basic Components of the Executive Summary (Cont.)
    • These should relate to your purpose or research questions. This is your judgment here: what would your audience think is most important or interesting?
    • You can present in bullet format.
    • Use simple, clear, jargon free language.
    • Refer readers to the text or appendix for more detail.
    • Conclusions/Recommendations
    • These should flow from the findings.
    • Present the key evidence to support any conclusions or recommendations.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Body of the Report 报告的内容结构
    • Introduction
    • 介绍
    • Description of the evaluation
    • 评价的描述
    • Findings
    • 发现
    • Conclusions
    • 结论
    • Recommendations
    • 建议
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Introduction in Body of Report 报告的介绍部分
    • Should contain:
    • 应该包括:
    • The “hook” that draws readers into the report
    • 促使读者阅读报告的“吸引力”
    • Evaluation questions and purpose of the report
    • 评价问题以及报告的目的
    • Background of the program
    • 项目的背景
    • Program’s goals and objectives
    • 项目的长期目标和短期目标
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Introduction in Body of Report (Cont.)
    • The introduction to the report will discuss the purpose of the report and questions that will be answered.
    • It will try to set up an interest in the report, a kind of “hook.” The following is a list of components that will be found in an introduction.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Description of the Evaluation in Body of Report 报告中对评价的描述
    • Evaluation focus
    • 评价的关注点
    • Evaluation design
    • 评价设计
    • Evaluation questions
    • 评价问题
    • Methodology and strategy for analysis
    • 方法论以及分析的策略
    • Limitations of the methodology
    • 方法论的局限
    • Who was involved and their timeframes
    • 谁介入进来了,以及时间框架
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Description of the Evaluation in Body of Report (Cont.)
    • After the introduction, you will present a brief description of the evaluation. It will include the following components.
    • These will be very brief with details included in the appendix.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Findings in Body of Report 报告中的发现
    • Present data so that your audience can understand them
    • 展示数据,这样你的报告对象能理解它们
    • Present data selectively — what are your most important points?
    • 有选择性的展示数据—— 最重要的点是什么?
    • Organize the findings around study questions, major themes, or program components
    • 以研究问题,主题或项目组成来组织你的发现
    • Use charts and tables to illustrate and help highlight your major points
    • 利用图表来说明并强调你的主要观点
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Findings in Body of Report (Cont.)
    • Now that your audience has the “big picture” of the evaluation you can go on to present the findings of your evaluation.
    • Be sure to present the findings in the following manner.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Conclusions in Body of Report 报告中的结论
    • The final part of your report
    • 报告的最后一部分
    • Conclusions:
    • 结论
      • connect to your research questions or evaluation focus
      • 连接你的研究问题或评价的关注点
      • are based on findings and emphasize what the report means
      • 基于发现并且强调报告的意义
      • add no new details
      • 不再加入新的细节
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Recommendations in Body of Report 报告中的建议
    • May be part of the conclusions
    • 可以是结论的一部分
    • Recommendations answer the question:
    • 建议回答问题:
      • What do you want the reader to do?
      • 你希望读者做什么?
    • Recommendations should:
    • 建议应该:
      • be based on the conclusions
      • 基于结论
      • be clear and specific, identifying who should do what and when
      • 清楚具体,确认什么时间谁会做什么
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Recommendation Tracking System (RTS) 建议追踪系统
    • RTS is a technique that allows stakeholders to check the implementation of evaluation recommendations
    • 建议追踪系统是一项技术,它使得利益相关者能检查评价建议的执行
    • RTS uses a matrix to track:
    • 建议追踪系统用一个矩阵来追踪:
      • date of recommendation
      • 建议的日期
      • who is responsible for taking action
      • 谁会负责采取行动
      • response/ progress
      • 回应 / 进展
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Example of an RTS 建议追踪系统举例 www.dadangsolihin.com Recommendation 建议 Date 日期 Who is Responsible 谁负责 Response/ Progress 回应 / 进展 1. 2. 3. 4.
  • IFC’s MATR 阶段 1 指标循环 阶段 2 监督循环 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Reasons to Use Graphics 利用图表的原因
    • Add interest
    • 更加生动
    • Communicate information more clearly and effectively
    • 能更加清楚有效的交流信息
    • Can be used to “lighten” the density of continuous text
    • 能够成为连续性文本中的亮点
    • Provide a focal point — attract your audience to key points
    • 提供一个焦点—— 吸引你的对象关注你的要点
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Characteristics of Good Graphics 好的图表的特征
    • Simple
    • 简单
    • Communicate without needing text
    • 不需文字即可传达信息
    • Easily reproduced
    • 复制简单
    • Clearly labeled
    • 标识清楚
    • Patterns can be distinguished
    • 各个模式能被辨认出
    • Culturally appropriate
    • 文化上合适
    • Correctly placed in the text
    • 在文本中的正确位置上
    • Consistently numbered and titled
    • 使用一致的编号和标题
    • Sources provided and credit given
    • 提供信息来源以及可信度
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Each Visual Aid Must Have: 每个视觉辅助必须有:
    • Title
    • 标题
    • Number and name of the figure within the section
    • 在章节中的编号和图名称
    • Provide a list of tables and figures at the beginning of the document
    • 在报告开头要有一个图目录
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Kinds of Visuals 视觉辅助
    • Pictures and illustrations
    • 图片以及明说
    • Organization charts
    • 组织图表
    • Gantt charts
    • 甘特图表
    • Graphs and data charts
    • 图形以及数据图表
    • Tables
    • 表格
    • Evaluation concepts
    • 评价概念
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Pictures and Illustrations 图片和说明
    • A picture is worth a thousand words
    • 图像价值千言万语
    • Research conclusions for using pictures and illustrations:
    • 为使用图像和图示的研究结论:
      • when illustrations are relevant to the content, then moderate to substantial gains can be expected in learning
      • 当图示与内容相关,就有希望在学习中取得较大的收获
      • when illustrations are NOT relevant to the content, or even worse, conflicting, you can expect NO gain in learning and maybe even confusion
      • 当图示与内容无关,或者甚至更糟的是与内容相冲突,你就无法在学习中有所收获,甚至可能感到更加困惑
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Pictures and Illustrations (Cont.)
    • Levin, Anglin, and Carney (1987) published the most respected information about using pictures and illustrations in materials.
    • When you apply this research to choosing pictures and illustrations for your reports, be sure that any pictures or illustrations that you decide to use are relevant to the content of the report. Within the report, they should be used for a reason, not just for decoration. You may want to use a picture or illustration on the cover of your report for decoration, but pictures used within the report should have a reason for being there.
    • J R Levin, G J Anglin and R N Carney (1987), 'On Empirically Validating Functions of Pictures in Prose', in D A Willows and H A Houghton (Ed) The Psychology of Illustration , Volume 1, Springer-Verlag
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Connect Narrative to Illustration 把叙述与图表等衔接起来
    • If you use a picture or illustration, be sure to use the narrative of the report to tell the audience what they are supposed to see in the picture
    • 如果你使用一个图像或图示,应确保使用叙述性语言来告诉报告对象他们将在图像中看到什么
    • Direct them to the picture and tell them what to look for
    • 将报告对象指引到图像中去,并告诉他们所要看的东西
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Types of Pictures and Illustrations 图片与说明的类型
    • Maps
    • 地图
    • Sketches
    • 示意图
    • Line Drawings
    • 线条图
    • Photographs
    • 照片
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Data Charts and Graphs 数据图和关系图
    • Graphs — visual representation of a relationship between two or more variables
    • 关系图——表明两个变量或多个变量之间关系的图示手段
    • Charts — graphic displays, such as: line charts, pie charts, and bar charts
    • 图表——图示手段,例如趋势图、饼图、柱形图
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Effective Charts 有效图表
    • Easy to read 容易阅读
      • Use upper and lower case (not all capital letters)
      • 使用大小写字母(不要全部使用大写字母)
      • Only a few type faces
      • 只是用少数几种字体
    • Use the message in the title
    • 标题中包含信息
    • Avoid busy patterns
    • 避免过多的形式
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Effective Charts (Cont.)
    • Use white space
    • 底色为白色
    • Keep the chart simple
    • 图表简单
    • Keep scales honest (proportional)
    • 图表的刻度要真实(按比例)
    • Use title to convey message
    • 用标题来传递信息
    • Put supporting data in an appendix
    • 支持性信息放在附录中
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Parts of a Graph 关系图的组成 Source: Fabricated Data 2006 www.dadangsolihin.com Title 标题 Horizontal or x-axis 横坐标或 X 轴 Vertical or y-axis 纵坐标 Origin 原点 Axis titles 坐标标题 Actual value 实际值 Grid lines 网格线 Coordinate 坐标点 Axis labels 坐标轴 Source and year 来源以及日期 Identifier number 指示性数字
  • Graphs should Include 关系图应该包括
    • Title and number
    • 标题以及数字
    • Source
    • 来源
    • Year the data were collected
    • 数据收集的年份
    • Data in chronological order
    • 年份形式的数据
    • Data portrayed using comparable definitions
    • 用比较的形式展示数据
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Format Style for Graphs 关系图的格式
    • No overlapping categories
    • 分类不要重叠
    • Patterns or textures that are clear even when photocopied
    • 图案或结构要清晰,要不影响影印的品质
    • Patterns clearly labeled using a legend
    • 使用图例对图案进行清楚地标注
    • Have no extra line and patterns – only what is necessary
    • 没有多余的线条和图案——除非有必要
    • Avoid black – it is difficult to reproduce accurately
    • 避免使用黑色——这很难进行精确地复制
    • Lettering that does not go below 10pt font
    • 字号不要小于 10 点
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Line Graphs 曲线图
    • A way to summarize how two pieces of information are related and how they vary
    • 用来总结两种信息的相关性及其相互依存情况的一种方法
    • Show data changes over time
    • 显示数据随时间的变化情况
    • Show continuous interval or ratio data
    • 显示连续的区间或比率数据
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Example of Line Graph – One Line 曲线图的例子——一条线 Source: Fabricated data, 2006 来源:虚拟信息 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Example of Line Graph – Multiple Lines 曲线图的例子—— 多条线 N=523 Source: Fabricated data, 2006 www.dadangsolihin.com 图示
  • Bar Graphs 柱形图
    • Use bars to represent quantities and compare numbers
    • 用长方柱来表示数量,方便我们进行比较
    • Type of bar graphs
    • 柱形图的类型
      • single: information about a single variable
      • 单柱形图:有关单个变量的信息
      • multiple: information for more than one variable
      • 簇状柱形图:有关多个变量的信息
    • Often show nominal or categorical data
    • 经常显示名义或分类数据
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  • Example – Multiple Bar Graph 簇状柱形图 Source: Fabricated data, 2006 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Pie Charts 饼图
    • Used to display the size of parts that make up a whole
    • 用来反映组成整体的各个部分的大小
    • Example
    • 例如
    Source: Fabricated data, 2008 来源:虚拟信息 N=$2100/year total cost for year www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Scatter Diagram 散点图
    • Similar to a line graph except coordinates have no lines between them
    • 与曲线图相似,但坐标点之间没有用线连结起来
    • Used if you want to see if there is a relationship
    • 在你想要看清是否存在相关关系的时候使用
    www.dadangsolihin.com Source: Fabricated data, 2006
  • When to Use 何时使用 www.dadangsolihin.com If you want to: 如果你要 Then choose: 那么选择 Show trends over time 随时间变化的趋势 Line Chart 线形图 Show percent of a single variable 单个变量的比率 Single Bar Chart 单柱图 Compare several items 比较几个项 Multiple Bar Chart 簇状柱形图 Show parts of a whole 整体的一部分 Pie Chart 饼图 Show trend or relationships between non-linear data 非线性数据的联系和趋势 Scatter Diagram 散点图
  • Tables 表
    • Used to present information in an organized manner
    • 用一种条理化的方式来表述信息
    • Types:
    • 类型:
      • data table
      • 数据表
      • classification table (matrix)
      • 分类表(矩阵)
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  • Data Tables 数据表
    • Used to present numerical information
    • 用来报告数字信息
    • In the report, describe what to see and look for in the data table
    • 在报告中描述从数据表中看到的和发现的信息
    • Include the year and source
    • 包括年份和数据来源
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  • Data Table Principles 数据表编制原则
    • Round-off number to no more than two significant digits
    • 将数字四舍五入,不要超过 两位有效数字
    • Give averages of rows and columns (as appropriate) to help audience make comparisons
    • 算出每一行每一列的平均值以帮助报告对象进行比较
    • Put the most important comparisons into columns
    • 把最重要的比较结果放在列中
    • Too many lines may make it difficult to read
    • 太多的表格线可能加大阅读的难度
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  • Example of Data Table (with lines) 数据表示例 (有表格线) www.dadangsolihin.com Participant number 参与者人数 Height 高度 Weight 重量 Age 年龄 District 区域 1 44 30 7.2 North 北 2 46 35 7.1 East 东 3 40 20 7.6 North 北 4 32 22 7.2 South 南 5 29 23 7.0 South 南 6 50 38 7.8 North 北 7 44 30 7.3 West 西 8 44 28 7.3 West 西 9 42 30 7.5 East 东 10 48 45 7.9 South 南
  • Example of Data Table (without lines) 数据表示例(无表格线) www.dadangsolihin.com Participant number 参与人数 Height 身高 Weight 重量 Age 年纪 District 区域 1 44 30 7.2 North 北 2 46 35 7.1 East 东 3 40 20 7.6 North 北 4 32 22 7.2 South 南 5 29 23 7.0 South 南 6 50 38 7.8 North 北 7 44 30 7.3 West 西 8 44 28 7.3 West 西 9 42 30 7.5 East 东 10 48 45 7.9 South 南
  • Classification Tables (Matrix) 分类表(矩阵)
    • A tabular layout that shows a list of things organized according to different factors
    • 一种图表形式,显示出一组根据不同要素组织的事物
    • Can help illustrate complex information
    • 有助于解释复杂信息
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  • Example of Classification Table (Matrix) 分类表(矩阵)示例 www.dadangsolihin.com Audience 对象 Product 产品 Who is responsible 谁负责 Due date 截至日期 Donor 捐助者 Formal report 正式报告 Team leader 团队领导 6/1/06 Advisory board 咨询会 Oral briefing 口头阐述 Team member A 成员 A 6/1/06 Local stakeholders 本地利益相关者 Executive summary Oral briefing 执行小结口头阐述 Team member B 成员 B 6/1/06 Program staff 项目成员 Copy of formal report Executive summary 正式报告副本,执行小结 Team member C 成员 C 6/1/06 Local government officials 当地政府官员 Oral briefing 口头阐述 Team leader 项目领导 6/5/06 Participants 参与者 Oral briefing 口头阐述 Team leader 团队领导 6/5/06 Development Evaluation Community 发展评价界 Article for publication 待出版物 Team leader 团队领导 8/1/06
  • Evaluation Concepts 评价概念
    • Help you visualize your evaluation concepts
    • 帮助使你的评价概念直观化
      • evaluation design
      • 评价设计
      • Impact
      • 影响
      • program logic charts
      • 项目逻辑图表
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  • Experimental Design 实验型设计 www.dadangsolihin.com Baseline + Time 基准+时间 Baseline 基准 Comparison Group 对照组 Program Group 项目组
  • Quasi-experimental Design 准实验型设计
    • a quasi-experimental design. Notice that for this quasi-experimental design, one of the cells in the matrix is removed to show there is no comparison group for baseline data.
    www.dadangsolihin.com Baseline + Time 基准+时间 Baseline 基准 Comparison Group 对照组 Program Group 项目组
  • Historical or Retrospective Design 历史性或回顾性设计 a historical or retrospective design approach. This matrix has no comparison group. www.dadangsolihin.com Baseline + Time 基准+时间 Baseline 基准 Program Group 项目组
  • Impact 影响力
    • You may be able to illustrate impact using a graphic
    • 你可以使用图示来解释影响
    • Compare the measurement at baseline to the results
    • 将基准测量结果与结果进行比较
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  • Example Impact Graphic 影响力图表的示例 Source: Fabricated data, 2006 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Theory of Change Model 变化模型理论
    • Show the model used for theory of change
    • 表现变化理论的模型
    • Should have been validated by the program “owners”
    • 应该被项目拥有者证实
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  • Visual Information Design from Tufte Tufte 的视觉信息设计
    • Draw attention to the substance of the data, not something else
    • 注意数据的本质,而不是其他东西
    • Less detail in the grid, lines, detailed label
    • 线和网格不需要很具体,标志很具体
    • Most amount of ink should be devoted to actual data
    • 尽量多的笔墨应该用来说明实际数据
    • Avoid ”chartjunk” (unnecessary decoration)
    • 避免“垃圾表格”(不必要的修饰)
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  • Poor Example 不好的例子 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Better Example 好一些的示例 www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Oral Presentations: Planning for Your Audience 口头报告:为你的对象做好准备
    • Ask these questions:
    • 提问这些问题:
    • Who is your audience?
    • 你的报告对象是谁?
    • What do they expect?
    • 他们期待什么?
    • What is your point?
    • 你的重点是什么?
      • What are the three things you want the audience to remember?
      • 你想要你的报告对象记住的 3 件事情是什么?
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  • Oral Presentations: Planning for Your Audience (Cont.)
    • How much time do you have?
    • 你需要多长时间?
    • What are the resources of the room for delivery: slides, overheads, PowerPoint, posters?
    • 做报告的地方有哪些资源:幻灯片、头顶投影机、 PowerPoint 、 海报?
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  • Preparing Your Presentation 为你的报告做准备
    • Always keep your audience in mind
    • 时刻牢记你的报告对象
    • Simple rule for presentations:
    • 报告的简单规则:
      • Tell them what you will tell them
      • 告诉他们你将告诉他们什么
      • Tell them 告诉他们
      • Tell them what you told them
      • 告诉他们你已经告诉他们的是什么
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  • Preparing Your Presentation (Cont.)
    • What this means is that you begin your presentation by introducing the audience to what you want to tell them. You may want to list the major topics that you will be covering.
    • Once you have done a quick overview, you then go ahead delivering the report with the message you want to deliver to the audience. As a general rule, a short report is always better than a long one. Stick to the key issues.
    • After delivering the report, finish your presentation with a summary or review of the most important information.
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  • Enhancing Your Presentation 增强报告效果
    • Make visual enhancements to help communicate
    • 用图表形式来帮助交流
    • Consider making copies of some data or visuals for audience
    • 考虑复印一些数据或图表给报告对象
    • Have a back-up plan in case of electricity or equipment failure (overhead projector, computer, etc.)
    • 万一停电的情况下有一个应急计划
    • Have a few well-chosen handouts
    • 有几份精选的讲义
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  • Enhancing Your Presentation (Cont.)
    • It is a good idea to have a few, well-chosen handouts. Make copies of the most important information you will be sharing so that they can take them away with them.
    • If you have a lot of information on your slides, your audience will appreciate having copies of these. Generally, printing two slides per page is more readable for the audience.
    • You might want to pass out your handouts when you speak about the information on the handout. Or you might choose to pass them out at the end of the presentation.
    • If you are presenting complex data or tables, hand out the tables as you talk about them. Note, however, that people tend to look ahead in the handouts and you may loose some attention if you hand out presentations before you speak.
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  • Designing Overheads and Handouts 设计标题和讲义
    • Use few words 用字精简
    • Use clear visuals 使用清晰的图表
    • Use lots of white space 要留有足够的空白
      • norm is no more than eight lines of text for a single slide
      • 规范是每一张幻灯片上不要超过 8 行字
    • Audience is there to listen, you do not need to put everything into overheads and handouts
    • 报告对象在听讲,你不必把所有的内容都放在投影和讲义中
    • (continued on next slide) 续下页
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  • Designing Overheads and Handouts (Cont.)
    • You might want to pass out your handouts when you speak about the information on the handout.
    • Or you might choose to pass them out at the end of the presentation.
    • If you are presenting complex data or tables, hand out the tables as you talk about them.
    • Note, however, that people tend to look ahead in the handouts and you may loose some attention if you hand out presentations before you speak.
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  • Designing Overheads and Handouts (cont.) 设计标题和讲义 (续)
    • Handouts before or after presentation?
    • 报告之前还是之后分发讲义?
      • People tend to look ahead, you may lose their attention
      • 如果听众看到讲义的后面去了,他们可能就没有听你说
      • If you are presenting complex data or tables, hand out the tables as you talk about them
      • 如果你的报告是关于复杂的数据和表格,在你讨论这些话题的时候再把讲义发下去
    • If printing slides, no more than two slides per page
    • 如果打印 PPT, 那么一页纸上不要超过两页 PPT
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  • Designing Overheads and Handouts (cont.) 设计标题和讲义 (续)
    • You might want to pass out your handouts when you speak about the information on the handout.
    • Or you might choose to pass them out at the end of the presentation.
    • If you are presenting complex data or tables, hand out the tables as you talk about them.
    • Note, however, that people tend to look ahead in the handouts and you may loose some attention if you hand out presentations before you speak.
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Presentation Programs 报告展示项目
    • Advantages
    • 优势
      • May encourage visuals 鼓励视觉交流
      • May help presenter feel more confident 能帮助报告人感到更自信
      • Helps presenter organize information 帮助报告人组织信息
    • Disadvantages
    • 劣势
      • Presenter may dominate and lose contact with audience
      • 报告人可能主宰报告,同听众没有交流
      • Endless bullet points 不断的停顿
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • How to Best Use Presentation Software 如何最佳利用报告软件
    • Use minimum number of slides
    • 尽量少用 PPT
    • Show the slide then tell them the rest
    • 展示 PPT ,然后告诉他们其他的 PPT
    • Use visuals not just words
    • 视觉交流,不仅仅是语言交流
    • Stay in contact with the audience
    • 同听众保持沟通
    www.dadangsolihin.com
  • Practicing Your Presentation 练习你的陈述报告
    • Rehearse alone at first
    • 先单独进行演练
    • Then, rehearse in front of another person or persons
    • 然后在其他人面前进行演练
    • Get feedback from others
    • 从其他人那里获取反馈
    • Adjust your presentation based on what you feel and what others say
    • 根据你的感觉和其他人告诉你的意见,调整你的报告
    • As you practice, keep track of time
    • 当你在练习的时候,要注意时间
    • Talk to people, not your notes, try to make eye-contact
    • 告诉人们,不仅仅是你的解释,要设法进行眼神交流
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  • Presentation Tips 做报告的窍门
    • Show up early
    • 早点出现
    • Have strong opening
    • 开场白简短
    • Know your audience
    • 了解你的听众
    • Respect the audience
    • 尊重你的听众
    • Finish early
    • 早点结束
    • Practice
    • 练习
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  • Peer Review 同行评议
    • Process used for checking the work performed by one’s equals (peers)
    • 某个人检验其同行所完成工作的过程
    • Peers evaluate work based on specific criteria
    • 同行评价是基于特定准则的
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  • Meta-evaluation 广义评价
    • Evaluations of an evaluation
    • 对于评价的评价
    • Done to identify strengths, limitations, and/or other uses of evaluations
    • 确认有点,限制,以及 / 或者评价的其他用途其他
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  • Meta-evaluation Criteria of Merit 广义评价的质量准则
    • Validity
    • 有效性
    • Utility
    • 实用性
    • Credibility
    • 可靠性
    • Cost-effectiveness
    • 成本有效性
    • Ethicality
    • 符合道德规范
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  • Meta-evaluation Criteria of Merit (Cont.)
    • as follows:
    • to the extent possible, by the evaluator, certainly—but not just—after completion of the final draft of any report
    • whenever possible also by an external evaluator of the evaluation (a meta-evaluator)
    • The primary criteria of merit for evaluations are:
    • Validity
    • utility (usually to clients, audiences, and stake­holders)
    • credibility (to select stakeholders, especially funders, regulatory agencies, and usually also to program staff)
    • cost-effectiveness
    • ethicality
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  • Five Ways to Do Meta-evaluation 广义评价的五种方法
    • Apply the KEC list to the evaluation itself
    • 将 KEC 清单应用到评价本身
    • Use a special meta-evaluation checklist
    • 使用特殊的再评价核查清单
    • Replicate the evaluation, doing it the same way, and compare results
    • 复制该评价,用相同的方法再做一次并比较两次评价的结果
    • Do the evaluation using a different methodology and compare the results
    • 使用不同的方法再做一次评价并比较两次评价的结果
    • Apply the Program Evaluation Standards
    • 应用计划评价标准
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  • Thank you! 谢谢!
    • Beside working as Assistant Professor at Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, he also active as Associate Professor at University of Darma Persada, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    • He got various training around the globe, included Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training (2008) , Public Officials Capacity Building Training Program for Government Innovation, Seoul –Korea (2007), Advanced International Training Programme of Information Technology Management, at Karlstad City, Sweden (2005); the Training Seminar on Land Use and Management, Taiwan (2004); Developing Multimedia Applications for Managers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2003); Applied Policy Development Training, Vancouver, Canada (2002); Local Government Administration Training Course, Hiroshima, Japan (2001); and Regional Development and Planning Training Course, Sapporo, Japan (1999). He published more than five books regarding local autonomous.
    • You can reach Dadang Solihin by email at [email_address] or by his mobile at +62812 932 2202
    Dadang Solihin currently is Director for Regional D evelopment Performance Evaluation at Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas). He holds MA degree in Economics from University of Colorado, USA. His previous post is Director for System and Reporting of Development Performance Evaluation at Bappenas. Dadang Solihin’s Profile www.dadangsolihin.com