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Considering the Evaluation Approach 思考评价方法


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Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 11, 2008

Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center; 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 11, 2008

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  • 1. Considering the Evaluation Approach 思考评价方法 Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training Asia-Pacific Finance and Development Center 200 Panlong Road-Shanghai, October 11, 2008 Ray C. Rist
  • 2.
    • Ray C. Rist
    • Knowledge & Evaluation Capacity Development Advisor, Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank
    • President International Development Evaluation Association (IDEAS)
    Dadang Solihin Indonesia Delegation Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training
  • 3. Introduction to Evaluation Approaches 评价方法介绍
    • An Evaluation Approach is a
    • 评价方法是一种 :
      • “ general way of looking at or conceptualizing evaluation, which often incorporates a philosophy and a set of values” (Duigen,2007)
      • 观察或者概念化评价的一般方法,通常包括一种理念和一套价值观
  • 4. Approaches to Development Evaluation 发展评价方法
    • Some approaches to development evaluation have been used and tested for many years and continue to be valuable
    • 一些发展评价方法已经经过多年的使用和试验,并且仍旧很有价值
    • A variety of approaches and strategies have been developed to meet the changing requirements of development evaluation
    • 开发了许多方法和战略来满足发展评价的不断变化的要求。
  • 5. Evaluation Approaches 最新方法介绍 Prospective Evaluation 前瞻性评价 Evaluability Assessment 可评价性评价 Goal-Based Evaluation 限定目标评价 Goal-Free Evaluation 非限定目标评价 Multi-Site Evaluations 多地点评价 Cluster Evaluations 群体评价 Social Assessment 社会评价 Environmental and Social Assessment 环境和社会评估 Participatory Evaluation 参与式评价 Rapid Assessment 快速评估 Outcome Mapping 成果规划评价 Evaluation Synthesis and Meta-evaluation 综合评价和广义评价 Emerging Approaches 新兴方法
  • 6. Prospective Evaluation 前瞻性评价
    • Evaluation in which a project is reviewed before it begins
    • 在一个项目开始之前对它进行评价的评价
    • Attempts to:
    • 旨在:
      • assess the project ’ s readiness to move into the implementation phase
      • 评价项目为进入实施阶段所做的准备
      • predict its cost
      • 预测它的成本
      • analyze alternative proposals and projections
      • 分析其它的提议与预测
  • 7. Types of GAO Forward Looking Questions 美国审计总署前瞻性问题类型 Question Type 问题类型 Critique others analysis 评论其他分析 Do analysis themselves 自己做分析 Anticipate the Future 预期未来
    • How well has the administration projected future needs, costs, and consequences?
    • 中央政府对未来需求,成本和结果预测的准确度
    3. What are future needs, costs, and consequences? 未来的需求,成本和结果是什么? Improve Future Actions 改进未来行动 2. What is the potential success of an administration or congressional proposal? 一届政府或者一个国会提议预计会有何种成功? 4. What course of action has the best potential for success and is the most appropriate for GAO to recommend? 采取什么行动最有成功的可能?美国审计总署推荐什么最合适?
  • 8. Activities for Prospective Evaluations 前瞻性评价的活动
    • Careful, skilled, textual analysis of the intervention
    • 对干预进行认真的、熟练的和书面的分析
    • Review and synthesis of evaluation studies from similar interventions
    • 审查和综合对类似干预进行的评价研究
    • A prediction of likely success/failure, given a future context that is not too different from the past and suggestions on strengthening proposed program and policy if going forward.
    • 假定处于未来某个与过去差别不大的环境下 对成败的预测
  • 9. Evaluability Assessment 可评价性评价
    • A brief preliminary study to determine whether an evaluation would be useful and feasible
    • 简要的初步研究,以确定评价是否有用和可行
    • Helps decide whether or not the intervention is sufficiently clear so that one can conduct an evaluation
    • 有助于决定一项干预活动是否足够明确以确保评价开展
    • Helps refocus the goals, outcomes, and targets to be absolutely clear on what is to be achieved
    • 有助于重新聚焦目的,成果以及目标,这样才能完全清楚需要完成的任务
  • 10. Steps in Evaluability Assessment 可评价性评价的步骤
    • review materials that define and describe the intervention
    • 审查定义和说明干预措施的材料
    • identify any modifications to the implemented intervention from what was originally planned
    • 确认对最初规划的实施干预的任何修改
    • interview intervention managers and staff about the goals and objectives
    • 会见干预管理人员和员工,了解目标与目的
    • interview stakeholders
    • 会见利益相关者
    • develop an evaluation model
    • 发展一个评价模型
    • identify sources of data
    • 确认数据来源
    • identify people and organizations that can implement any possible recommendations from the evaluation
    • 确认可以实施任何可能来自评价的建议的人与组织
  • 11. Advantages of Evaluability Assessment 可评价性评估的优势
    • Can improve 可以提高 :
      • the ability to distinguish between program failure and evaluation failure
      • 区分计划失败和评价失败的能力
      • accurate estimation of long term outcomes
      • 对于长期成果的准确估计
      • stakeholder investment in the program
      • 利益相关者在计划中的投资
      • program performance
      • 计划的绩效
      • program development and evaluation skills of staff
      • 计划发展和员工的评价技能
      • visibility and accountability for the program
      • 计划的可视性和问责制度
      • administrative understanding of the program
      • 对于计划的行政理解
      • policy choices
      • 政策选择
      • continued support
      • 持续支持
  • 12. Challenges of Evaluability Assessment 可评价性评估的挑战
    • Can be time consuming
    • 可能会很耗时
    • If evaluation team does not work well together, can be costly
    • 如果评价小组没能很好地合作的话,评价成本会很高
  • 13. Goal-based Evaluation 限定目标评价
    • A goal-based (or objectives-based) evaluation 限定目标评价 :
      • measures the extent to which a program or intervention has attained clear and specific objectives
      • 衡量一个计划或者干预活动达成明确特定目标的程度
      • focuses on the stated outcomes (goals and objectives)
      • 注重明确的成果(目标和目的)
      • is used by most development organization project evaluation systems
      • 被多数的发展组织项目评价系统所采用
  • 14. Criticism of Goal-based 对于限定目标的批评
    • Concentrate on the economical and technical aspects instead of social and human aspects
    • 集中在经济和技术层面而非社会和人文层面
    • Focus only on stated goals 只注重明确的目标
      • other goals may be implicit or discussed earlier then not reflected in the stated goals
      • 其他的目标可能是不明确的,或者是先前讨论过但是没有体现在申明目标中的。
    • Different from results-based 和以结果为导向的是不同的
      • results-based looks for results whether or not they were stated as goals or objectives
      • 以结果为导向注重结果, 不论其是否说明其是目标或目的
  • 15. Goal-Free Evaluations 非限定目标评价
    • The evaluator purposefully avoids becoming aware of the program goals
    • 评价者有意地避免知道计划的目标
    • Predetermined goals are not permitted to narrow the focus of the evaluation study
    • 不允许预先确定的目标缩小评价研究的重点
    • Focuses on actual outcomes rather than intended program outcomes
    • 把重点放在实际成果上面,而不是项目的计划成果
    • Goal-free evaluator has minimal contact with the program manager and staff
    • 非限定目标评价者最大限度地减少与计划的管理人员和员工的接触
    • Increases the likelihood that unanticipated side effects will be noted
    • 增加了发现意料之外副作用的可能性
  • 16. Goal-Free Evaluations (Cont)
    • For example, an evaluator may be told the following goals:
      • bring school dropouts into a vocational training program
      • train them in productive vocations
      • place them in stable job
    • The evaluator may choose a design to measure these. If there are additional effects of the program that were not anticipated, such as the crime rate of others not in the program, who are not receiving training, increases, these will not be measured in the evaluation.
    • A goal-free evaluator will be more likely to identify this problem, than an objectives-oriented evaluator with blinders on.
  • 17. Multi-Site Evaluations 多点评价
    • An evaluation of a set of interventions that share a common mission, strategy, and target population
    • 对一系列具备共同任务、战略和人口指标的干预进行评价
    • Considers:
    • 考虑:
      • what is common to all the interventions
      • 所有干预的共同点是什么
      • what varies and why
      • 哪些是不同的以及为什么
      • differences in cultural, political, social, economic, and historical contexts
      • 文化、政治、社会、经济和历史背景的差异
      • comparability of indicators across these different contexts
      • 这些不同背景之间指标的可比较性
  • 18. Advantage of Multi-Site 多点评价的优势
    • Typically a stronger design than an evaluation of a single intervention in a single location
    • 与对单一地点单一干预的评价相比,通常在设计上更加强大
    • Has a larger sample and more diverse set of intervention situations
    • 取样更大,包括更多不同的干预情况
    • Provides stronger evidence of intervention effectiveness
    • 为干预有效性提供了更加强有力的证据
  • 19. Challenges of Multi-Site 多点评价面临的挑战
    • Data collection must be as standardized as possible
    • 数据收集必须做到尽可能标准化
    • Requires well-trained staff, access to all sites, and sufficient information ahead of time to design the data collection instruments
    • 要求受过良好培训的员工,能够利用所有的地点,并且在设计数据收集工具之前拥有充足的信息
    • Data collection needs to be collected in order to understand differences within each intervention and their communities
    • 为了理解各个干预及其社区内的差异,需要集中进行数据收集
  • 20. Cluster Evaluations 群体评价
    • Evaluation of a set of related activities, projects, and/or programs
    • 对一系列相关的活动、项目和 / 或计划进行评价
    • Focus is on ascertaining lessons learned
    • 重点是确定吸取到的教训
    • Similar to multi-site evaluations but the intention is different
    • 类似于多地点评价,但意图不同
    • Information reported only in aggregate
    • 只进行总体的信息报告
    • (continued on next slide)
    • (转下页)
  • 21. Cluster Evaluations (cont.) 群体评价(续)
    • Stakeholder participation is key
    • 利益相关者的参与是关键
    • NOT concerned with generalizability or replicability, variation seen as positive
    • 不涉及一般性或可复制性,变化被视为积极的
    • More likely to use qualitative approaches
    • 更可能使用定性方法
  • 22. Social Assessment 社会评价
    • Looks at various structures, processes, and changes within a group or community
    • 关注一个团体或社团之中的结构,流程以及的变化
    • Brings relevant social information into the decision-making process for program design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
    • 将相关的社会信息纳入到计划设计、实施、监测与评价决策程序的方法
    • Used to ensure that social impacts of development projects are taken into account
    • 用来保证考虑到发展项目的社会影响
  • 23. Social Assessment (cont.) 社会评价 (续)
    • Involve stakeholders to assure that intended beneficiaries find project goals acceptable
    • 涉及到利益相关者,以确保预定的受益者觉得项目目标是可接受的
    • Assess adverse impacts and determine how to mitigate
    • 评价不利影响并决定如何缓和
    • Assists in forming key outcome measures
    • 帮助形成关键的成果衡量方法
  • 24. Common Questions during Social Assessment 在社会评估阶段的普遍问题
    • Who are the stakeholders? Are the objectives of the project consistent with their needs, interests, and capacities?
    • What social and cultural factors affect the ability of stakeholders to participate or benefit from the operations proposed?
    • (continued on next slide)
    • 谁是利益攸关者? 项目目标和需求,利益以及能力是否一致?
    • 什么社会和文化因素会影响利益相关者参与提议活动或者从中受益?
  • 25. Common Questions (cont.) 普遍问题 ( 续 )
    • What is the impact of the project or program on the various stakeholders, particularly on women and vulnerable groups? What are the social risks that might affect the success of the project or program?
    • 项目或计划对于不同的利益相关者的影响是什么特别是女性或者弱势团体?何种社会风险可能会影响项目或计划的成功?
    • What institutional arrangements are needed for participation and project delivery? Are there adequate plans for building the capacity required for each?
    • 为了参与和项目交付需要什么样的机构安排?有没有充足的方案来进行能力建设?
  • 26. Tools and Approaches 工具与方法
    • Stakeholder analysis
    • 利益相关者分析
    • Gender analysis
    • 性别分析
    • Participatory rural appraisal
    • 参与式农村评价
    • Observation, interviews, focus groups
    • 考察,会谈,专题组讨论
    • Mapping, analysis of tasks, wealth ranking
    • 规划,任务分析,财富排名
    • Workshops: objective-oriented project planning, team-up
    • 研讨会:以目标为导向的项目规划,团队协作
  • 27. Environment and Social Assessment 环境和社会评估
    • Environment and Social (E&S) addresses the impact of development on these issues
    • 环境和社会评估涉及在这些问题上发展的影响
    • Development organizations are recognizing the role that local people can play in the design and implementation of interventions for the environment and natural resources
    • 发展组织现在不断认可本地人群在设计或执行环境和自然资源干预活动方面的作用
    • (continued on next slide)
  • 28. E&S Assessment (cont.) 环境和社会评估
    • E&S assessment may be the sole purpose of the exercise or it may be embedded in the project evaluation
    • 环境和社会评估可能是任务的唯一目的或者是已经包含在项目评价中了
    • Many interventions may have environmental impacts
    • 许多干预活动可能会带来环境影响
    • Most development organizations adhere to core E&S standards and must evaluate their implementation in projects and programs
    • 许多发展组织遵循核心环境社会标准,并且必须在项目和计划中评价他们的执行
  • 29. E&S Guidelines/ Standards/Strategies 环境和社会指导方针 / 标准 / 战略
    • Used to help assess the impact of the intervention on the ESHS
    • 用来有助于评估在环境安全健康保障方面干预活动的影响
    • Three main sources 三个主要来源
      • Equator Principles 赤道原则
      • ISO 14031
      • Sustainable Development Strategies: A Resource Book 可持续发展战略:资料读物
  • 30. Participatory Evaluation 参与式评价
    • Representatives of agencies and stakeholders (including beneficiaries) work together in designing, carrying out and interpreting an evaluation
    • 机构和利益相关者(包括受益者)的代表共同设计、执行并解释评价
    • Breaks from the audit ideal of independence
    • 脱离审计,理想的独立性
    • Breaks from scientific detachment
    • 脱离科学分离
    • Responsibility for planning, implementing, evaluation, and reporting is shared with all stakeholders
    • 所有利益相关者共同承担规划、实施、评价和报告责任
    • Partnership based on dialogue and negotiation
    • 合作伙伴关系以对话与协商为基础
  • 31. Participatory Basic Principles 参与式评价的基本原则
    • Evaluation involves participants skills in goal setting, establishing priorities, selecting questions, analyzing data, and making decision on the data
    • 评价涉及到参与者在制定目标、确立优先重点、选择问题、分析数据和对数据做出决定等领域的技能
    • Participants own the evaluation — they make decisions and draw their own conclusions
    • 参与者拥有评价 —— 他们做出决定并得出他们自己的结论
    • Participants ensure that the evaluation focuses on methods and results that they consider important
    • 参与者保证评价的重点是方法和他们认为重要的结果
    • (continued on next slide)
    • (转下页)
  • 32. Participatory Basic Principles (cont.) 参与式评价的基本原则 (续)
    • People work together and group unity is facilitated and promoted
    • 各方共同合作,集体团结得到促进和提高
    • All aspects of the evaluation are understandable and meaningful to participants
    • 对于参与者来说,评价的所有方面都是可以理解的和有意义的
    • Self accountability is highly valued
    • 高度重视自我责任
    • Facilitators act as resources for learning
    • 推动者担当学习的资源
    • Participants are decision makers and evaluators
    • 参与者是决策者和评价者
  • 33. Characteristics of Participatory Evaluation 参与式评价特征
    • More meetings
    • 更多的会议
    • Planning decisions are made by group
    • 集体做出规划决定
    • Participants may:
    • 参与者可能:
      • be asked to keep diaries or journals
      • 被要求坚持做日记或日志
      • interview others or conduct focus groups
      • 会见其他人或进行专题组讨论
      • conduct field workshops
      • 进行实地研讨会
      • write the report
      • 撰写报告
  • 34. Comparison of Participatory and Traditional 参与式评价与传统评价对照
    • Participatory
    • 参与式评价
      • participant focus and ownership
      • 参与者重点与所有权
      • focus on learning
      • 强调学习
      • flexible design
      • 灵活的设计
      • rapid appraisal methods
      • 快速的评价方法
      • evaluators are facilitators
      • 评价者是推动者
    • Traditional
    • 传统评价
      • donor focus and ownership
      • 援助者重点和所有权
      • focus on accountability and judgment
      • 强调责任与公正
      • predetermined design
      • 预先决定的设计
      • formal methods
      • 正式的方法
      • evaluators are experts
      • 评价者是专家
  • 35. How to for participatory: 如何进行参与式评价:
    • No single right way
    • 没有唯一的正确方法
    • Commitment to the principles of participation and inclusion
    • 坚持参与和包含的原则
      • those closest to the situation have valuable and necessary information
      • 那些与情况最接近的拥有宝贵和必要的信息
    • Develop strategies to develop trust and honest communication
    • 制定培养信任和诚实沟通的战略
      • information sharing and decision-making
      • 信息共享与决策
      • create “ even ground ”
      • 创建 “ 平等的平台 ”
  • 36. Challenges of Participatory 参与式评价的挑战
    • Concern that evaluation will not be objective
    • 担心评价不客观
    • Those closest to the intervention may not be able to see what is actually happening if it is not what they expect
    • 如果不是他们所期望的,那些与干预关系最近的可能无法看到实际发生的事情
    • Participants may be fearful of raising negative views
    • 参与者可能害怕提出负面的观点
    • Time consuming
    • 耗时
    • Clarifying roles, responsibilities, and process
    • 澄清任务、职责和程序
    • Skilled facilitation
    • 有技巧地推动
    • Just-in-time training
    • 及时的培训
  • 37. Benefits of Participatory 参与式评价的好处
    • Results are more likely to be used
    • 结果更加有可能得到利用
    • Increased buy-in, less resistance
    • 增加了买进,阻力减少
    • Increased sustainability
    • 增加了可持续性
    • Increased credibility of results
    • 增加了结果的可靠性
    • More flexibility in approaches
    • 在方法上更加灵活
    • Can be systematic way of learning from experience
    • 可以作为从经验中学习的系统方法
  • 38. Is Participatory Right for You? 参与式评价是否适合你?
    • Is there a need for:
    • 是否存在以下需求:
      • an independent outside judgment?
      • 独立的外部判断?
      • Considerable technical information?
      • 大量技术信息?
      • ( maybe not)
    • Will stakeholders want to participate?
    • 利益相关者是否希望参与?
      • Is there sufficient agreement among the stakeholders so they can work together , trust each other, and view themselves a partners?
      • 利益相关者之间是否达成充分的一致意见,让他们能够合作 , 互相信任并且把彼此视为合作伙伴?
      • ( Maybe so)
  • 39. Outcome Mapping 成果规划评价
    • Focuses on one specific type of result: outcomes as behavioral change
    • 重点是一个具体类型的成果:作为行为变化的成果
    • A process to engage citizens in understanding their community
    • 一个让公民理解他们社区的过程
    • A method for collecting and plotting information on the distribution, access and use of resources within a community
    • 收集和规划社区内资源分配、利用与使用信息的方法
    • A useful tool for participatory evaluation
    • 参与式评价的一个有用工具
    • Focus is people and behavior change
    • 重点是人与行为变化
  • 40. Boundary Partners 边界合作伙伴
    • Individuals, groups, and organizations who interact with projects, program, and policy
    • 和项目,计划和政策有互动的个人,团体组织
    • Those who may have the most opportunities for influence
    • 那些最有机会起到影响的团体组织
    • Outcome mapping assumes boundary partners control change
    • 成果规划假定了边界合作伙伴可以控制变化
  • 41. Outcome Mapping and other Approaches 成果规划和其他方法
    • Outcome mapping does not attempt to replace the more traditional forms of evaluation
    • 成果规划没有试图取代其他更传统的评价形式
    • Outcome mapping supplements other forms by focusing on behavioral change
    • 成果规划由于关注行为变化能够给其他方式起到补充作用
  • 42. Rapid Assessment 快速评估
    • Intended to do evaluations quickly while obtaining reasonably accurate and useful information
    • 旨在快速进行评价并同时获得合理准确与有用的信息
    • Uses a systematic strategy to obtain just essential information
    • 使用系统的战略来获得最基本的信息
      • focus is on practical issues “must know” rather than “nice to know”
    • 焦点在实际的问题上,是必须了解的,而非最好能了解的问题
    • Best when looking at processes and issues
    • 当关注流程和问题的时候最有效果
    • When time and resource constraints or lack of baseline data
    • 当时间和资源有限或者缺少基线数据的时候
  • 43. Rapid Assessment Approach 快速评估方法
    • Observation of the intervention within its setting
    • 在其环境中观察干预活动
    • Excellent listening skills needed
    • 需要出色的倾听技巧
    • Use more than one source of information
    • 使用不止一个信息来源
    • Can use the same data collection as others, only smaller scale
    • 可以和其他一样使用相同的数据收集,但是规模要更小
  • 44. Evaluation Synthesis 综合评价
    • A systematic way to:
    • 系统的方法:
      • summarize and judge previous studies
      • 总结并评判先前的研究
      • to synthesize their results
      • 综合它们的成果
    • Useful when many studies have already been done
    • 在已经进行了许多研究时非常有用
    • Useful when you went to know “ on average, does it work? ”
    • 当你想知道 “ 一般情况下它是否有效时 ” 非常有用
  • 45. Steps in Evaluation Synthesis 综合评价的步骤
    • Locate all relevant studies
    • 找出所有相关的研究
    • Establish criteria to determine the quality of the studies
    • 建立确定研究质量的准则
    • Include only quality studies
    • 只包含高质量的研究
    • Combine the results: chart the quality of each study and the key measures of impact
    • 将结果结合起来:制图说明各个研究的质量及影响力的关键衡量方法
      • can be table or chart showing the number of studies with similar results
      • 可以是表格或图表,说明具有类似结果的研究数量
  • 46. Advantages and Challenges of Evaluation Synthesis 综合评价的优势和挑战
    • Advantages: 优势
    • Uses available research
    • 使用可利用的研究
    • Avoids original data collection
    • 避免了原始数据收集
    • Is cost effective
    • 节省成本
    • Challenges : 问题
    • Locating all the relevant studies
    • 找到所有的相关研究
    • Obtaining permission to use the data
    • 获得使用数据的许可
    • Same group may have done several studies
    • 同一个团体可能进行过多份研究
    • Developing a credible measure of quality
    • 制定一个可靠的质量衡量方法
  • 47. Meta-evaluation 广义评价
    • Meta-evaluation is viewed as expert review of one or more evaluations against professional quality standards
    • 广义评价被视为以专家的角度根据专业质量标准审核一个或更多的评价
  • 48. Emerging Approaches 新兴的方法
    • Utilization-focused evaluation
    • 聚焦利用的评价
    • Empowerment evaluation
    • 赋权增能评价
    • Realist evaluation
    • 现实主义评价
    • Inclusive evaluation
    • 相容评价
    • Beneficiary evaluation
    • 受益者评价
    • Horizontal evaluation
    • 横向评价
  • 49. Challenges Going Forward 未来的挑战
    • MDGs major implications for development evaluation
    • 千年发展目标对于发展评价的重大意义
    • Shift from evaluating project goals and objectives to evaluating MDGs
    • 从评价项目目标目的转向评价千年发展目标
    • Should also shift from development organizations evaluating to developing countries receiving aid evaluating
    • 应该同时从发展机构进行评价转向接受援助的发展中国家进行评价
  • 50. Five Major Methodological Consequences 五个主要方法论后果
    • Alignment – all development interventions should be assessed on their impact on the MDGs as articulated in development
    • programs owned by developing countries.
    • 一致性:应该评估所有发展干预活动对于千年发展目标的影响
    • Aggregation – the results of development interventions should be measured at the country level.
    • 聚合:——发展干预活动的结果应该在国家层面上衡量
    • (continued on next slide)
  • 51. Five Major Methodological Consequences (cont.) 五个主要方法论后果(续)
    • Accountability – given the global partnership for development embedded in the MDGs, the performance of all development actors should be evaluated in terms of their distinctive accountabilities and reciprocal obligations.
    • 问责——由于在千年发展目标中就已经包含了全球发展合作伙伴,所有发展参与者的绩效应该根据其不同的责任以及对等的义务来评价
    • Attribution – neither the evaluation community nor the economics profession have managed to convince a skeptical public that “aid works.” More robust evidence is needed to demonstrate a causal link between aid operations and country level economic performance.
    • 归因——评价社区或是经济专业都不没有能够使持怀疑态度的大众相信援助起到作用。需要更多有力的证据来表明援助活动和国家层面经济绩效之间的因果联系。
    • (continued on next slide)
  • 52. Five Major Methodological Consequences (cont.) 五个主要方法论后果(续)
    • Asymmetry – The imbalance between the seven MDGs that address poor countries’ performance and the one (the eighth) that addresses the need to improve the enabling global policy environment for development should be redressed: that is, the MDGs themselves (and the processes that underlie their monitoring and their oversight) should be evaluated.
    • 不对称性——需要纠正 7 个涉及穷国绩效的千年发展目标和第八个涉及提高发展的全球政策环境需求目标之间的不平衡:也就是说千年发展目标本身(以及其监测监管流程)需要评价
  • 53. Thank you! 谢谢!
  • 54.
    • Beside working as Assistant Professor at Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, he also active as Associate Professor at University of Darma Persada, Jakarta, Indonesia.
    • He got various training around the globe, included Shanghai International Program for Development Evaluation Training (2008) , Public Officials Capacity Building Training Program for Government Innovation, Seoul –Korea (2007), Advanced International Training Programme of Information Technology Management, at Karlstad City, Sweden (2005); the Training Seminar on Land Use and Management, Taiwan (2004); Developing Multimedia Applications for Managers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2003); Applied Policy Development Training, Vancouver, Canada (2002); Local Government Administration Training Course, Hiroshima, Japan (2001); and Regional Development and Planning Training Course, Sapporo, Japan (1999). He published more than five books regarding local autonomous.
    • You can reach Dadang Solihin by email at [email_address] or by his mobile at +62812 932 2202
    Dadang Solihin currently is Director for Regional D evelopment Performance Evaluation at Indonesian National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas). He holds MA degree in Economics from University of Colorado, USA. His previous post is Director for System and Reporting of Development Performance Evaluation at Bappenas. Dadang Solihin’s Profile