Chapter 3
<ul><li>The way most qualitative researchers collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Go to where the people they study are </li></u...
<ul><li>Build trust by stating they will not use findings to demean or hurt people </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from the subjec...
<ul><li>How you should conduct yourself in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to leaving the field </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Research has been turned into in-depth interviewing (less time-consuming) </li></ul><ul><li>The term of “in the fi...
<ul><li>Need to get permission to conduct a study </li></ul><ul><li>Make interests know and seek the cooperation of those ...
<ul><li>The approach depends on who you are, what you want to study and what you hope to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>Find...
<ul><li>No uniform policy  </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the board if doing a thesis, dissertation, or a publication </li></ul>
<ul><li>What are you actually going to do? Be honest. Use friend terms and mention the research evolves </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Be persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative </li></ul>
<ul><li>First days can be rough – go in with a good attitude and humor </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to make mistakes </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Do not take things personally </li></ul><ul><li>Set up first visit so someone is able to introduce you </li></ul><...
<ul><li>What and how much participation varies during the course of study </li></ul><ul><li>Do not participate too much </...
<ul><li>Study varies on how well the researcher knows the language </li></ul><ul><li>“ Border Crossing” can raise problems...
<ul><li>Understand how personal characteristics are going to impact what is being studied and the relationships being form...
<ul><li>Try to fit into the setting (ex. clothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not display too much of your knowledge </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Debates on policies and procedures often happen in certain environments that can be from mild to intense. </li></u...
<ul><li>Feelings can have a positive impact on research </li></ul><ul><li>Do not repress your feelings because they can be...
<ul><li>An hour or less for the first few days. </li></ul><ul><li>As you start to become more comfortable increase the hou...
<ul><li>During qualitative research, interviews can be used in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>-1. the main type of data colle...
<ul><li>Most interviews are open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should allow for a range of topics to be discussed </li...
<ul><li>In qualitative research, focus groups are group interviews that allow the participants to discuss specific issues ...
<ul><li>Questions to take into account when organizing a focus group: </li></ul><ul><li>-1. Have you chosen a topic that w...
<ul><li>When you use audio recorders there are a lot of things to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Ask if the subject minds if y...
<ul><li>Most qualitative researchers do not use visual recorders because they feel they haven’t mastered the equipment </l...
<ul><li>Triangulation has many definitions in regards to qualitative research </li></ul><ul><li>The term was started so re...
<ul><li>Leaving the field from collecting data can be hard </li></ul><ul><li>Try to ease out of the instead of leaving abr...
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B & B Ch 3_5.24.10

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B & B Ch 3_5.24.10

  1. 1. Chapter 3
  2. 2. <ul><li>The way most qualitative researchers collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Go to where the people they study are </li></ul><ul><li>These are the places where the subjects do what they normally do </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Build trust by stating they will not use findings to demean or hurt people </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from the subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in activities on a limited basis </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how the subjects think but not think like the subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Are empathetic but also reflective </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>How you should conduct yourself in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Gain access to leaving the field </li></ul><ul><li>Issues involved maintaining and establishing rapport </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Research has been turned into in-depth interviewing (less time-consuming) </li></ul><ul><li>The term of “in the field” staying at home in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from spacial to virtual – involving internet and chat room culture </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Need to get permission to conduct a study </li></ul><ul><li>Make interests know and seek the cooperation of those being studied </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lie </li></ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation is devastating to rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Play down your status </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The approach depends on who you are, what you want to study and what you hope to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>Find something about the hierarchy and rules of the particular school system </li></ul><ul><li>Get an endorsement from a teacher for your project before approaching the principal </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to lay the groundwork for a good rapport to be accepted </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>No uniform policy </li></ul><ul><li>Go to the board if doing a thesis, dissertation, or a publication </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>What are you actually going to do? Be honest. Use friend terms and mention the research evolves </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be disruptive? Share your intentions of your schedule </li></ul><ul><li>What are you going to do with your findings? Mention who’s eyes will see your findings </li></ul><ul><li>Why us? </li></ul><ul><li>What will you get out of this? Try not to promise too much </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Be persistent </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>First days can be rough – go in with a good attitude and humor </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Establish rapport – learn the ropes </li></ul><ul><li>Become comfortable in the field and others comfortable with you </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Do not take things personally </li></ul><ul><li>Set up first visit so someone is able to introduce you </li></ul><ul><li>Ease into things – do not be too ambitious the first few days </li></ul><ul><li>Remain passive </li></ul><ul><li>Be friendly and smile </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>What and how much participation varies during the course of study </li></ul><ul><li>Do not participate too much </li></ul><ul><li>Participation needs to be calculated with the particulars of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Share with the teacher what you are going to observe </li></ul><ul><li>How participation is down depends on the personality of the researcher </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Study varies on how well the researcher knows the language </li></ul><ul><li>“ Border Crossing” can raise problems for fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of research or researcher is not always the same </li></ul><ul><li>Different rules of human communication </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Understand how personal characteristics are going to impact what is being studied and the relationships being formed </li></ul><ul><li>Class and status differences </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – the access </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of skin color and ethnic background </li></ul><ul><li>Race and cultural identity </li></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><li>Political consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Elite status </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Try to fit into the setting (ex. clothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not display too much of your knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from gossiping </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful with the fieldnotes </li></ul><ul><li>Do not act like you are writing secrets when taking notes </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Debates on policies and procedures often happen in certain environments that can be from mild to intense. </li></ul><ul><li>When trust level is low there can be difficult barriers between the subjects and a researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully, talk little and when asking questions, phrase them carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>The subjects might try to convince you to take their side. </li></ul><ul><li>It is best to remain neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread yourself around, spend time with multiple people and have a sympathetic ear to all sides. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Feelings can have a positive impact on research </li></ul><ul><li>Do not repress your feelings because they can be helpful when doing qualitative research. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes sharing your feelings with the subjects will help with getting in touch with theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>Your feelings can be an important indicator of the subjects’ feelings which will help with reflection. </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings can also help generate specific questions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>An hour or less for the first few days. </li></ul><ul><li>As you start to become more comfortable increase the hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not stay longer than your memory or the time you can take notes allows after the observation </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>During qualitative research, interviews can be used in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>-1. the main type of data collected </li></ul><ul><li>-2. in combination with various other types of data collection (document analysis and observations). </li></ul><ul><li>Use interview to gather data on the participants insights on how people view their world </li></ul><ul><li>In participant-observation studies the researcher mostly knows the subject and the interview will feel almost informal and like a conversation between people who know one another. </li></ul><ul><li>In studies that the main piece of data collection is interviews, the subject is usually someone the researcher does not know. </li></ul><ul><li>If the interview is a stranger try to do something that breaks the ice and will gain rapport </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Most interviews are open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should allow for a range of topics to be discussed </li></ul><ul><li>In an open-ended interview the researcher lets the subject have free flowing answers and then probes them deeper on specific topics </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a type of interview, structured or unstructured, based on your research goal </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of interviews can take place throughout the study </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep the subject at ease and allow them to speak freely </li></ul><ul><li>Try to avoid questions that can answered with a simple “yes” or “no” </li></ul><ul><li>It is good to remember to not give up on the interviewee too easily because it might take them a while to warm up to you </li></ul><ul><li>Good and bad interviews can allow you to collect quality data </li></ul><ul><li>BE A GOOD LISTENER </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In qualitative research, focus groups are group interviews that allow the participants to discuss specific issues </li></ul><ul><li>Usually 7-10 people </li></ul><ul><li>Pick a general topic and try to get discussions from varying perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>A big problem can be that people in the groups fail to share experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for Focus Group Discussions: page 109-110 </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Questions to take into account when organizing a focus group: </li></ul><ul><li>-1. Have you chosen a topic that will evoke multiple perspectives, and on which informants can bring their individual experiences to bear? </li></ul><ul><li>-2. Have you developed a strategy to emphasize to informants that their ideas will be valued and that they say in the group will stay confidential? </li></ul><ul><li>-3. Will you be able to build groups that have diversity among the participants? </li></ul><ul><li>-4. How will you plan the sequence of the group from the introductions to developing rapport to structuring the group’s talk? </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of Confidentiality- see page 111 </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>When you use audio recorders there are a lot of things to consider </li></ul><ul><li>Ask if the subject minds if you use a recorder </li></ul><ul><li>Never record without permission </li></ul><ul><li>Give assurance that private information given will not be revealed at others expense </li></ul><ul><li>For longer interviews it is fine to jot down notes </li></ul><ul><li>A recorder should be thought of as a third party that cannot see </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Most qualitative researchers do not use visual recorders because they feel they haven’t mastered the equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Some avoid it because it makes the research field “more visible”, which they don’t want </li></ul><ul><li>A camera can be useful because it can grab a lot of detail from a particular setting that field notes cannot </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Triangulation has many definitions in regards to qualitative research </li></ul><ul><li>The term was started so researchers would know that they need more than one source of information </li></ul><ul><li>Many sources are better than a single source </li></ul><ul><li>Bogdan and Biklen advise to not use the term-simply say you are using many techniques to get data </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Leaving the field from collecting data can be hard </li></ul><ul><li>Try to ease out of the instead of leaving abruptly </li></ul>

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