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THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECHARGING
SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES
IN ITALY
Considerations on opportunities and concerns for the ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 2
What is and what it does in Italy, the
Autorità p...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 3
DEVELOPMENT OF RECHARGING
SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VE...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 4
ELECTRIC VEHICLES: WHY?
• Types: BEV, PHEV, EREV ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 55
EUROPEAN STRATEGY FOR
ELECTRIC VEHICLES /1
• Eur...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 66
• EU Commission Communication "A European
Strate...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 77
WHAT FUTURE FOR POWER NETWORKS?
• Europen aims 2...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 88
PROJECT LENS – Ofgem
SCENARIOS FOR IMPACT ON NET...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 99
THE RECHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE ROLE
“With the ent...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 10
SEVERAL KIND OF RECHARGE /1
TBD, may cover 50-60...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 11
SEVERAL KIND OF RECHARGE /2
Type of current
Tech...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 12
SEVERAL KIND OF RECHARGE /3
SLOW RECHARGING
IN P...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 13
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE /1
Fast charge in
dir...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 14
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE /2
AC supply trickle ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 15
DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE /3
Trickle AC chargin...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 16
VEHICLE: A SECURE QUICK INNOVATION /1
• Vehicles...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 17
VEHICLE: A SECURE QUICK INNOVATION /2
• The data...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 18
RECHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES:
THE DIFFERENT ASPEC...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 19
TFL – Guidance for implementation of
electric ve...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 2020
THE REGULATION ROLE
“The level of uncertainty ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 21
RECHARGING IN PRIVATE PLACES
• "PUBLIC" RECHARGI...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 22
RECHARGING IN PRIVATE PLACES
AEEG decision ARG/e...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 23
RECHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES:
POSSIBLE DIFFERENT ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 24
"PUBLIC" RECHARGING POINTS /1
First solution
Rec...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 25
Second solution
Recharging area: expanded role o...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 26
RECHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES:
DIFFERENT BUSINESS ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 27
RECHARGE POINT PUBLIC IN VIEW:
• From the coming...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 28
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROVISIONS:
ACCOMPANYING THE E...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 29
GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR
THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS
• ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 30
DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS AND
INCENTIVES FOR SMART ...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 31
RECHARGING SYSTEMS
SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK
Private r...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 3232
FINALLY, TWO UNANSWERED
QUESTIONS ALWAYS OPEN…...
The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 3333
Thank you for your attention
and comments
dbon...
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Bonafede aeeg ev_recharging_infrastructure_in_italy_2010 oct-19th_milano_mobilitytech_eng

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECHARGING SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN ITALY - Daniele Bonafede - AEEG, Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas

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  1. 1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECHARGING SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN ITALY Considerations on opportunities and concerns for the electrical system in managing with the spread of electric mobility Daniele Bonafede Italian Authority for Electricity and Gas 5a edition MOBILITY TECH Palazzo Giureconsulti Milan, 19th October 2010 Conference “Città Elettriche”, session on “New Energy for the movement” by CEI-CIVES: Electric vehicles for mobility in cities or not: from mirage to reality The employee of the Authority involved in conferences, seminars and debates takes care to point out the personal nature of expressed views (Code of Ethics Authority, 10.3)
  2. 2. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 2 What is and what it does in Italy, the Autorità per l’energia elettrica e il gas The Italian Authority for Electricity and Gas Authority (AEEG) is an independent administrative authority, established by Law 481/95, with the task of: • Tariffs, conditions of access and provision regulation for service users in natural monopoly • Promotion of competition in the liberalized • Promotion of efficiency in the end-use energy • Consumer and users of regulated services protection in the liberalized sectors of electricity and gas. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas
  3. 3. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 3 DEVELOPMENT OF RECHARGING SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES • Introduction to Electric Mobility • Classification of recharging systems • Recharging Services for the mobile electric consumer AGENDA: 1. General items • Adjustment of the recharging systems • Trials and pilot projects • Summary and outlook 2. Regulatory items
  4. 4. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 4 ELECTRIC VEHICLES: WHY? • Types: BEV, PHEV, EREV (electric range >60 km) • Reduced urban pollution (CO, NOx, HC, benzene C6H6, SO2, heavy metals, combustion nanoparticulates, etc.). • Maximum refueling flexibility (missing only the last meter) • Diversification of energy mix (safety of supplies) to produce electricity can be used some sources unconditional • Reduced CO2 emission/energy efficiency (just 38%) • Potential tools for energy storage and network optimisation for larger use of renewable sources • Electric system sustainability also in mid-long term • Sustainable mobility with electric vehicles is a "win-win strategy" because the sum of: – Environmental benefits to economic ones – Stimulus for economic growth to urban livability
  5. 5. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 55 EUROPEAN STRATEGY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES /1 • European Strategy – Strategy “Europe 2020”: promoting green vehicles by encouraging research, establishing common standards and developing the necessary infrastructure • European regulation framework – Directive 2009/33/CE16 on the promotion of clean and energy efficient road transport, which aims to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and improve air quality (particularly in cities) – Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars by 2015 (it will be reviewed by 2013 to the target of 95 g/km CO2 to 2020)
  6. 6. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 66 • EU Commission Communication "A European Strategy for clean vehicles and energy-efficient" COM (2010) 186 final. April 28th, 2010: – It indicates lines of action for green vehicles – among them electric vehicles – Support for research and innovation (recovery of European competitiveness – occupational profiles) – Available incentives are too diversified between Member States – Standardization of vehicle interface/network (in terms of communication/negotiation) – Upgrading of recharging infrastructure (Commission's commitment to "take the lead" and to define forms of financing for investment) – Integration of pro-renewables EUROPEAN STRATEGY FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES /2
  7. 7. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 77 WHAT FUTURE FOR POWER NETWORKS? • Europen aims 20-20-20 • Complex scenario with many variables – Effective development of distributed generation – Stability of the electrical system in the face of intermittency – Energy efficiency initiatives (end-use and losses) – Possible participation of the widespread demand – Carbon-market prices and trends in CO2 – Technology development, storage, etc.. – New electrical applications: eg. electric vehicles – Taxation • European framework – “SET-Plan” innovation & technological development (2007) – “III package” domestic energy market (2009) – “Strategy Europe 2020” for the European growth (2009)
  8. 8. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 88 PROJECT LENS – Ofgem SCENARIOS FOR IMPACT ON NETWORKS Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 www.ofgem.gov.uk/Networks/Trans/ElecTransPolicy/lens/Pages/lens.aspx
  9. 9. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 99 THE RECHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE ROLE “With the entry into the market of electric vehicles, consumers can start charging them from existing power points. However, publicly accessible charging points will have to be provided to meet consumers’ needs on battery charging. An adequate electric charging network will require significant investment and definition of standards on safety, interoperability and payment. ” European Commission COM(2010)186 final., April 2010 A European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles
  10. 10. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 10 SEVERAL KIND OF RECHARGE /1 TBD, may cover 50-600 V DC; may cover up to 400 A; may cover up to 240 kW Storage: optional and static Not defined yet but they might do so, might cover AC Three phase MV, peak, No Storage Networks concerns? LEVEL 3 200-450 V DC; max 200 A; max 90 kW 240 V AC Single phase; max 80 A; max 19.2 kW LEVEL 2 200-450 V DC; Current <= 80 A; power <= 19.2 kW 120 V AC Single phase; max 16 A; max 1.9 kW LEVEL 1 DC CHARGING AC CHARGING Service level An international classification
  11. 11. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 11 SEVERAL KIND OF RECHARGE /2 Type of current Technology, batteries, safety Solution available. Developments. No immediate concern Technical concerns Under testing: Intern. Consortium CHAdeMO More than 20 in Europe (single and multiple charging stations) Pilot projects number Outside, largeOn board the vehicleBattery charger Not now Standard connector in the short (by 2011) Standardisation 20 – 5 mins Flexibility 60 – 30 mins 6 – 3 hrs Efficiency Time to recharge 20 kWh 50-500 V >50/250? kW 400 V 22/43 kW 230 V 3,3 – 6,6 kW Voltage and Maximum Power Fast Charge Areas (Fast Charging) Quick charge in public places Trickle charge in private places Services Features
  12. 12. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 12 SEVERAL KIND OF RECHARGE /3 SLOW RECHARGING IN PRIVATE PLACES • 120-150 km range with a recharge of one night at 3.3 kW (slow level 2) • No problems with the electrical system unless a large local volumes • Obstacles at regulation level (i.e. permissions by Assembly building) • "Right to the outlet“ • Rates and taxes SPEEDY/FAST CHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES • Several business models • Regulatory issues such as dispatching (mobile POD or fixed POD multi-vendor) • Issues of competition in the supply/sale of electricity • Impact on the network in relation to power (speedy Level 2 and if without storage fast Level 3) • Data exchange vehicle-outlet (required European standards)
  13. 13. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 13 DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE /1 Fast charge in direct current (DC FC Level 3) … service in a few minutes … Vehicles arriving within 2 years 2012-2015: 85 kWh ~300-500 km 2011-12 160 km Available compatible vehicles 2010: 15-25 kWh 150-160 km 2015: 35-55 kWh ~2-300 km?
  14. 14. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 14 DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE /2 AC supply trickle charge (> 3hrs) or AC supply quick (1 hr) in public places Cars ready: all
  15. 15. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 15 DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICE /3 Trickle AC charging in private places >3hrs
  16. 16. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 16 VEHICLE: A SECURE QUICK INNOVATION /1 • Vehicles side very high rate of innovation for values such as: average specific consumption, autonomy, storage by battery. • High risk of obsolescence if it will be invested only in the recharging infrastructure network-dependent for low-power services. • Quickly unuseful (5 years?) or impractical with respect to vehicles requirements and especially to mobile electrical consumers. 3,602,42161,5442193 L260 kmSìSì20125+2 Options: FC: Fast Charging <1h – BS: Battery Swap – L: self-limited speed. 2 + C: Light Commercial Vehicle Calculations by AEEG based on data announced by the manufacturers (2010). (*) Energy commodity price: 0.15 € / kWh 193 L 212 L 140 130 150 145 150 130 100 L Max Speed (km/h) 3,752,34156,2525160 kmNoNo20112+C 5,332,66177,5035,5200 kmNoSì20115 5,402,7018036200 kmNoNo20124 12,752,66177,0885480 kmSìSì20125+2 2,481,90126,9216,5130 kmNoNo20122 2,401,71114,2916140 kmNoSì20104 3,602,2515024160 kmNoSì20105 3,752,34156,2525160 kmSìSì20125 7,952,48165,6353320 kmNoNo20082 €/100 km (*) €/Full charge (*) Consump. (Wh/km) Capacity (kWh) Range (Km) BSFCYear Type (pax)
  17. 17. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 17 VEHICLE: A SECURE QUICK INNOVATION /2 • The data in the shown table also indicate that will result an even suburban use for the announced electric vehicle. • They are known trials funded in USA, Japan and some European countries (Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Ireland) to begin to equip nodes with high traffic in urban areas and recharge areas, about each 60 km as the existing areas of service, fast roads/bypass and highways with equipment supply for fast recharge direct current (CHAdeMO or DCFC level 3). • Areas can be optimized with storage and little production from renewable sources in order not to overburden the local network, where not available. • The above, together with the other basic elements, allows a real, but also necessary for the well-known climatic constraints, use of electric vehicles, practical and with no compromises.
  18. 18. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 18 RECHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES: THE DIFFERENT ASPECTS • The choice of model does not relate to decisions of the regulator – must be part of a wider choice of public policy as regards issues such as: • Environmental • Road system (Congestion Charge, and location systems ZTL) • Urban planning (permission to recharge areas) • Transport terms (requirements and review vehicles) • Tax (differential taxes and subsidies)
  19. 19. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 19 TFL – Guidance for implementation of electric vehicle charging infrastructure http://www.london.gov.uk/electricvehicles/docs/EVCP-guidance-version-1-Apr10.pdf
  20. 20. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 2020 THE REGULATION ROLE “The level of uncertainty about the future role and direction of networks is unprecedented, at least since privatisation. … we think it is important to keep options open wherever possible, to encourage networks to innovate and to ensure the policy and the regulatory frameworks are sufficiently flexible to adapt to changes over time” Ofgem, LENS Report, 2008
  21. 21. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 21 RECHARGING IN PRIVATE PLACES • "PUBLIC" RECHARGING POINTS • SMART GRID and SERVICES VEHICLE-to-GRID (V2G) RECHARGING INFRASTRUCTURES REGULATION
  22. 22. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 22 RECHARGING IN PRIVATE PLACES AEEG decision ARG/elt 56/10 (April 2010) • “Measures of connections to power [...] electric vehicles. [...]” • Up to yesterday: uniqueness of the site for client • Today: possible additional delivery points, with a counter dedicated, for: • Families • Condos (condominium regulations concerns?) • Company Parking • Energy transport charge: LV other purposes • Price of energy: market (also “greater protection”)
  23. 23. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 23 RECHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES: POSSIBLE DIFFERENT BUSINESS MODELS 1. Recharging as after-sales service free activity 2. Recharging as extensive distribution infrastructure regulated activity 3. Recharging as a separate network service Unrelated activity to the electricity system 4. Battery-swap industrial activity • The model chosen must always be compatible with the retail electricity market liberalization
  24. 24. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 24 "PUBLIC" RECHARGING POINTS /1 First solution Recharge as after-sales service – Case similar to natural gas for vehicles – The station is the final customer for the electricity system – The owner of the charge area agree with the reseller/s – Competition between the recharge areas such as service stations in classic fuels – Role of provider limited to connect and measure upstream of the recharging area – Free activity, with some regulated aspects
  25. 25. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 25 Second solution Recharging area: expanded role of the DSO – Recharging area is included in the distribution asset for the area of the concession (recharging facilities in RAB) – The DSO as a provider must allow access to all authorized dealers in Italy – Competition between different brands in the same area – A specific dispatching regulation is needed for a modest amount of energy – A regulatory is needed on technical characteristics and spread (similar case to the public phone booth?) – Activity under administrative concession and fully regulated "PUBLIC" RECHARGING POINTS /2
  26. 26. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 26 RECHARGING IN PUBLIC PLACES: DIFFERENT BUSINESS MODELS Possible criteria for evaluating the different models: a) Competition (in different markets) b) Support for infrastructure development c) Innovation vs. Standardization d) Ease of experimentation e) Convenience for the mobile electric consumer f) Risks about: • Goldplating • Stranded costs (obsolescence)
  27. 27. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 27 RECHARGE POINT PUBLIC IN VIEW: • From the coming months and probably over the next two years will be a gradual clarification of the institutional and regulatory framework at all levels • As mentioned, the choice of model is not guided by the decisions of the regulator, covering very different subjects and aspects involving different decision-makers • Final decisions on the type of model for the public recharging service certainly depend on technological developments and what are the business models preferred by the market (service providers and consumers), and the results of experiments • It is desirable that the trials may be the most diverse in type, technology, organization, though limited in time. • It is important that it starts a first shrewd starting of infrastructure, easily adaptable to standards agreed at least a continental level when available.
  28. 28. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 28 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROVISIONS: ACCOMPANYING THE EXPERIMENTS • The Authority’s decision no. ARG/elt 136/10, approved on 2010/09/02, introduces special and interim provisions for testing trial public recharging systems. The interim provisions include: a) Regulated tariffs for transmission, distribution and metering services; b) Energy settlement • The public recharging infrastructure are defined as: “a fee recharging infrastructure open to the public with non-restricted access”. • Tariff of recovery of costs as calculated in accordance with the energy (price in €/kWh), valid for all business models and actors in the pilot projects. • The interim regulatory regime enables and encourages the establishment and dissemination of pilot projects. However a medium-term stable framework for technological solutions and industrial and managerial plans has yet to be defined. • The decision also enables many different parties to carry out pilot projects in their roles as: Service providers Electricity distribution companies (DSOs)
  29. 29. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 29 GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS • Principles of AEEG decision ARG/elt 136/10: – Non-discrimination between subjects and technical and organisational solutions – Parties use open and existing industry standards – Commitment to comply with European or international performance standards when available – Transparency in the criteria for allocation of costs – Certainty of tariff structure – Correlation between the degree of socialisation of cost and level of information made publicly available – Minimize the managing burden in contractual relationships between the various entities in the regulated sector
  30. 30. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 30 DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS AND INCENTIVES FOR SMART GRIDS • Electric vehicles matter intersects with the development of electricity networks on issues such as: – Storage services necessary for decoupling the vehicle recharging network commitment – Integration with intermittent- sources of production – into perspective, the VE are resources for balancing the local network and for the energy market zones (V2G) • Incentives for smart grids – Demonstration Projects in the current III regulatory period (AEEG decision ARG/elt 39/10) – Making arrangements in the IV regulatory period
  31. 31. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 31 RECHARGING SYSTEMS SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK Private recharging points – Already settled • Dedicated points of delivery and meters • Transport tariff: LV other uses Public recharging points – Start testing • Implementation of a range of business models • During the testing phase, a recharging service can be offered both by the local distribution operator (DSO) and by industrial service provider or other company; • the Authority will publish a consultation document seeking views from to all stakeholders • Provision by November 2010 In both cases: • Energy Price Model: Market price (IPEX)
  32. 32. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 3232 FINALLY, TWO UNANSWERED QUESTIONS ALWAYS OPEN… How smart is smart enough? It merits investigation whether there are less expensive alternatives that could provide nearly equal benefits. fonte: OECD, February 2010 Innovation, although good and simple, is hard to spread... because: “All truth passes through three stages: First, it is ridiculed; Second, it is violently opposed; Third, it is accepted as self-evident.” (A. Schopenhauer)
  33. 33. The Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas – D. Bonafede 3333 Thank you for your attention and comments dbonafede@autorita.energia.it www.autorita.energia.it Please subscribe to the newsletters through the Authority site to be up-to-date. Newsletter General on all the updates website. Electricity Newsletter – Gas Newsletter – Energy Efficiency Newsletter www.energy-regulators.eu This presentation does not constitute an official document by the Authority. All official documents can be downloaded from the Authority’s Internet site: Please visit the website of the Association of European Energy Regulators CEER/ERGEG:
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