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Merriam Ch 2_5.12.10
 

Merriam Ch 2_5.12.10

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    Merriam Ch 2_5.12.10 Merriam Ch 2_5.12.10 Presentation Transcript

    • Types of Qualitative Research
      Katrina Ellis
    • 6 Types of Qualitative Research to be Discussed
      Basic
      Phenomenology
      Grounded Theory
      Ethnography
      Narrative Analysis
      Critical
    • Basic Qualitative Research
      the researcher is interested in understanding the meaning a phenomenon has for those involved
    • The Basic Qualitative Researcher
      would be interested in…
      How people interpret their experiences
      How people construct their world
      What meaning people attribute to their experience
      The overall purpose is to understand how people make sense of their lives and their experiences
    • Summary of Basic Qualitative Research
      Basic qualitative research can be found throughout the other types of qualitative research
      The focus of all qualitative research is on how meaning is constructed, how people make sense of their lives and their worlds
      The goal of Basic Qualitative research is to uncover and interpret the meanings
    • Phenomenology
      The researcher is interested in the lived experience and the everyday life and social actions of people
    • Phenomenology is based on…
      The assumption that there is an essence or essences to shared experience. These essences are the core meanings mutually understood through a phenomenon commonly experienced. The experiences of different people are bracketed, analyzed, and compared to identify the essences of the phenomenon, for example, the essence of loneliness, the essence of being a mother, or the essence of being a participant in a particular program. The assumption of essence, like the ethnographer’s that culture exists and is important, becomes the defining characteristic of a purely phenomenological study. (Patton. 2002.pg 106)
    • The Phenomenological Researcher’s Task …
      • Depict the essence or basic structure of experience
      - including experiences such as love, anger, betrayal, etc.
      Prior to interviewing, those who have had experience with the phenomenon usually explores his/her own experiences in order to examine the dimensions of the phenomenon and to be aware of one’s own personal prejudices, viewpoints and assumptions (in order to set them aside)
    • Phenomenologist's Task Continued…
      Phenomenological reduction= continually returning to the essence of the experience to derive the inner meaning or structure
      Horizontalization= laying out all the data for examination and treating the data as having equal weight (all data have equal value)
      Imaginative Variation= viewing the data from various perspectives (seeing different things from different angles)
    • Phenomenology Results…
      A composite description that presents the essence of the phenomenon (essential, invariant structure)
      The researcher should come away from the experience thinking ‘I understand better what it is like for someone to experience that’
    • Ethnography
      Research focuses on human society and culture (referring to beliefs, values, and attitudes that structure the behavior patterns of a specific group of people)
    • The Ethnographic Researcher…
      Must understand the culture (in order to do that one must spend time in the group being studied)
      Must immerse one’s self the group/culture being studied
      Interviews, analysis of documents, records, and artifacts, fieldwork diary entries, ideas, impressions, and insights in regard to those events
    • The Ethnographic Researcher Continued…
      • Must include “thick description”
      Making note of the emic perspective (perception of the insider to the culture) vs. etic (perception of the outsider/researcher)
      It is not enough to only describe the cultural practices; the researcher must also depict his/her understanding of the cultural meaning in the phenomenon.
    • Grounded Theory…
      Focus is on building theory
      Grounded theory is particularly useful for addressing process about how things change over time
      Data comes from interviews, observations, and a wide variety of documentary materials
    • Grounded Theory Researcher…
      First data collected through theoretical sampling
      Collects and analyzes data, then decides what data to collect next in order to develop theory as it emerges
      Second data are analyzed using the constant comparative method
      Involves comparing one piece of data with another to determine similarities and differences and then categorizing the information accordingly
      Third identification of a core category (main conceptual element through which all other categories are connected)
    • Grounded Theory Researcher Continued…
      The theory that is developed from the previously stated method is substantive
      Meaning it is a theory that applies to the everyday world
      Examples: coping mechanisms of returning adult students, reading programs that work in low-income children, etc.
    • Narrative Analysis
      Use of stories as data, and more specifically first-person accounts of experience told in story form having a beginning, middle and end
      Other terms for these “stories”= biographies, life history, oral history, autoethnography, and autobiography
      First-person accounts of experiences constitute the narrative “text” which is then analyzd for the meaning by the author
    • Narrative Analysis
      Hermeneutic philosophy (the study of written texts) is often cited as informing narrative analysis.
      Focuses on the interpretation/meaning in stories, and other texts. In order to make sense and interpret the text.
      Important in gathering the meaning intended to be communicated by the author (allows the text/document to be placed in an accurate historical/cultural reference)
    • The Narrative Analysis Researcher…
      Must examine how the story is constructed (use of linguistic tools, analyze cultural context of the story)
      Biographical, psychological, and linguistic approaches are the most common
      Biographical= analyzed in terms of importance of gender and race, family origin, life events, and turning point experiences
      Psychological= analyze in terms of personal thought and motivations
      Linguistic= analyze in terms of language of the story or spoken text (take into account intonation, pitch, and pauses)
    • The Narrative Analysis Researcher Continued…
      Must be able to decipher how best to tell an individual’s story
      Must be able to process the trustworthiness and reliability of these stories
      Keep in mind, “We do not find stories; we make stories.” (Mishler. 1995 pg 117)
    • Critical Research…
      The goal is to critique and challenge, to transform and to empower.
      Patton states, “ critical [research] is that it seeks not just to study and understand society but rather to critique and change society.”
    • The Critical Researcher…
      Must raise the question about how power relations advance the interests of one group while oppressing those of other groups; and the nature of truth and construction of knowledge
      Must not just seek to understand what is going on, but also to critique the way things are in order to bring about social change towards a more just society
    • The Critical Researcher Continued…
      PAR= Participatory Action Research (lens in which Critical Research can be accomplished)
      Central focus is on the political empowerment of people through their involvement in the design and implementation of a research project
      Crucial component- engage in research in order to better understand the covert and overt manifestations of oppression, understanding then leads to more control of life through collective action
      Theory and action are united in this type of Critical Research
    • Summary…
      Basic (most common)= understanding how people make sense of their experiences (data collected through interviews, observations, and documents-analyzed to address question posed)
      All other types of qualitative research have the same characteristics. However, each has an added dimension.
    • Summary Continued…
      Phenomenology= interested in the essence or underlying structure of a phenomenon
      Ethnography= focus on sociocultural interpretation
      Grounded Theory= build substantive theory grounded in data collected
      Narrative Analysis= use stories to understand experience
      Critical Research= seeks to uncover oppression and to empower
    • Figure 2.1 pg 38